chơi xổ số keno trực tuyến

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This Cheat Sheet gives you a handy reference of keyboard shortcuts that can save you time, teaches you how to navigate the \"Save As\" dialog using the Tab key, explains a straightforward protocol for backups, tells you how to burn CDs from the Music app, and warns you about six moves to avoid at all costs.","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":35211,"name":"Guy Hart-Davis","slug":"guy-hart-davis","description":"<strong>Guy Hart-Davis</strong> is author or co-author of various technology books, including <i>iPhone For Dummies </i>and<i> Teach Yourself VISUALLY iPhone 14.</i>","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/35211"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33527,"title":"MacOS","slug":"macos","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33527"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[],"fromCategory":[]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":301109,"slug":"macos-sonoma-for-dummies","isbn":"9781394219759","categoryList":["technology","computers","operating-systems","macos"],"amazon":{"default":"//www.amazon.com/gp/product/139421975X/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","ca":"//www.amazon.ca/gp/product/139421975X/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","indigo_ca":"//www.tkqlhce.com/click-9208661-13710633?url=//www.chapters.indigo.ca/en-ca/books/product/139421975X-item.html&cjsku=978111945484","gb":"//www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/139421975X/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","de":"//www.amazon.de/gp/product/139421975X/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20"},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/macos-sonoma-for-dummies-cover-9781394219759-203x255.jpg","width":203,"height":255},"title":"macOS Sonoma For Dummies","testBankPinActivationLink":"","bookOutOfPrint":true,"authorsInfo":"<p><strong><b data-author-id=\"35211\">Guy Hart-Davis</b></strong> is author or co-author of various technology books, including <i>iPhone For Dummies </i>and<i> Teach Yourself VISUALLY iPhone 14.</i></p>","authors":[{"authorId":35211,"name":"Guy Hart-Davis","slug":"guy-hart-davis","description":"<strong>Guy Hart-Davis</strong> is author or co-author of various technology books, including <i>iPhone For Dummies </i>and<i> Teach Yourself VISUALLY iPhone 14.</i>","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/35211"}}],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/books/"}},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;technology&quot;,&quot;computers&quot;,&quot;operating-systems&quot;,&quot;macos&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781394219759&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-65429266b7f15\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;technology&quot;,&quot;computers&quot;,&quot;operating-systems&quot;,&quot;macos&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781394219759&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-65429266b8a8a\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Cheat Sheet","articleList":[{"articleId":0,"title":"","slug":null,"categoryList":[],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/"}}],"content":[{"title":"What not to do with your Mac running Sonoma","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Treat your Mac and macOS Sonoma with care. To keep your work and leisure projects safe, never do any of these things with your Mac:</p>\n<ul>\n<li><strong>Never shut off your Mac by pulling the plug. </strong>Always shut it down properly. Either use the Shut Down command from the Apple menu or press the power button and then click the Shut Down button.</li>\n<li><strong>Never bump, drop, shake, wobble, dribble, drop-kick, or play catch with a Mac.</strong> Even if your Mac has a solid-state drive (SSD) rather than a spinning hard drive, the computer is sensitive to bumps. Treat it gently.</li>\n<li><strong>Never get up from your Mac without saving your work.</strong> Press Command+S to save your work before you leave your Mac. In fact, press Command+S whenever you’ve made any changes that you wouldn’t want to have to make again.</li>\n<li><strong>Never keep only one copy of your important documents. </strong>Make at least two backup copies and keep one of them in another physical location. Period.</li>\n<li><strong>Never clean your Mac’s screen with glass cleaner or any product not specifically designed for a computer display. </strong>And don’t use paper towels or tissues, either. Use a soft cloth, preferably microfiber, to avoid scratching the screen. If you do use a cleaning product designed for computer displays, spray it onto the cloth, not directly onto the screen.</li>\n<li><strong>Never pay attention to anyone who says that Windows is just like the Mac. </strong>Yeah, right. And a Kia is just like a Porsche.</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"Handy keyboard shortcuts for macOS Sonoma","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Make your work go faster by using these macOS keyboard shortcuts with your flying fingers.</p>\n<table width=\"546\">\n<tbody>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"273\"><strong>Command</strong></td>\n<td width=\"273\"><strong>Keyboard Shortcut</strong></td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"273\">Add Selected Item to Dock</td>\n<td width=\"273\">Command+Control+Shift+T</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"273\">Add Selected Item to Sidebar</td>\n<td width=\"273\">Command+Control+T</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"273\">Close All Windows</td>\n<td width=\"273\">Command+Option+W</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"273\">Close Window</td>\n<td width=\"273\">Command+W</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"273\">Copy</td>\n<td width=\"273\">Command+C</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"273\">Cut</td>\n<td width=\"273\">Command+X</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"273\">Duplicate</td>\n<td width=\"273\">Command+D</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"273\">Eject Disk</td>\n<td width=\"273\">Command+E</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"273\">Empty Trash</td>\n<td width=\"273\">Command+Shift+Delete</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"273\">Find</td>\n<td width=\"273\">Command+F</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"273\">Get Info (on selected item or items)</p>\n<p>Get Info Inspector (on selected item or items)</td>\n<td width=\"273\">Command+I</p>\n<p>Command+Option+I</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"273\">Go to Recents in Finder</td>\n<td width=\"273\">Command+Shift+F</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"273\">Go to Applications Folder in Finder</td>\n<td width=\"273\">Command+Shift+A</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"273\">Go to Desktop in Finder</td>\n<td width=\"273\">Command+Shift+D</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"273\">Go to Documents Folder in Finder</td>\n<td width=\"273\">Command+Shift+O</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"273\">Go to Home Folder in Finder</td>\n<td width=\"273\">Command+Shift+H</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"273\">Help</td>\n<td width=\"273\">Command+Shift+?</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"273\">Hide Current Application</td>\n<td width=\"273\">Command+H</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"273\">Hide Other Applications</td>\n<td width=\"273\">Command+Option+H</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"273\">Log Out Current User</td>\n<td width=\"273\">Command+Shift+Q</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"273\">Make Alias</td>\n<td width=\"273\">Command+L</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"273\">Minimize Window</td>\n<td width=\"273\">Command+M</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"273\">Mission Control: All Windows</td>\n<td width=\"273\">Control+Up Arrow (F3 on Apple keyboards)</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"273\">Mission Control: Application Windows</td>\n<td width=\"273\">Control+Down Arrow (Control+F3 on Apple keyboards)</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"273\">Mission Control: Show Desktop</td>\n<td width=\"273\">F11 (fn+F11 on laptops; Command+F3 on Apple keyboards)</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"273\">Move to Trash</td>\n<td width=\"273\">Command+Delete</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"273\">New Finder Window</td>\n<td width=\"273\">Command+N</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"273\">New Folder</td>\n<td width=\"273\">Command+Shift+N</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"273\">New Smart Folder</td>\n<td width=\"273\">Command+Option+N</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"273\">Next Window</td>\n<td width=\"273\">Command+` (backtick)</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"273\">Open</td>\n<td width=\"273\">Command+O</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"273\">Paste</td>\n<td width=\"273\">Command+V</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"273\">Quick Look (at selected item)</td>\n<td width=\"273\">Command+Y or Spacebar</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"273\">Redo</td>\n<td width=\"273\">Command+Shift+Z</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"273\">Select All</td>\n<td width=\"273\">Command+A</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"273\">Show Original (of selected alias)</td>\n<td width=\"273\">Command+R</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"273\">Show View Options</td>\n<td width=\"273\">Command+J</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"273\">Show/Hide Dock (toggle Dock hiding)</td>\n<td width=\"273\">Command+Option+D</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"273\">Show/Hide Path Bar</td>\n<td width=\"273\">Command+Option +P</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"273\">Show/Hide Sidebar</td>\n<td width=\"273\">Command+Option +S</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"273\">Show/Hide Status Bar</td>\n<td width=\"273\">Command+/</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"273\">Show/Hide Tab Bar</td>\n<td width=\"273\">Command+Shift+T</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"273\">Show/Hide Toolbar</td>\n<td width=\"273\">Command+Option+T</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"273\">Turn VoiceOver On/Off</td>\n<td width=\"273\">Command+F5 (fn+F5 on laptops)</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"273\">Undo</td>\n<td width=\"273\">Command+Z</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"273\">View Window as Columns</td>\n<td width=\"273\">Command+3</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"273\">View Window as Gallery</td>\n<td width=\"273\">Command+4</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"273\">View Window as Icons</td>\n<td width=\"273\">Command+1</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"273\">View Window as List</td>\n<td width=\"273\">Command+2</td>\n</tr>\n</tbody>\n</table>\n"},{"title":"Tabbing around Sonoma's 'Save As' dialog","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>In the expanded view of macOS Sonoma&#8217;s Save As dialog, if you press the Tab key while the Save As field is active, it becomes inactive and the Tags field becomes active. Press Tab again, and the Search field becomes active. Press Tab again, and the sidebar becomes active. And if you press Tab again, the Save As field becomes active once more.</p>\n<p>That’s because the Save As field, the Tags and Search fields, and the sidebar are mutually exclusive, and only one can be active at any time. You can always tell which item is active by the thin blue border around it.</p>\n<p>When you want to switch to a different folder to save a file, click the folder in the sidebar or click anywhere in the file list box to make the file list active. Here are the moves you need:</p>\n<ul>\n<li><strong>If you type while the file list box is active, the list box selects the folder that most closely matches the letter(s) that you type.</strong> It’s a little strange because you won’t see what you type — you’ll be typing blind, so to speak.</li>\n<li><strong>When the file list is active, the letters that you type don’t appear in the Save As field.</strong> If you want to type a filename, you have to activate the Save As field again (by clicking in it or navigating with the Tab key) before you can type in it.</li>\n<li><strong>If you type while the sidebar is active, nothing happens.</strong> But you can use the up- and down-arrow keys to move around in the sidebar.</li>\n<li><strong>Pressing Shift reverses the order of the sequence.</strong> If you press Shift+Tab, the active item moves from the Save As field to the Sidebar to the Search box and back to the Save As field again.</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"Backing up, and backing up your back-up","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>When working in macOS Sonoma, would you like to ensure that you won’t lose more than a little work no matter what happens — even if your office burns to the ground; floods; is destroyed by a tornado, hurricane, or earthquake; or robbed? If so, follow these recommendations.</p>\n<p>Keeping a single backup is not enough. Two backups might be okay. Three is much safer and gives you the option of keeping the third somewhere off-site, such as at a friend or relative’s house or in a safe-deposit box at your bank.</p>\n<p>To make those three backups, you need to create a set-and-forget system that runs automatically in the background without you needing to start them. Consider this type of system:</p>\n<ul>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><strong>Use macOS’s excellent Time Machine feature as your first line of defense.</strong> Time Machine is so easy and so effective that there’s no excuse not to use it. But although Time Machine maintains multiple copies of files, they’re all stored on the same disk. If something’s worth backing up to one place, it’s worth backing up three times.</p>\n<p class=\"child-para\">You can add a second or third backup disk (or even more) to Time Machine if you like. Connect the disk and choose System Settings <strong>→</strong> General <strong>→</strong> Time Machine to display the Time Machine pane in System Settings. Click the Add (+) button, select the disk in the dialog that opens, and click Set Up Disk. Choose backup options — you&#8217;ll probably want to encrypt the backups — and then click Done.</p>\n<p class=\"child-para\">Time Machine then backs up the disks. But (you&#8217;ll have spotted the problem here) both your Time Machine backup disks are in the same place, so a single natural disaster (conflagration, inundation, fulmination &#8230;) or deliberate disaster (your choice) can take them both out. That’s why it’s wise to create a third backup disk and store it somewhere off-site.</p>\n</li>\n<li><strong>Use an online backup service. such as <a href=\"//www.idrive.com/\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\">iDrive</a> </strong><strong>or <a href=\"//www.backblaze.com/home-v2\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\">Backblaze</a> </strong><strong>to back up your Mac to the cloud.</strong></li>\n<li>These services start around the $5 to $10 per month level, so they’re good value. Most can back up your other computers and devices as well as your Mac.</li>\n<li><strong>Use a cloning app such as </strong><a href=\"//www.bombich.com/\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\"><strong>Carbon Copy Cloner</strong></a><strong> ($49.99) or </strong><a href=\"//shirt-pocket.com/\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\"><strong>SuperDuper</strong></a><strong> ($27.95) to clone your Mac’s startup disk to another hard drive every day (for example, in the early hours of the morning).</strong> This gives you a bootable backup you can use for recovery if your Mac goes south.</li>\n<li><strong>Lastly, store your current work in iCloud or a competitor — such as Dropbox, Microsoft’s OneDrive, or Google Drive — so that you have an instantly accessible online backup, which also allows you to work on your documents no matter where you happen to be.</strong></li>\n</ul>\n<p>You must test the integrity of each backup to make sure it will work when you need it. Just restore a few files and make sure they’re usable. You’ll then be sure you can recover fully should disaster strike.</p>\n"},{"title":"Burning a playlist to a CD","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>If you want to take your music somewhere other than your Mac or share it with others on a physical medium, you can burn your music playlists to CD. While CDs are a premillennial technology nearing the final approach to digital oblivion, they’re still extremely widely used, and a thoughtfully customized CD can make (or break) a relationship.</p>\n<p>Apple has played its part in hastening the demise of the CD and DVD by removing optical drives from Macs, so you’ll normally need to add an external CD or DVD burner to your Mac. Most such burners connect via USB 3 or USB-C, so you should have no problem making the connection to your Mac.</p>\n<p>With the drive connected, you can start burning audio CDs that you can listen to in almost any audio CD player. The only trick is making sure that the total playing time of the songs in the playlist is less than the capacity of the blank CD you’re using, which is usually 74 to 80 minutes.</p>\n<p>Don’t forget to account for the gap between tracks, which is 2 seconds by default. When you have all the songs you want on your CD in the playlist, choose File <strong>→ </strong>Burn Playlist to Disc. The Burn Settings dialog appears.</p>\n<p>The default type of disc Music burns is an audio CD, but it can also burn two other types:</p>\n<ul>\n<li><strong>MP3 CD</strong> is a special format that can be played in many CD audio players and set-top DVD players. The advantage of an MP3 CD is that rather than holding a mere 74 to 80 minutes of music, it can hold more than 100 songs (depending on the bitrate at which they’re encoded). The disadvantage is that many regular audio CD players won’t play MP3 CDs.</li>\n<li><strong>A data CD or DVD</strong> is a disc formatted to be read and mounted by any computer, Mac or Windows.</li>\n</ul>\n<p>If you click the Burn button now, you’ll get an audio CD. To burn an MP3 CD or Data CD or DVD, select the appropriate radio button in the Burn Settings dialog.</p>\n<p>When you’ve made your choice, click the Burn button. In a few minutes, you’ll have an audio CD that contains all the songs on the playlist — and plays the songs in the order in which they appeared in the playlist. Eject the freshly minted CD, label it carefully before you forget, and then take it for a test spin.</p>\n"}],"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Explore","lifeExpectancy":"Two years","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2024-10-31T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":301128},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2024-09-08T16:44:39+00:00","modifiedTime":"2024-10-31T12:31:58+00:00","timestamp":"2024-10-31T15:01:10+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Technology","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33512"},"slug":"technology","categoryId":33512},{"name":"Computers","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33513"},"slug":"computers","categoryId":33513}],"title":"An Introduction to Quantum Computing","strippedTitle":"an introduction to quantum computing","slug":"what-is-quantum-computing","canonicalUrl":"","搜所模块推广":{"metaDescription":"Quantum computing is different from the kinds of computers we all know. Here are the differences, and the basics of quantum computing.","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"Imagine flipping a coin in the air. As it’s spinning, is it showing heads or tails? Well, you can't know the answer while the coin is spinning. Only when the coin lands and settles down does it display a definite result.\r\n\r\nWhen asking the question \"how does quantum computing work?\" think of that uncertainty you see while the coin is spinning — it's like the uncertainty we capture and use in quantum computing. We put many processing elements — <em>qubits</em> — into a state of uncertainty. Then we program the qubits, run the program, and capture the results — just like when the coin lands.\r\n\r\n<p class=\"article-tips tldr\">Don't have time to read the entire article?\r\n<a href=\"#summary\" data-analytics-id=\"product-test-2\">Jump to the quick read summary.</a></p>\r\n\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" >How does a quantum computer work?</h2>\r\nQuantum computing is different from the fixed 0s and 1s, bits and bytes, used in today’s devices. Quantum computing is based on quantum mechanics, a branch of physics that can be hard to comprehend. But the way in which quantum computing deals effectively with large degrees of uncertainty feels like the way we make many of the decisions we encounter in daily life.\r\n\r\nQuantum computing is complementary to classical computing, the kind of computing we use today, not a replacement for it. By working with uncertainty, we can take on some of the biggest, most complex problems that humanity faces, in a new and powerful way. Quantum computing will solve problems for which today’s computing falls short — problems in areas such as modeling the climate, drug discovery, financial optimization, and whether or not it’s a good morning to launch a rocket.\r\n\r\nAnd this technology is just getting started. Many advanced quantum computers run only for a fraction of a second at a time. However, steady progress is being made. Even now, at this early stage, quantum computing is inspiring us to, as a sage once said, “think different” about the way we use existing computing capabilities.\r\n\r\nThose betting on the success of these machines see many potential quantum computing applications, including in the fields of medical science and health care, cryptology, climate change abatement, insurance risk assessment, finance, and more.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab2\" >Understanding why quantum computing is so strange</h2>\r\nQuantum computers have a sense of strangeness about them, almost a mystical aura. (The 2022 movie, <em>Dr. Strange in the Multiverse of Madness,</em> captures some of the feeling that people have about quantum mechanics in general.) Why is this?\r\n\r\nThere are two main reasons. The first reason is people’s fundamental misunderstanding of the nature of matter, which quantum mechanics explains. The second is the incredible power that quantum computing, when mature, is expected to deliver to humanity.\r\n\r\nHow does quantum mechanics change people’s view of the world? The world we live in, where rocks fall down and rockets go up, seems to be dominated by solid matter, with energy as a force that acts on matter at various times. Yet matter can simply be seen as congealed energy.\r\n\r\nMost of the mass of the protons and neutrons inside the nucleus of an atom, for instance, is simply a bookkeeper’s description of the tremendously powerful energetic fields that keep these particles in place. One of the most important kinds of particles in quantum computing, photons, have no mass at all; they are made up of pure energy.\r\n\r\nAnd it was Einstein himself who told us that matter and energy are equivalent, with his famous equation, E=mc<sup>2</sup>. To translate: The energy contained in solid matter equals its mass times the speed of light squared.\r\n<p class=\"article-tips remember\">The speed of light is a very large number — 300,000 km/second, or 186,000 miles/second. Squaring the speed of light yields a far larger number. Plug this very large number into Einstein’s famous equation and you'll see that there is a <em>lot</em> of energy in even small amounts of matter, as demonstrated by nuclear power plants and nuclear weapons.</p>\r\nThe point is that, in quantum mechanics, matter is relatively unimportant; particles act more as bundles of energy. And quantum computing takes advantage of the exotic properties of these particles — ionized atoms, photons, superconducting metals, and other matter that demonstrates quantum mechanical behavior.\r\n\r\nThe second reason that quantum computers get such a strong emotional reaction is the tremendous power of quantum computing. The best of today’s early-stage quantum computers are not much more powerful, if at all, than a mainstream supercomputer. But future quantum computers are expected to deliver tremendous speedups.\r\n\r\nOver the next decade or two, we expect quantum computers to become hundreds, thousands, even millions of times faster than today’s computers for the problems at which they excel.\r\n\r\nPeople can’t really predict, nor even imagine, what it’s going to be like to have that kind of computing power available for some of the most important challenges facing humanity. That future is very exciting, yes. But it’s also a bit, as Einstein described quantum mechanics, “spooky.”\r\n<h2 id=\"tab3\" >Grasping the power of quantum computing</h2>\r\nTo help you get started in understanding quantum computing, here are five big ideas to get your head around:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Qubits:</strong> <em>Qubits</em> are the quantum computing version of bits — the 0s and 1s at the core of classical computing. They have quantum mechanical properties. Qubits are where all the magic happens in quantum computing.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Superposition:</strong> While bits are limited to 0 or 1, a qubit can hold an undefined value that is neither 0 nor 1 until the qubit is measured. The capability to hold multiple values at once is called <em>superposition.</em></li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Entanglement:</strong> In classical computing, bits are carefully separated from each other so that the value of one does not affect others. But qubits can be entangled with each other. When changes to one particle cause instantaneous changes to another, and when measuring a value for one particle tells you the corresponding value for another, the particles are <em>entangled</em>.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Tunneling:</strong> A quantum mechanical particle can instantaneously move from one place to another, even if there’s a barrier in between. (Quantum computing uses this capability to bypass barriers to the best possible solution.) This behavior is referred to as <em>tunneling</em>.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Coherence:</strong> A quantum particle, such as an electron, that is free of outside disturbance is <em>coherent.</em> Only coherent particles can exhibit superposition and entanglement.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\nHow are these terms related? Here’s an example: A good qubit is relatively easy to place into a state of coherence and maintain in a state of coherence, so it can exhibit superposition and entanglement, and therefore can tunnel. (The search for “good qubits” is the subject of a lot of work and controversy today.)\r\n\r\nThese five terms are at the heart of the promise of quantum computing and are involved in many of the challenges that make quantum computing difficult to fully implement. In this section, we describe each of these crucial concepts.\r\n\r\nClassical computing describes the computers we use every day, which includes not only laptop and desktop computers but also smartphones, web servers, supercomputers, and many other kinds of devices.\r\n\r\nThe term <em>classical computing</em> is used because classical computers use classical mechanics, the cause-and-effect rules of the road that we see and use in our daily lives, for information processing.\r\n\r\nQuantum computing uses quantum mechanics — which is very different, very interesting, and very powerful indeed — for information processing.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab4\" >Introducing Puff, the magic... qubit?</h2>\r\nBits power classical computing — the laptops, servers, smartphones, and supercomputers that we use today. <em>Bit</em> is short for <em>binary digit,</em> where <em>digit</em> specifies a single numeral and <em>binary</em> means the numeral can have only one of two values: 0 or 1 — just like the results of a coin flip.\r\n\r\nIn a computer, bits are stored in tiny, cheap electromechanical devices that reliably take in, hold, and return either a 0 or a 1 — at least until the power is turned off. Because a single bit doesn’t tell you much, bits are packaged into eight-bit bytes, with a single byte able to hold 256 values. (2<sup>8</sup> — all possible combinations of 8 binary digits — equals 256.)\r\n\r\nA <em>qubit</em> is a complex device that has, at its core, matter in a quantum mechanical state (such as a photon, an atom, or a tiny piece of superconducting metal). The qubit includes a container of some kind, such as a strong magnetic field, that keeps the matter from interacting with its environment.\r\n\r\nA qubit is much more complex and much more powerful than a bit. But qubits today are not very reliable, for two reasons:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>They’re subject to errors introduced by noise in the environment around them. A result of 0 can be accidentally flipped to a result of 1, or vice versa, and there’s no easy way to know that an error has occurred.</li>\r\n \t<li>It’s hard to keep qubits coherent, that is, capable of superposition, entanglement, and tunneling.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\nThe situation with qubits today is somewhat like the old joke about a bad restaurant: “The food is terrible — and the portions are so small!” With qubits, the error rates are high and the coherence period is short. But despite these problems, quantum computers do deliver valuable and interesting results while up and running.\r\n\r\nIn quantum computers, qubits are much more complex and far more expensive than bits. Nor are they as easy to manage — but they are far more powerful.\r\n\r\nThe photo below shows a quantum computing module from IBM, suspended at the bottom of a cooling infrastructure that keeps the superconducting qubits at a temperature near absolute zero.\r\n\r\n[caption id=\"attachment_300555\" align=\"alignnone\" width=\"372\"]<img class=\"size-full wp-image-300555\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/quantum-computing-processor-ibm.jpg\" alt=\"Photo showing an IBM quantum computing processor\" width=\"372\" height=\"600\" /> ©Lars Plougmann / Flickr<br />A quantum computing processor from IBM[/caption]\r\n\r\nUntil it's measured, each qubit can represent an infinite range of values between 0 and 1. How does the qubit hold all these values? At the core of the qubit is a <em>quantum particle</em> — a tiny piece of reality in the form of a photon, an electron, an ionized atom, or an artificial atom formed using a superconducting metal.\r\n<p class=\"article-tips tip\">IBM is not the only technology company developing this new technology. Here are some other quantum computing companies: Google, D-wave, Microsoft, Amazon, Intel, Alibaba Group, Atos Quantum, Toshiba, and Rigetti.</p>\r\nFor quantum computing, the quantum particle at the core of the qubit must be kept in a <em>coherent state</em> — uncontrolled, like the flipped coin while it’s spinning in the air. In a coherent state, we don’t know whether the value of the qubit at a given moment is 0 or 1. When we measure the state of the qubit, the calculation we want to make is performed, and the qubit returns 0 or 1 as a result.\r\n\r\nMuch of the power of qubits comes from the fact that they behave in a <em>probabilistic</em> manner; a given qubit, running the same calculation multiple times without errors, may produce a 0 on some runs and a 1 on another. The final result consists of the number of times each qubit returns a 0 or a 1. So the result of most quantum calculations is a set of probabilities rather than a single number.\r\n\r\nQubits are hard to create and hard to maintain in a state of coherence; they also tend to interfere with nearby qubits in an uncontrolled fashion. Taming qubits is one of the biggest challenges to overcome in creating useful quantum computers.\r\n\r\nA popular approach to building quantum computers involves the use of superconducting qubits, which must be kept at a temperature very close to absolute zero to minimize interference due to heat and, in many cases, to maintain superconductivity.\r\n\r\nClassical computers are designed to work at room temperature, but they tend to generate heat and to stop working properly as the temperature rises. The need to dissipate heat prevents device makers from packing components as tightly as they would like without resorting to expensive and clumsy solutions such as water-cooling or refrigerating the components.\r\n\r\nIn quantum computing, each additional qubit adds exponentially to the power of the computer. But because qubits tend to interfere with each other, adding more is difficult.\r\n\r\nIBM, a leader in quantum computing, has <a href=\"//research.ibm.com/blog/ibm-quantum-roadmap-2025\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\">published a roadmap</a> showing past and future increases in the number of qubits that power its current and upcoming quantum computers.\r\n<p class=\"article-tips tip\" id=\"summary\">If you're interested in staying up to date on the development of this technology, here are some places to find quantum computing news: <a href=\"//phys.org/tags/quantum+computing/\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\">Phys.org</a>; <a href=\"//thequantuminsider.com/\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\">The Quantum Insider</a>; <a href=\"//news.mit.edu/topic/quantum-computing\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\">MIT News</a>; <a href=\"//quantumzeitgeist.com/\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\">Quantum Zeitgeist</a>.</p>\r\n\r\n<div class=\"summary-container\" data-testid=\"summarySection\">\r\n<div class=\"wrapper\">\r\n<div class=\"image-block\" data-testid=\"imageBlock\"></div>\r\n<div class=\"details-block\">\r\n<h2 id=\"tab5\" >Quick Read Summary</h2>\r\n<ul class=\"summary-list\">\r\n \t<li><p>Quantum computing is a revolutionary field that taps into the strange and mysterious world of quantum mechanics. To grasp its essence, consider the uncertainty of a spinning coin before it lands; this uncertainty mirrors the core principle of quantum computing. In quantum computing, we utilize qubits, which, like the spinning coin, exist in a state of uncertainty until measured.</p></li>\r\n \t<li><p>Unlike classical computing, where information is processed as fixed 0s and 1s, quantum computing leverages quantum mechanical properties to process data in new ways. It complements classical computing rather than replacing it, offering a potent tool to tackle complex problems involving substantial uncertainty, such as climate modeling, drug discovery, and financial optimization.</p></li>\r\n \t<li><p>Although quantum computing is in its early stages, it shows promise in diverse fields, including medical science, cryptology, climate change mitigation, finance, and more. Its aura of strangeness and potential stems from two key factors: a profound shift in understanding matter and its tremendous computational power.</p></li>\r\n \t<li><p>Quantum mechanics reveals that matter is essentially congealed energy, with particles behaving more like bundles of energy than solid entities. Einstein's E=mc² equation underscores this equivalence between matter and energy, highlighting the immense energy stored even in small amounts of matter.</p></li>\r\n \t<li><p>Quantum computing harnesses the unique properties of quantum particles like photons, electrons, and ionized atoms to perform computations. Qubits, the quantum counterparts of classical bits, are central to this technology. Qubits can exist in a state of superposition, holding undefined values of 0 and 1 simultaneously until measured. They can also become entangled, enabling instantaneous changes in one qubit to affect another.</p></li>\r\n \t<li><p>Additionally, quantum particles can tunnel through barriers, a phenomenon exploited in quantum computing to find optimal solutions. Coherence, the state of being free from outside disturbance, enables particles to exhibit superposition and entanglement.</p></li>\r\n \t<li><p>While quantum computers today are not significantly more powerful than classical supercomputers, future quantum machines are expected to offer unprecedented speedups, potentially becoming millions of times faster. This quantum leap in computing power presents exciting but also \"spooky\" prospects.</p></li>\r\n</ul>\t\r\n<p>In summary, quantum computing is poised to transform problem-solving by embracing the uncertainty of quantum mechanics. Key concepts include qubits, superposition, entanglement, tunneling, and coherence, all contributing to the promise and challenges of this cutting-edge technology. Companies like IBM, Google, and Microsoft are at the forefront of quantum computing research, while applications span various domains, from healthcare to finance. Quantum computing's potential is as enigmatic as the spinning coin, but its impact promises to be profound.</p>\r\n<p>Hungry for more? Go back and <a href=\"/article/technology/computers/what-is-quantum-computing-300551/\">read the article</a> or <a href=\"//www.amazon.com/gp/product/1119933900/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20\" class=\"amazon-btn\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\">check out the book</a>.</p>\r\n</div>\r\n</div>\r\n</div>\t\r\n","description":"Imagine flipping a coin in the air. As it’s spinning, is it showing heads or tails? Well, you can't know the answer while the coin is spinning. Only when the coin lands and settles down does it display a definite result.\r\n\r\nWhen asking the question \"how does quantum computing work?\" think of that uncertainty you see while the coin is spinning — it's like the uncertainty we capture and use in quantum computing. We put many processing elements — <em>qubits</em> — into a state of uncertainty. Then we program the qubits, run the program, and capture the results — just like when the coin lands.\r\n\r\n<p class=\"article-tips tldr\">Don't have time to read the entire article?\r\n<a href=\"#summary\" data-analytics-id=\"product-test-2\">Jump to the quick read summary.</a></p>\r\n\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" >How does a quantum computer work?</h2>\r\nQuantum computing is different from the fixed 0s and 1s, bits and bytes, used in today’s devices. Quantum computing is based on quantum mechanics, a branch of physics that can be hard to comprehend. But the way in which quantum computing deals effectively with large degrees of uncertainty feels like the way we make many of the decisions we encounter in daily life.\r\n\r\nQuantum computing is complementary to classical computing, the kind of computing we use today, not a replacement for it. By working with uncertainty, we can take on some of the biggest, most complex problems that humanity faces, in a new and powerful way. Quantum computing will solve problems for which today’s computing falls short — problems in areas such as modeling the climate, drug discovery, financial optimization, and whether or not it’s a good morning to launch a rocket.\r\n\r\nAnd this technology is just getting started. Many advanced quantum computers run only for a fraction of a second at a time. However, steady progress is being made. Even now, at this early stage, quantum computing is inspiring us to, as a sage once said, “think different” about the way we use existing computing capabilities.\r\n\r\nThose betting on the success of these machines see many potential quantum computing applications, including in the fields of medical science and health care, cryptology, climate change abatement, insurance risk assessment, finance, and more.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab2\" >Understanding why quantum computing is so strange</h2>\r\nQuantum computers have a sense of strangeness about them, almost a mystical aura. (The 2022 movie, <em>Dr. Strange in the Multiverse of Madness,</em> captures some of the feeling that people have about quantum mechanics in general.) Why is this?\r\n\r\nThere are two main reasons. The first reason is people’s fundamental misunderstanding of the nature of matter, which quantum mechanics explains. The second is the incredible power that quantum computing, when mature, is expected to deliver to humanity.\r\n\r\nHow does quantum mechanics change people’s view of the world? The world we live in, where rocks fall down and rockets go up, seems to be dominated by solid matter, with energy as a force that acts on matter at various times. Yet matter can simply be seen as congealed energy.\r\n\r\nMost of the mass of the protons and neutrons inside the nucleus of an atom, for instance, is simply a bookkeeper’s description of the tremendously powerful energetic fields that keep these particles in place. One of the most important kinds of particles in quantum computing, photons, have no mass at all; they are made up of pure energy.\r\n\r\nAnd it was Einstein himself who told us that matter and energy are equivalent, with his famous equation, E=mc<sup>2</sup>. To translate: The energy contained in solid matter equals its mass times the speed of light squared.\r\n<p class=\"article-tips remember\">The speed of light is a very large number — 300,000 km/second, or 186,000 miles/second. Squaring the speed of light yields a far larger number. Plug this very large number into Einstein’s famous equation and you'll see that there is a <em>lot</em> of energy in even small amounts of matter, as demonstrated by nuclear power plants and nuclear weapons.</p>\r\nThe point is that, in quantum mechanics, matter is relatively unimportant; particles act more as bundles of energy. And quantum computing takes advantage of the exotic properties of these particles — ionized atoms, photons, superconducting metals, and other matter that demonstrates quantum mechanical behavior.\r\n\r\nThe second reason that quantum computers get such a strong emotional reaction is the tremendous power of quantum computing. The best of today’s early-stage quantum computers are not much more powerful, if at all, than a mainstream supercomputer. But future quantum computers are expected to deliver tremendous speedups.\r\n\r\nOver the next decade or two, we expect quantum computers to become hundreds, thousands, even millions of times faster than today’s computers for the problems at which they excel.\r\n\r\nPeople can’t really predict, nor even imagine, what it’s going to be like to have that kind of computing power available for some of the most important challenges facing humanity. That future is very exciting, yes. But it’s also a bit, as Einstein described quantum mechanics, “spooky.”\r\n<h2 id=\"tab3\" >Grasping the power of quantum computing</h2>\r\nTo help you get started in understanding quantum computing, here are five big ideas to get your head around:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Qubits:</strong> <em>Qubits</em> are the quantum computing version of bits — the 0s and 1s at the core of classical computing. They have quantum mechanical properties. Qubits are where all the magic happens in quantum computing.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Superposition:</strong> While bits are limited to 0 or 1, a qubit can hold an undefined value that is neither 0 nor 1 until the qubit is measured. The capability to hold multiple values at once is called <em>superposition.</em></li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Entanglement:</strong> In classical computing, bits are carefully separated from each other so that the value of one does not affect others. But qubits can be entangled with each other. When changes to one particle cause instantaneous changes to another, and when measuring a value for one particle tells you the corresponding value for another, the particles are <em>entangled</em>.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Tunneling:</strong> A quantum mechanical particle can instantaneously move from one place to another, even if there’s a barrier in between. (Quantum computing uses this capability to bypass barriers to the best possible solution.) This behavior is referred to as <em>tunneling</em>.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Coherence:</strong> A quantum particle, such as an electron, that is free of outside disturbance is <em>coherent.</em> Only coherent particles can exhibit superposition and entanglement.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\nHow are these terms related? Here’s an example: A good qubit is relatively easy to place into a state of coherence and maintain in a state of coherence, so it can exhibit superposition and entanglement, and therefore can tunnel. (The search for “good qubits” is the subject of a lot of work and controversy today.)\r\n\r\nThese five terms are at the heart of the promise of quantum computing and are involved in many of the challenges that make quantum computing difficult to fully implement. In this section, we describe each of these crucial concepts.\r\n\r\nClassical computing describes the computers we use every day, which includes not only laptop and desktop computers but also smartphones, web servers, supercomputers, and many other kinds of devices.\r\n\r\nThe term <em>classical computing</em> is used because classical computers use classical mechanics, the cause-and-effect rules of the road that we see and use in our daily lives, for information processing.\r\n\r\nQuantum computing uses quantum mechanics — which is very different, very interesting, and very powerful indeed — for information processing.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab4\" >Introducing Puff, the magic... qubit?</h2>\r\nBits power classical computing — the laptops, servers, smartphones, and supercomputers that we use today. <em>Bit</em> is short for <em>binary digit,</em> where <em>digit</em> specifies a single numeral and <em>binary</em> means the numeral can have only one of two values: 0 or 1 — just like the results of a coin flip.\r\n\r\nIn a computer, bits are stored in tiny, cheap electromechanical devices that reliably take in, hold, and return either a 0 or a 1 — at least until the power is turned off. Because a single bit doesn’t tell you much, bits are packaged into eight-bit bytes, with a single byte able to hold 256 values. (2<sup>8</sup> — all possible combinations of 8 binary digits — equals 256.)\r\n\r\nA <em>qubit</em> is a complex device that has, at its core, matter in a quantum mechanical state (such as a photon, an atom, or a tiny piece of superconducting metal). The qubit includes a container of some kind, such as a strong magnetic field, that keeps the matter from interacting with its environment.\r\n\r\nA qubit is much more complex and much more powerful than a bit. But qubits today are not very reliable, for two reasons:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>They’re subject to errors introduced by noise in the environment around them. A result of 0 can be accidentally flipped to a result of 1, or vice versa, and there’s no easy way to know that an error has occurred.</li>\r\n \t<li>It’s hard to keep qubits coherent, that is, capable of superposition, entanglement, and tunneling.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\nThe situation with qubits today is somewhat like the old joke about a bad restaurant: “The food is terrible — and the portions are so small!” With qubits, the error rates are high and the coherence period is short. But despite these problems, quantum computers do deliver valuable and interesting results while up and running.\r\n\r\nIn quantum computers, qubits are much more complex and far more expensive than bits. Nor are they as easy to manage — but they are far more powerful.\r\n\r\nThe photo below shows a quantum computing module from IBM, suspended at the bottom of a cooling infrastructure that keeps the superconducting qubits at a temperature near absolute zero.\r\n\r\n[caption id=\"attachment_300555\" align=\"alignnone\" width=\"372\"]<img class=\"size-full wp-image-300555\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/quantum-computing-processor-ibm.jpg\" alt=\"Photo showing an IBM quantum computing processor\" width=\"372\" height=\"600\" /> ©Lars Plougmann / Flickr<br />A quantum computing processor from IBM[/caption]\r\n\r\nUntil it's measured, each qubit can represent an infinite range of values between 0 and 1. How does the qubit hold all these values? At the core of the qubit is a <em>quantum particle</em> — a tiny piece of reality in the form of a photon, an electron, an ionized atom, or an artificial atom formed using a superconducting metal.\r\n<p class=\"article-tips tip\">IBM is not the only technology company developing this new technology. Here are some other quantum computing companies: Google, D-wave, Microsoft, Amazon, Intel, Alibaba Group, Atos Quantum, Toshiba, and Rigetti.</p>\r\nFor quantum computing, the quantum particle at the core of the qubit must be kept in a <em>coherent state</em> — uncontrolled, like the flipped coin while it’s spinning in the air. In a coherent state, we don’t know whether the value of the qubit at a given moment is 0 or 1. When we measure the state of the qubit, the calculation we want to make is performed, and the qubit returns 0 or 1 as a result.\r\n\r\nMuch of the power of qubits comes from the fact that they behave in a <em>probabilistic</em> manner; a given qubit, running the same calculation multiple times without errors, may produce a 0 on some runs and a 1 on another. The final result consists of the number of times each qubit returns a 0 or a 1. So the result of most quantum calculations is a set of probabilities rather than a single number.\r\n\r\nQubits are hard to create and hard to maintain in a state of coherence; they also tend to interfere with nearby qubits in an uncontrolled fashion. Taming qubits is one of the biggest challenges to overcome in creating useful quantum computers.\r\n\r\nA popular approach to building quantum computers involves the use of superconducting qubits, which must be kept at a temperature very close to absolute zero to minimize interference due to heat and, in many cases, to maintain superconductivity.\r\n\r\nClassical computers are designed to work at room temperature, but they tend to generate heat and to stop working properly as the temperature rises. The need to dissipate heat prevents device makers from packing components as tightly as they would like without resorting to expensive and clumsy solutions such as water-cooling or refrigerating the components.\r\n\r\nIn quantum computing, each additional qubit adds exponentially to the power of the computer. But because qubits tend to interfere with each other, adding more is difficult.\r\n\r\nIBM, a leader in quantum computing, has <a href=\"//research.ibm.com/blog/ibm-quantum-roadmap-2025\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\">published a roadmap</a> showing past and future increases in the number of qubits that power its current and upcoming quantum computers.\r\n<p class=\"article-tips tip\" id=\"summary\">If you're interested in staying up to date on the development of this technology, here are some places to find quantum computing news: <a href=\"//phys.org/tags/quantum+computing/\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\">Phys.org</a>; <a href=\"//thequantuminsider.com/\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\">The Quantum Insider</a>; <a href=\"//news.mit.edu/topic/quantum-computing\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\">MIT News</a>; <a href=\"//quantumzeitgeist.com/\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\">Quantum Zeitgeist</a>.</p>\r\n\r\n<div class=\"summary-container\" data-testid=\"summarySection\">\r\n<div class=\"wrapper\">\r\n<div class=\"image-block\" data-testid=\"imageBlock\"></div>\r\n<div class=\"details-block\">\r\n<h2 id=\"tab5\" >Quick Read Summary</h2>\r\n<ul class=\"summary-list\">\r\n \t<li><p>Quantum computing is a revolutionary field that taps into the strange and mysterious world of quantum mechanics. To grasp its essence, consider the uncertainty of a spinning coin before it lands; this uncertainty mirrors the core principle of quantum computing. In quantum computing, we utilize qubits, which, like the spinning coin, exist in a state of uncertainty until measured.</p></li>\r\n \t<li><p>Unlike classical computing, where information is processed as fixed 0s and 1s, quantum computing leverages quantum mechanical properties to process data in new ways. It complements classical computing rather than replacing it, offering a potent tool to tackle complex problems involving substantial uncertainty, such as climate modeling, drug discovery, and financial optimization.</p></li>\r\n \t<li><p>Although quantum computing is in its early stages, it shows promise in diverse fields, including medical science, cryptology, climate change mitigation, finance, and more. Its aura of strangeness and potential stems from two key factors: a profound shift in understanding matter and its tremendous computational power.</p></li>\r\n \t<li><p>Quantum mechanics reveals that matter is essentially congealed energy, with particles behaving more like bundles of energy than solid entities. Einstein's E=mc² equation underscores this equivalence between matter and energy, highlighting the immense energy stored even in small amounts of matter.</p></li>\r\n \t<li><p>Quantum computing harnesses the unique properties of quantum particles like photons, electrons, and ionized atoms to perform computations. Qubits, the quantum counterparts of classical bits, are central to this technology. Qubits can exist in a state of superposition, holding undefined values of 0 and 1 simultaneously until measured. They can also become entangled, enabling instantaneous changes in one qubit to affect another.</p></li>\r\n \t<li><p>Additionally, quantum particles can tunnel through barriers, a phenomenon exploited in quantum computing to find optimal solutions. Coherence, the state of being free from outside disturbance, enables particles to exhibit superposition and entanglement.</p></li>\r\n \t<li><p>While quantum computers today are not significantly more powerful than classical supercomputers, future quantum machines are expected to offer unprecedented speedups, potentially becoming millions of times faster. This quantum leap in computing power presents exciting but also \"spooky\" prospects.</p></li>\r\n</ul>\t\r\n<p>In summary, quantum computing is poised to transform problem-solving by embracing the uncertainty of quantum mechanics. Key concepts include qubits, superposition, entanglement, tunneling, and coherence, all contributing to the promise and challenges of this cutting-edge technology. Companies like IBM, Google, and Microsoft are at the forefront of quantum computing research, while applications span various domains, from healthcare to finance. Quantum computing's potential is as enigmatic as the spinning coin, but its impact promises to be profound.</p>\r\n<p>Hungry for more? Go back and <a href=\"/article/technology/computers/what-is-quantum-computing-300551/\">read the article</a> or <a href=\"//www.amazon.com/gp/product/1119933900/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20\" class=\"amazon-btn\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\">check out the book</a>.</p>\r\n</div>\r\n</div>\r\n</div>\t\r\n","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":35324,"name":"William Hurley","slug":"william-hurley","description":"<strong>William Hurley</strong> is the founder and CEO of Strangeworks, a startup that makes the power of quantum computing easily accessible and available to all. He is also co-author of <em>Quantum Computing For Babies</em>.","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/35324"}},{"authorId":35325,"name":"Floyd Smith","slug":"floyd-smith","description":"<strong>Floyd Smith</strong> is a tech communicator and longtime For Dummies author, who has most notably written several editions of the bestselling <em>Creating Web Pages For Dummies</em>.","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/35325"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33513,"title":"Computers","slug":"computers","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33513"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[{"label":"How does a quantum computer work?","target":"#tab1"},{"label":"Understanding why quantum computing is so strange","target":"#tab2"},{"label":"Grasping the power of quantum computing","target":"#tab3"},{"label":"Introducing Puff, the magic... qubit?","target":"#tab4"},{"label":"Quick Read Summary","target":"#tab5"}],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[{"articleId":300572,"title":"What Will Quantum Computers Be Able to Do?","slug":"what-will-quantum-computers-be-able-to-do","categoryList":["technology","computers"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/300572"}},{"articleId":300563,"title":"What Are Superposition & Entanglement in Quantum Computing","slug":"what-are-superposition-entanglement-in-quantum-computing","categoryList":["technology","computers"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/300563"}},{"articleId":300467,"title":"Quantum Computing For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"quantum-computing-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["technology","computers"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/300467"}}],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":300572,"title":"What Will Quantum Computers Be Able to Do?","slug":"what-will-quantum-computers-be-able-to-do","categoryList":["technology","computers"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/300572"}},{"articleId":300563,"title":"What Are Superposition & Entanglement in Quantum Computing","slug":"what-are-superposition-entanglement-in-quantum-computing","categoryList":["technology","computers"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/300563"}},{"articleId":300467,"title":"Quantum Computing For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"quantum-computing-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["technology","computers"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/300467"}},{"articleId":201996,"title":"The Types of Broadband Modems","slug":"the-types-of-broadband-modems","categoryList":["technology","computers"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/201996"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":300413,"slug":"quantum-computing-for-dummies","isbn":"9781119933908","categoryList":["technology","computers"],"amazon":{"default":"//www.amazon.com/gp/product/1119933900/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","ca":"//www.amazon.ca/gp/product/1119933900/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","indigo_ca":"//www.tkqlhce.com/click-9208661-13710633?url=//www.chapters.indigo.ca/en-ca/books/product/1119933900-item.html&cjsku=978111945484","gb":"//www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/1119933900/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","de":"//www.amazon.de/gp/product/1119933900/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20"},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/quantum-computing-for-dummies-cover-9781119933908-203x255.jpg","width":203,"height":255},"title":"Quantum Computing For Dummies","testBankPinActivationLink":"","bookOutOfPrint":true,"authorsInfo":"<p><p><b>“<b data-author-id=\"35331\">whurley</b>”</b> is the founder and CEO of Strangeworks, a startup that makes the power of quantum computing easily accessible and available to all. He is also co-author of <i>Quantum Computing For Babies</i>. <p><b>Floyd Smith</b> is a tech communicator and longtime <i>For Dummies</i> author, who has most notably written several editions of the bestselling <i>Creating Web Pages For Dummies</i>. <p><b>“whurley”</b> is the founder and CEO of Strangeworks, a startup that makes the power of quantum computing easily accessible and available to all. He is also co-author of <i>Quantum Computing For Babies</i>. <p><b>Floyd Smith</b> is a tech communicator and longtime <i>For Dummies</i> author, who has most notably written several editions of the bestselling <i>Creating Web Pages For Dummies</i>.</p>","authors":[{"authorId":35331,"name":"whurley","slug":"whurley","description":" <p><b>“whurley”</b> is the founder and CEO of Strangeworks, a startup that makes the power of quantum computing easily accessible and available to all. He is also co-author of <i>Quantum Computing For Babies</i>. <p><b>Floyd Smith</b> is a tech communicator and longtime <i>For Dummies</i> author, who has most notably written several editions of the bestselling <i>Creating Web Pages For Dummies</i>. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/35331"}},{"authorId":35332,"name":"Floyd Earl Smith","slug":"floyd-earl-smith","description":" <p><b>“whurley”</b> is the founder and CEO of Strangeworks, a startup that makes the power of quantum computing easily accessible and available to all. He is also co-author of <i>Quantum Computing For Babies</i>. <p><b>Floyd Smith</b> is a tech communicator and longtime <i>For Dummies</i> author, who has most notably written several editions of the bestselling <i>Creating Web Pages For Dummies</i>. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/35332"}}],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/books/"}},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;technology&quot;,&quot;computers&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781119933908&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-654116b7275d7\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;technology&quot;,&quot;computers&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781119933908&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-654116b72908e\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Articles","articleList":null,"content":null,"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Explore","lifeExpectancy":"Two years","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2024-09-08T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":300551},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2024-09-11T17:06:35+00:00","modifiedTime":"2024-09-19T22:33:15+00:00","timestamp":"2024-09-20T00:01:03+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Technology","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33512"},"slug":"technology","categoryId":33512},{"name":"Computers","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33513"},"slug":"computers","categoryId":33513}],"title":"What Will Quantum Computers Be Able to Do?","strippedTitle":"what will quantum computers be able to do?","slug":"what-will-quantum-computers-be-able-to-do","canonicalUrl":"","搜所模块推广":{"metaDescription":"Scientists believe quantum computers will have many applications, including in medical science, finance, and finding climate change solutions.","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"The entire advantage of quantum computing is that it will execute certain specific computer algorithms much, much faster than the classical computers we use today.\r\n\r\nThere's still a long way to go in making these very complex computers work, but even without diving into the details, we can describe the types of things that quantum computing will be very, very good at. And we can give a general idea as to which of these improvements might be available sooner rather than later.\r\n\r\n[caption id=\"attachment_300555\" align=\"alignnone\" width=\"372\"]<img class=\"size-full wp-image-300555\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/quantum-computing-processor-ibm.jpg\" alt=\"Photo showing an IBM quantum computing processor\" width=\"372\" height=\"600\" /> ©Lars Plougmann / Flickr<br />A quantum computing processor from IBM[/caption]\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" >Thinking in triplicate</h2>\r\nThere are three broad categories of <a href=\"//coursofppt.com/article/technology/computers/what-is-quantum-computing-300551/\">quantum computing</a> applications. It’s useful to examine each task you’re trying to accomplish from all three of these viewpoints. Applying quantum computing to real-world problems is a creative task, especially in these early days, and using multiple viewpoints can only be helpful.\r\n\r\nHere are the three approaches:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Simulation:</strong> In simulation, qubits — trapped bits of coherent matter — mimic other coherent matter, such as the individual atoms within a molecule that might become a medically useful drug. Simulation is arguably the most natural fit for quantum computing because quantum mechanics is what governs the laws of, well, nature.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Optimization:</strong> A group of qubits can be used as a kind of computational furnace that can be guided into yielding a very good — but not necessarily perfect — solution to a problem. The result might be the right answer, or it may instead be something close to that. (A very good solution to a route-planning or investing problem might save, or make, you a lot of money, even if it isn’t the best possible answer.)</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Calculation:</strong> This approach is, conceptually, the most like the classical computing problem-solving we’re all used to. In calculation, qubits are combined into logic gates, making up a universal computer. When used as logic gates, qubits can solve any imaginable problem, and a quantum universal computer can solve some important problems far faster than today’s computers — which also fit the “universal computer” description — but grind to a near-halt for some problems.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\nWe can view the three categories of quantum computing applications as different types of math problems. Simulation requires solving differential equations; optimization requires combinatorial, well, optimization; and calculation requires solving complex problems in linear algebra and involves a lot of matrix math.\r\n\r\nBoth the features used in machine learning and the operations against the Bloch sphere used for manipulating the qubits of gate-based quantum computers are stated as vectors, so the calculation approach is readily used for machine learning. (Although optimization can be used for machine learning as well.)\r\n\r\nAlgorithms can be grouped into these same three categories, which helps spotting areas where algorithms can be extended to accomplish additional goals. Importantly, the same quantum algorithm can underpin several different applications; for example, the algorithm that powers a financial portfolio optimization application might also underpin a separate application for route optimization.\r\n\r\nAlso, the categories of applications can overlap; for instance, if you use optimization to come up with better and better answers, you may at some point come up with the exact answer, just as if you used calculation. (For instance, using optimization to find the prime factors of a large prime number, just like Shor’s algorithm, which belongs in the calculation category.) But the categories are useful for understanding the current state of quantum computing and anticipating what progress we might expect in the near future.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab2\" >Big potential for quantum computing</h2>\r\nThere are several areas in which quantum computing could far exceed the abilities of classical computing. Following, are summaries of some of these.\r\n<h3>Cryptography</h3>\r\nQuantum cryptography is “the straw that stirs the drink” in quantum computing — a phrase first attributed to baseball great Reggie Jackson, who was working in an entirely different field (right field, to be precise).\r\n\r\nThe current, fervent interest in quantum computing began in 1994 with the publication of Shor’s algorithm, which is one of the few quantum algorithms that has been proven, at this early point, to have the potential for exponential speedup. However, Shor’s algorithm will be able to do useful work only when it’s run on quantum computers far more powerful than those available today.\r\n\r\nQuantum computing has the potential to break the most common encryption methods used to secure digital communication today, such as RSA and ECC, which protect emails, bank information, the web, and more. These encryption methods rely on the difficulty of factoring large integers and the difficulty of computing discrete logarithms, respectively.\r\n\r\nQuantum computers can perform these operations exponentially faster than classical computers, making them a threat to traditional encryption methods. Quantum algorithms have been proposed for key exchange, digital signatures, and encryption, which are the building blocks of secure communication.\r\n<h3>Search algorithms</h3>\r\nSearch algorithms have been an important area of research in computer science for decades. Real-world examples of the use of quantum algorithms for search include optimization problems in internet search, finance, logistics, and transportation.\r\n\r\nFor example, the use of quantum algorithms for portfolio optimization will help financial analysts find the optimal investment strategy for a given portfolio in a fraction of the time required by classical algorithms. (Using quantum algorithms to optimize your portfolio works especially well if you have a quantum computer and the other investors don’t.)\r\n\r\nWith the exponential growth of data, several algorithmic challenges need to be addressed. One of the biggest challenges is finding an optimal solution in a reasonable amount of time, which is where quantum algorithms come into play.\r\n\r\nOne of the earliest, best-known, and most promising quantum algorithms is Grover's algorithm, used for searching an unsorted database and for a wide range of other purposes as well.\r\n<p class=\"article-tips tip\">For more details on these and other possible applications for quantum computing, check out our book <a href=\"//coursofppt.com/book/technology/computers/quantum-computing-for-dummies-300413/\"><em>Quantum Computing For Dummies</em></a>.</p>\r\n\r\n<h3>Financial industry applications</h3>\r\nQuantum computing is starting to make waves in the financial industry, with many companies turning to this new technology in an effort to improve their operations and gain a competitive edge. Today, quantum algorithms and applications are being explored by a variety of financial companies for uses including portfolio optimization, risk management, and fraud detection.\r\n\r\nGoldman Sachs, a leading investment bank, and several other banks are working to develop quantum algorithms for portfolio optimization; “the vampire squid,” as Goldman Sachs is sometimes called, has shown promising results in improving investment returns. By utilizing the processing power of quantum computing, this portfolio optimization effectively analyzes vast amounts of data and identifies investment opportunities that traditional algorithms might overlook, leading to more informed investment decisions.\r\n\r\nWith the capability to simultaneously perform multiple calculations, quantum algorithms can help financial institutions make more informed decisions while minimizing risk and maximizing returns.\r\n<h3>Insurance risk analysis & fraud detection</h3>\r\nOne area where quantum algorithms may be particularly useful in the insurance industry is in risk analysis. Insurance companies use risk analysis to determine the likelihood of a particular event occurring and the potential costs associated with that event.\r\n\r\nQuantum algorithms could greatly enhance this process by allowing for more complex calculations to be performed in a shorter amount of time. This, in turn, would allow insurance companies to better assess risk and set more accurate premiums.\r\n\r\nAnother area where quantum algorithms could be beneficial in the insurance industry is in fraud detection. Fraudulent claims cost insurance companies billions of dollars each year. Detecting and preventing fraud is a top priority for many insurers. Quantum algorithms could help insurers more effectively identify fraudulent claims by analyzing large amounts of data and detecting patterns that might be difficult to spot using traditional methods.\r\n<h3>Logistics</h3>\r\nThe logistics industry is constantly seeking ways to optimize its supply chain processes, and one of the latest innovations that has emerged is the use of quantum algorithms.\r\n\r\nGiven the intricacies involved in supply chain optimization, quantum algorithms have the potential to be highly effective in this domain. They can facilitate the analysis of large data sets, optimize shipping routes, reduce transportation costs, and increase overall operational efficiency.\r\n\r\nOne easy-to-understand example of the power of logistics is the daily route planning used by delivery company UPS. They rather famously train their drivers, and design their routes, to almost always avoid turning left.\r\n\r\nThis is not some kind of political statement, but rather the result of the long waits that drivers of all vehicles sometimes suffer in getting the opportunity to safely make a left turn. By avoiding them, UPS drivers save time and money. (And might even avoid a few bent fenders along the way.)\r\n<h3>Medical science</h3>\r\nOne of the most promising applications of quantum algorithms in medical science is in modeling the workings of the human body at the molecular level. Quantum computers can succeed here where classical computers fall short.\r\n\r\nOne real-world example of the use of quantum algorithms is the work being done by researchers at the University of Toronto. They have used quantum algorithms to simulate the behavior of a protein involved in the development of cancer. By doing so, they were able to identify a potential drug candidate that could inhibit the protein's activity, potentially leading to new cancer treatments.\r\n\r\nAnother area where quantum algorithms are showing promise is in medical imaging. MRI scans, for example, produce vast amounts of data that must be processed and analyzed to produce images of the body. Classical computers can struggle with this task, but quantum algorithms can handle it much more efficiently, which could lead to faster and more accurate diagnoses, as well as more effective treatments.\r\n\r\nFinally, quantum algorithms are used also to improve our understanding of biological systems. By simulating the behavior of complex biological systems, researchers can gain new insights into how they work and develop new treatments for diseases.\r\n<h3>Pharmaceuticals</h3>\r\nThe process of developing new drugs is incredibly time-consuming and expensive, with many potential candidates failing in clinical trials. However, quantum algorithms can simulate the behavior of molecules at a level of detail that's impossible for classical computers.\r\n\r\nThe effectiveness of quantum computers for this purpose means that researchers will be able to more accurately predict the effectiveness of different compounds, potentially leading to faster and more successful drug development.\r\n\r\nOne of the quantum algorithms being tried for drug discovery is the variational quantum eigensolver (VQE). This algorithm is used to determine the ground state energy of molecules, which is a critical factor in drug design.\r\n\r\nThe VQE algorithm uses a hybrid approach that combines classical and quantum computing to solve complex problems. It's particularly useful in drug discovery because it can accurately predict the molecular structure of compounds and their interactions with target proteins.\r\n\r\nAnother quantum algorithm that has gained traction in drug discovery is the QAOA algorithm we mentioned previously. It solves optimization problems, which are common in drug discovery. The QAOA algorithm uses a series of quantum gates to optimize the energy landscape of molecules, which helps researchers identify the most promising drug candidates.\r\n<h3 class=\"SBHead\">Addressing climate change</h3>\r\n<p class=\"SBBody\">Climate change is a looming crisis that requires innovative solutions. The use of quantum computing and quantum algorithms could be one such solution. These technologies can help us better understand climate patterns and predict future climate changes with greater accuracy.</p>\r\n<p class=\"SBBody\">By simulating complex systems and performing calculations at a much faster rate, quantum algorithms could help us identify ways to reduce carbon emissions, trap carbon from manufacturing processes or in ambient air, and develop more efficient renewable energy sources.</p>","description":"The entire advantage of quantum computing is that it will execute certain specific computer algorithms much, much faster than the classical computers we use today.\r\n\r\nThere's still a long way to go in making these very complex computers work, but even without diving into the details, we can describe the types of things that quantum computing will be very, very good at. And we can give a general idea as to which of these improvements might be available sooner rather than later.\r\n\r\n[caption id=\"attachment_300555\" align=\"alignnone\" width=\"372\"]<img class=\"size-full wp-image-300555\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/quantum-computing-processor-ibm.jpg\" alt=\"Photo showing an IBM quantum computing processor\" width=\"372\" height=\"600\" /> ©Lars Plougmann / Flickr<br />A quantum computing processor from IBM[/caption]\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" >Thinking in triplicate</h2>\r\nThere are three broad categories of <a href=\"//coursofppt.com/article/technology/computers/what-is-quantum-computing-300551/\">quantum computing</a> applications. It’s useful to examine each task you’re trying to accomplish from all three of these viewpoints. Applying quantum computing to real-world problems is a creative task, especially in these early days, and using multiple viewpoints can only be helpful.\r\n\r\nHere are the three approaches:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Simulation:</strong> In simulation, qubits — trapped bits of coherent matter — mimic other coherent matter, such as the individual atoms within a molecule that might become a medically useful drug. Simulation is arguably the most natural fit for quantum computing because quantum mechanics is what governs the laws of, well, nature.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Optimization:</strong> A group of qubits can be used as a kind of computational furnace that can be guided into yielding a very good — but not necessarily perfect — solution to a problem. The result might be the right answer, or it may instead be something close to that. (A very good solution to a route-planning or investing problem might save, or make, you a lot of money, even if it isn’t the best possible answer.)</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Calculation:</strong> This approach is, conceptually, the most like the classical computing problem-solving we’re all used to. In calculation, qubits are combined into logic gates, making up a universal computer. When used as logic gates, qubits can solve any imaginable problem, and a quantum universal computer can solve some important problems far faster than today’s computers — which also fit the “universal computer” description — but grind to a near-halt for some problems.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\nWe can view the three categories of quantum computing applications as different types of math problems. Simulation requires solving differential equations; optimization requires combinatorial, well, optimization; and calculation requires solving complex problems in linear algebra and involves a lot of matrix math.\r\n\r\nBoth the features used in machine learning and the operations against the Bloch sphere used for manipulating the qubits of gate-based quantum computers are stated as vectors, so the calculation approach is readily used for machine learning. (Although optimization can be used for machine learning as well.)\r\n\r\nAlgorithms can be grouped into these same three categories, which helps spotting areas where algorithms can be extended to accomplish additional goals. Importantly, the same quantum algorithm can underpin several different applications; for example, the algorithm that powers a financial portfolio optimization application might also underpin a separate application for route optimization.\r\n\r\nAlso, the categories of applications can overlap; for instance, if you use optimization to come up with better and better answers, you may at some point come up with the exact answer, just as if you used calculation. (For instance, using optimization to find the prime factors of a large prime number, just like Shor’s algorithm, which belongs in the calculation category.) But the categories are useful for understanding the current state of quantum computing and anticipating what progress we might expect in the near future.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab2\" >Big potential for quantum computing</h2>\r\nThere are several areas in which quantum computing could far exceed the abilities of classical computing. Following, are summaries of some of these.\r\n<h3>Cryptography</h3>\r\nQuantum cryptography is “the straw that stirs the drink” in quantum computing — a phrase first attributed to baseball great Reggie Jackson, who was working in an entirely different field (right field, to be precise).\r\n\r\nThe current, fervent interest in quantum computing began in 1994 with the publication of Shor’s algorithm, which is one of the few quantum algorithms that has been proven, at this early point, to have the potential for exponential speedup. However, Shor’s algorithm will be able to do useful work only when it’s run on quantum computers far more powerful than those available today.\r\n\r\nQuantum computing has the potential to break the most common encryption methods used to secure digital communication today, such as RSA and ECC, which protect emails, bank information, the web, and more. These encryption methods rely on the difficulty of factoring large integers and the difficulty of computing discrete logarithms, respectively.\r\n\r\nQuantum computers can perform these operations exponentially faster than classical computers, making them a threat to traditional encryption methods. Quantum algorithms have been proposed for key exchange, digital signatures, and encryption, which are the building blocks of secure communication.\r\n<h3>Search algorithms</h3>\r\nSearch algorithms have been an important area of research in computer science for decades. Real-world examples of the use of quantum algorithms for search include optimization problems in internet search, finance, logistics, and transportation.\r\n\r\nFor example, the use of quantum algorithms for portfolio optimization will help financial analysts find the optimal investment strategy for a given portfolio in a fraction of the time required by classical algorithms. (Using quantum algorithms to optimize your portfolio works especially well if you have a quantum computer and the other investors don’t.)\r\n\r\nWith the exponential growth of data, several algorithmic challenges need to be addressed. One of the biggest challenges is finding an optimal solution in a reasonable amount of time, which is where quantum algorithms come into play.\r\n\r\nOne of the earliest, best-known, and most promising quantum algorithms is Grover's algorithm, used for searching an unsorted database and for a wide range of other purposes as well.\r\n<p class=\"article-tips tip\">For more details on these and other possible applications for quantum computing, check out our book <a href=\"//coursofppt.com/book/technology/computers/quantum-computing-for-dummies-300413/\"><em>Quantum Computing For Dummies</em></a>.</p>\r\n\r\n<h3>Financial industry applications</h3>\r\nQuantum computing is starting to make waves in the financial industry, with many companies turning to this new technology in an effort to improve their operations and gain a competitive edge. Today, quantum algorithms and applications are being explored by a variety of financial companies for uses including portfolio optimization, risk management, and fraud detection.\r\n\r\nGoldman Sachs, a leading investment bank, and several other banks are working to develop quantum algorithms for portfolio optimization; “the vampire squid,” as Goldman Sachs is sometimes called, has shown promising results in improving investment returns. By utilizing the processing power of quantum computing, this portfolio optimization effectively analyzes vast amounts of data and identifies investment opportunities that traditional algorithms might overlook, leading to more informed investment decisions.\r\n\r\nWith the capability to simultaneously perform multiple calculations, quantum algorithms can help financial institutions make more informed decisions while minimizing risk and maximizing returns.\r\n<h3>Insurance risk analysis & fraud detection</h3>\r\nOne area where quantum algorithms may be particularly useful in the insurance industry is in risk analysis. Insurance companies use risk analysis to determine the likelihood of a particular event occurring and the potential costs associated with that event.\r\n\r\nQuantum algorithms could greatly enhance this process by allowing for more complex calculations to be performed in a shorter amount of time. This, in turn, would allow insurance companies to better assess risk and set more accurate premiums.\r\n\r\nAnother area where quantum algorithms could be beneficial in the insurance industry is in fraud detection. Fraudulent claims cost insurance companies billions of dollars each year. Detecting and preventing fraud is a top priority for many insurers. Quantum algorithms could help insurers more effectively identify fraudulent claims by analyzing large amounts of data and detecting patterns that might be difficult to spot using traditional methods.\r\n<h3>Logistics</h3>\r\nThe logistics industry is constantly seeking ways to optimize its supply chain processes, and one of the latest innovations that has emerged is the use of quantum algorithms.\r\n\r\nGiven the intricacies involved in supply chain optimization, quantum algorithms have the potential to be highly effective in this domain. They can facilitate the analysis of large data sets, optimize shipping routes, reduce transportation costs, and increase overall operational efficiency.\r\n\r\nOne easy-to-understand example of the power of logistics is the daily route planning used by delivery company UPS. They rather famously train their drivers, and design their routes, to almost always avoid turning left.\r\n\r\nThis is not some kind of political statement, but rather the result of the long waits that drivers of all vehicles sometimes suffer in getting the opportunity to safely make a left turn. By avoiding them, UPS drivers save time and money. (And might even avoid a few bent fenders along the way.)\r\n<h3>Medical science</h3>\r\nOne of the most promising applications of quantum algorithms in medical science is in modeling the workings of the human body at the molecular level. Quantum computers can succeed here where classical computers fall short.\r\n\r\nOne real-world example of the use of quantum algorithms is the work being done by researchers at the University of Toronto. They have used quantum algorithms to simulate the behavior of a protein involved in the development of cancer. By doing so, they were able to identify a potential drug candidate that could inhibit the protein's activity, potentially leading to new cancer treatments.\r\n\r\nAnother area where quantum algorithms are showing promise is in medical imaging. MRI scans, for example, produce vast amounts of data that must be processed and analyzed to produce images of the body. Classical computers can struggle with this task, but quantum algorithms can handle it much more efficiently, which could lead to faster and more accurate diagnoses, as well as more effective treatments.\r\n\r\nFinally, quantum algorithms are used also to improve our understanding of biological systems. By simulating the behavior of complex biological systems, researchers can gain new insights into how they work and develop new treatments for diseases.\r\n<h3>Pharmaceuticals</h3>\r\nThe process of developing new drugs is incredibly time-consuming and expensive, with many potential candidates failing in clinical trials. However, quantum algorithms can simulate the behavior of molecules at a level of detail that's impossible for classical computers.\r\n\r\nThe effectiveness of quantum computers for this purpose means that researchers will be able to more accurately predict the effectiveness of different compounds, potentially leading to faster and more successful drug development.\r\n\r\nOne of the quantum algorithms being tried for drug discovery is the variational quantum eigensolver (VQE). This algorithm is used to determine the ground state energy of molecules, which is a critical factor in drug design.\r\n\r\nThe VQE algorithm uses a hybrid approach that combines classical and quantum computing to solve complex problems. It's particularly useful in drug discovery because it can accurately predict the molecular structure of compounds and their interactions with target proteins.\r\n\r\nAnother quantum algorithm that has gained traction in drug discovery is the QAOA algorithm we mentioned previously. It solves optimization problems, which are common in drug discovery. The QAOA algorithm uses a series of quantum gates to optimize the energy landscape of molecules, which helps researchers identify the most promising drug candidates.\r\n<h3 class=\"SBHead\">Addressing climate change</h3>\r\n<p class=\"SBBody\">Climate change is a looming crisis that requires innovative solutions. The use of quantum computing and quantum algorithms could be one such solution. These technologies can help us better understand climate patterns and predict future climate changes with greater accuracy.</p>\r\n<p class=\"SBBody\">By simulating complex systems and performing calculations at a much faster rate, quantum algorithms could help us identify ways to reduce carbon emissions, trap carbon from manufacturing processes or in ambient air, and develop more efficient renewable energy sources.</p>","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":35324,"name":"William Hurley","slug":"william-hurley","description":"<strong>William Hurley</strong> is the founder and CEO of Strangeworks, a startup that makes the power of quantum computing easily accessible and available to all. He is also co-author of <em>Quantum Computing For Babies</em>.","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/35324"}},{"authorId":35325,"name":"Floyd Smith","slug":"floyd-smith","description":"<strong>Floyd Smith</strong> is a tech communicator and longtime For Dummies author, who has most notably written several editions of the bestselling <em>Creating Web Pages For Dummies</em>.","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/35325"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33513,"title":"Computers","slug":"computers","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33513"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[{"label":"Thinking in triplicate","target":"#tab1"},{"label":"Big potential for quantum computing","target":"#tab2"}],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[{"articleId":300563,"title":"What Are Superposition & Entanglement in Quantum Computing","slug":"what-are-superposition-entanglement-in-quantum-computing","categoryList":["technology","computers"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/300563"}},{"articleId":300551,"title":"An Introduction to Quantum Computing","slug":"what-is-quantum-computing","categoryList":["technology","computers"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/300551"}},{"articleId":300467,"title":"Quantum Computing For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"quantum-computing-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["technology","computers"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/300467"}}],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":300563,"title":"What Are Superposition & Entanglement in Quantum Computing","slug":"what-are-superposition-entanglement-in-quantum-computing","categoryList":["technology","computers"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/300563"}},{"articleId":300551,"title":"An Introduction to Quantum Computing","slug":"what-is-quantum-computing","categoryList":["technology","computers"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/300551"}},{"articleId":300467,"title":"Quantum Computing For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"quantum-computing-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["technology","computers"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/300467"}},{"articleId":201996,"title":"The Types of Broadband Modems","slug":"the-types-of-broadband-modems","categoryList":["technology","computers"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/201996"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":300413,"slug":"quantum-computing-for-dummies","isbn":"9781119933908","categoryList":["technology","computers"],"amazon":{"default":"//www.amazon.com/gp/product/1119933900/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","ca":"//www.amazon.ca/gp/product/1119933900/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","indigo_ca":"//www.tkqlhce.com/click-9208661-13710633?url=//www.chapters.indigo.ca/en-ca/books/product/1119933900-item.html&cjsku=978111945484","gb":"//www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/1119933900/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","de":"//www.amazon.de/gp/product/1119933900/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20"},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/quantum-computing-for-dummies-cover-9781119933908-203x255.jpg","width":203,"height":255},"title":"Quantum Computing For Dummies","testBankPinActivationLink":"","bookOutOfPrint":true,"authorsInfo":"<p><p><b>“<b data-author-id=\"35331\">whurley</b>”</b> is the founder and CEO of Strangeworks, a startup that makes the power of quantum computing easily accessible and available to all. He is also co-author of <i>Quantum Computing For Babies</i>. <p><b>Floyd Smith</b> is a tech communicator and longtime <i>For Dummies</i> author, who has most notably written several editions of the bestselling <i>Creating Web Pages For Dummies</i>. <p><b>“whurley”</b> is the founder and CEO of Strangeworks, a startup that makes the power of quantum computing easily accessible and available to all. He is also co-author of <i>Quantum Computing For Babies</i>. <p><b>Floyd Smith</b> is a tech communicator and longtime <i>For Dummies</i> author, who has most notably written several editions of the bestselling <i>Creating Web Pages For Dummies</i>.</p>","authors":[{"authorId":35331,"name":"whurley","slug":"whurley","description":" <p><b>“whurley”</b> is the founder and CEO of Strangeworks, a startup that makes the power of quantum computing easily accessible and available to all. He is also co-author of <i>Quantum Computing For Babies</i>. <p><b>Floyd Smith</b> is a tech communicator and longtime <i>For Dummies</i> author, who has most notably written several editions of the bestselling <i>Creating Web Pages For Dummies</i>. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/35331"}},{"authorId":35332,"name":"Floyd Earl Smith","slug":"floyd-earl-smith","description":" <p><b>“whurley”</b> is the founder and CEO of Strangeworks, a startup that makes the power of quantum computing easily accessible and available to all. He is also co-author of <i>Quantum Computing For Babies</i>. <p><b>Floyd Smith</b> is a tech communicator and longtime <i>For Dummies</i> author, who has most notably written several editions of the bestselling <i>Creating Web Pages For Dummies</i>. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/35332"}}],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/books/"}},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;technology&quot;,&quot;computers&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781119933908&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-650a363f8f2eb\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;technology&quot;,&quot;computers&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781119933908&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-650a363f8f906\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Articles","articleList":null,"content":null,"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Explore","lifeExpectancy":"Two years","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2024-09-11T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":300572},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2024-09-08T19:00:55+00:00","modifiedTime":"2024-09-18T13:25:46+00:00","timestamp":"2024-09-18T15:01:02+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Technology","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33512"},"slug":"technology","categoryId":33512},{"name":"Computers","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33513"},"slug":"computers","categoryId":33513}],"title":"What Are Superposition & Entanglement in Quantum Computing","strippedTitle":"what are superposition & entanglement in quantum computing","slug":"what-are-superposition-entanglement-in-quantum-computing","canonicalUrl":"","搜所模块推广":{"metaDescription":"Quantum computing is quite different from classical computing, and there are new fundamentals and terms to learn. Two of these are the concepts of superposition","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"Quantum computing is quite different from classical computing, and there are new fundamentals and terms to learn. Two of these are the concepts of <em>superposition</em> and <em>entanglement</em> — big ideas you need to grapple with as you're learning about this new kind of computing.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" >Superposition</h2>\r\nThe state of possibility that's available to qubits is called <em>superposition,</em> where <em>super</em> means <em>many</em> and <em>position</em> means <em>possibilities.</em> A traditional bit can be either 0 or 1. A qubit in a state of superposition does not have a defined value because it holds many potential values at the same time. But when we measure a qubit, we just get 0 or 1 back — whichever value the qubit’s energetic wave function collapsed to when it was measured.\r\n\r\nSuperposition is the first of two major pillars underpinning the power of quantum computing. The other, entanglement, is described in the next section.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab2\" >Welcoming foreign entanglements</h2>\r\nGeorge Washington once warned Americans to avoid foreign entanglements. But with qubits, we welcome entanglement as an additional, powerful tool in our quantum computing toolkit.\r\n\r\n<em>Entanglement</em> is a kind of connection between two or more quantum particles. For instance, quantum particles have a property called <em>spin,</em> which we can measure as either down or up (0 or 1). If two quantum particles are entangled and one of them is measured as having an up spin, we know without measuring that the other entangled particle will have a down spin. And if we influence the spin of the first quantum particle so that it changes to up when it is measured, we know without measuring that the other quantum particle will change to down.\r\n\r\nThe figure below illustrates the connection between two entangled qubits, which have opposing spins. Measuring the spin of one tells you that the spin of the other is the opposite; changing the spin of one qubit in one direction will change the spin of the other in the opposite direction.\r\n\r\n[caption id=\"attachment_300569\" align=\"alignnone\" width=\"630\"]<img class=\"size-full wp-image-300569\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/entangled-qubits-quantum-computing.jpg\" alt=\"Illustration of entangled qubits\" width=\"630\" height=\"331\" /> ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc.<br />Entangled qubits influence each other.[/caption]\r\n\r\nAs mentioned, entanglement is the second pillar supporting the power of quantum computing. With entangled qubits, influencing a single qubit can have a knock-on effect on many others.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab3\" >Entanglement and superposition work together</h2>\r\nWhen an entangled qubit is in a state of superposition, each of its entangled connections is also in a state of superposition. These cascading uncertainties exponentially increase the potential power of quantum computers.\r\n\r\nTo program and run calculations on a quantum computer, the potentiality of the entangled qubits must be maintained by keeping them coherent and free from noise. We then measure the qubits (which causes them to decohere) and record the results, a 0 or 1 for each qubit.\r\n<p class=\"article-tips tip\">For much more about superposition and entanglement, and all aspects of quantum computing, check out our book <a href=\"//coursofppt.com/book/technology/computers/quantum-computing-for-dummies-300413/\"><em>Quantum Computing For Dummies</em></a>.</p>\r\n\r\n<h2 id=\"tab4\" >Blowing past C</h2>\r\nAlbert Einstein wears two hats in the history of quantum mechanics — and the two hats don’t fit comfortably on a single head.\r\n\r\nOne hat comes from Einstein’s discovery of relativity, published in 1905. Relativity says that speed in this universe depends on your motion relative to other observers, but that the speed of light — about 186,000 miles per second, or 300,000 kilometers per second — is always the same for all observers. This universal speed limit is called <em>locality.</em>\r\n\r\nThe other hat comes from Einstein’s discovery of the photon, also in 1905. (This discovery, not relativity, is the source of Einstein’s sole Nobel Prize.) The discovery of the photon is fundamental to quantum mechanics.\r\n\r\nEinstein’s problem is that quantum mechanics later asserted that quantum particles, such as photons, can be entangled with each other, so that reading the spin (for example) of one photon tells you the spin of the other. And this relationship is instantly true, without regard to the speed of light. Physicists call this an assertion of nonlocality, which is supposed to be forbidden by relativity.\r\n\r\nEinstein hated this, calling it “spooky action at a distance.” He and his colleagues spent a great deal of effort trying to disprove it, even as Einstein continued to make breakthrough quantum discoveries, such as the identification of Bose-Einstein condensates, which are superconducting gases that can be used to create qubits.\r\n\r\nToday’s mainstream computers are subject to classical mechanics and limited by the speed of light. Quantum computers depend on quantum mechanics and, in their use of entanglement, are not limited by light speed.\r\n\r\nThe Nobel Prize for Physics in 2022 was awarded to physicists who showed that entanglement is real. So researchers in quantum computing who depend on entanglement can say, after Galileo: “And yet it computes.” (Galileo, on trial for asserting — correctly, as it turned out — that Earth is not at the center of the universe, is famously said to have whispered: “And yet it moves.”)\r\n<h2 id=\"tab5\" >Enabling quantum computing with coherence</h2>\r\nQubits can be used for quantum computing only when they’re kept in a state of <em>coherence,</em> free of interaction with their environment. To do quantum computing, qubits need to follow the rules of quantum mechanics, and these rules apply to only coherent qubits.\r\n\r\nQuantum particles zipping around the universe — photons emitted by the sun, for example — are in a state of coherence. What causes them to decohere? Any interaction with excessive interference (such as vibration or a strong magnetic field), a solid object, or a measuring device.\r\n\r\nKeeping qubits coherent is hard. Heat decoheres them, so qubits are kept cold. So do vibration (think of a truck going by on a road) and any collision with their environment. To prevent such collisions, qubits often use strong magnetic fields or targeted laser beams to prevent the quantum particles inside them from colliding with their physical containers.\r\n\r\nDecoherence is not the only disaster that can affect qubits. Temperature changes, vibration, or physical interaction may change the value of a qubit in an uncontrolled manner without causing it to decohere. This noise causes errors in the results of quantum computations. Minimizing noise and detecting errors are two of the biggest challenges facing quantum computers.\r\n\r\nTo manipulate each qubit — to program it, for instance, for quantum computing — the qubit must be controlled in such a way as to adjust its value without causing it to decohere. Magnetic fields and laser beams are among the means used to manipulate qubits without causing decoherence.\r\n\r\nWhen we measure the value of a qubit, two things happen:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>The qubit decoheres, becoming subject to the rules of classical mechanics.</li>\r\n \t<li>The qubit’s value collapses from somewhere between 0 and 1, inclusive, to either 0 or 1.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\nThe qubit must be reinitialized — returned to coherence — before it can be used again for computing.\r\n\r\nSome argue that the potential of quantum computers is very limited — that the level of coherence needed for quantum computers to achieve useful results is impossible, in theory and in fact.\r\n\r\nIn the extreme version of this argument, leaders in quantum computing are accused of deliberately committing fraud, which would mean that the entire field is a massive conspiracy. Only further work will show the limits to quantum computing, if any, but the fraud allegations are just a conspiracy theory.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab6\" >The math for the power of quantum computing</h2>\r\nIt’s challenging to fully grasp the potential power of quantum computing compared to classical computing because that power is based on quantum mechanical principles. But we can sum it up in just a bit of math.\r\n\r\nBecause the bits in classical computing can hold only one of two values — a 0 or a 1 — at the same time, the number of states that a classical computer can hold is represented by the number of bits, n, to the power of two: n<sup>2</sup>. But a set of entangled qubits can hold all the possible values of the qubits at the same time. For this reason, the number of states that a quantum computer can hold is represented by two to the power of qubits, n: 2<sup>n</sup>. For example, to represent a million possible states would require 1,000 bits but only 20 qubits.\r\n\r\nToday’s computers contain billions of bits, but we have to throw a lot of them at our most complex problems to get anywhere. Today’s quantum computers have a small number of qubits — a recent IBM quantum computer release clocked in with 433 — but we need only a few hundred qubits to begin tackling very complex problems.\r\n\r\nThe power of today’s quantum computers is limited by errors and short coherence times. But as these factors are addressed, the results are likely to be amazing.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab7\" >What will quantum computing do for people?</h2>\r\nIt’s easy to spend time geeking out on the strangeness and power of quantum computing. But what difference will quantum computing make to humanity?\r\n\r\nTo understand the answer, we first have to address a common misconception. People today tend to worry about how powerful today’s computers <em>are</em>: to worry about the power of the internet, social media, and machine learning and AI.\r\n\r\nBut there’s also a big problem around how powerful today’s computers <em>aren’t</em>: They simply aren’t up to big computational challenges in areas such as better batteries to fight climate change, better aerodynamics, better routing in complex transportation networks, and better discovery of new drugs, to name a few important examples.\r\n\r\nAnd these big computational challenges are exactly the areas where we expect quantum computing to make a big difference. Future quantum computers will be able to solve problems we can’t touch today, and to do so far faster, more cheaply, and with less energy expenditure than today’s computers.\r\n<p class=\"article-tips remember\">Quantum computers can only “do their thing” in partnership with computers of the kind we use today. So, when you see descriptions of what quantum computing can do, understand that these accomplishments will also require a whole lot of conventional computing power.</p>","description":"Quantum computing is quite different from classical computing, and there are new fundamentals and terms to learn. Two of these are the concepts of <em>superposition</em> and <em>entanglement</em> — big ideas you need to grapple with as you're learning about this new kind of computing.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" >Superposition</h2>\r\nThe state of possibility that's available to qubits is called <em>superposition,</em> where <em>super</em> means <em>many</em> and <em>position</em> means <em>possibilities.</em> A traditional bit can be either 0 or 1. A qubit in a state of superposition does not have a defined value because it holds many potential values at the same time. But when we measure a qubit, we just get 0 or 1 back — whichever value the qubit’s energetic wave function collapsed to when it was measured.\r\n\r\nSuperposition is the first of two major pillars underpinning the power of quantum computing. The other, entanglement, is described in the next section.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab2\" >Welcoming foreign entanglements</h2>\r\nGeorge Washington once warned Americans to avoid foreign entanglements. But with qubits, we welcome entanglement as an additional, powerful tool in our quantum computing toolkit.\r\n\r\n<em>Entanglement</em> is a kind of connection between two or more quantum particles. For instance, quantum particles have a property called <em>spin,</em> which we can measure as either down or up (0 or 1). If two quantum particles are entangled and one of them is measured as having an up spin, we know without measuring that the other entangled particle will have a down spin. And if we influence the spin of the first quantum particle so that it changes to up when it is measured, we know without measuring that the other quantum particle will change to down.\r\n\r\nThe figure below illustrates the connection between two entangled qubits, which have opposing spins. Measuring the spin of one tells you that the spin of the other is the opposite; changing the spin of one qubit in one direction will change the spin of the other in the opposite direction.\r\n\r\n[caption id=\"attachment_300569\" align=\"alignnone\" width=\"630\"]<img class=\"size-full wp-image-300569\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/entangled-qubits-quantum-computing.jpg\" alt=\"Illustration of entangled qubits\" width=\"630\" height=\"331\" /> ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc.<br />Entangled qubits influence each other.[/caption]\r\n\r\nAs mentioned, entanglement is the second pillar supporting the power of quantum computing. With entangled qubits, influencing a single qubit can have a knock-on effect on many others.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab3\" >Entanglement and superposition work together</h2>\r\nWhen an entangled qubit is in a state of superposition, each of its entangled connections is also in a state of superposition. These cascading uncertainties exponentially increase the potential power of quantum computers.\r\n\r\nTo program and run calculations on a quantum computer, the potentiality of the entangled qubits must be maintained by keeping them coherent and free from noise. We then measure the qubits (which causes them to decohere) and record the results, a 0 or 1 for each qubit.\r\n<p class=\"article-tips tip\">For much more about superposition and entanglement, and all aspects of quantum computing, check out our book <a href=\"//coursofppt.com/book/technology/computers/quantum-computing-for-dummies-300413/\"><em>Quantum Computing For Dummies</em></a>.</p>\r\n\r\n<h2 id=\"tab4\" >Blowing past C</h2>\r\nAlbert Einstein wears two hats in the history of quantum mechanics — and the two hats don’t fit comfortably on a single head.\r\n\r\nOne hat comes from Einstein’s discovery of relativity, published in 1905. Relativity says that speed in this universe depends on your motion relative to other observers, but that the speed of light — about 186,000 miles per second, or 300,000 kilometers per second — is always the same for all observers. This universal speed limit is called <em>locality.</em>\r\n\r\nThe other hat comes from Einstein’s discovery of the photon, also in 1905. (This discovery, not relativity, is the source of Einstein’s sole Nobel Prize.) The discovery of the photon is fundamental to quantum mechanics.\r\n\r\nEinstein’s problem is that quantum mechanics later asserted that quantum particles, such as photons, can be entangled with each other, so that reading the spin (for example) of one photon tells you the spin of the other. And this relationship is instantly true, without regard to the speed of light. Physicists call this an assertion of nonlocality, which is supposed to be forbidden by relativity.\r\n\r\nEinstein hated this, calling it “spooky action at a distance.” He and his colleagues spent a great deal of effort trying to disprove it, even as Einstein continued to make breakthrough quantum discoveries, such as the identification of Bose-Einstein condensates, which are superconducting gases that can be used to create qubits.\r\n\r\nToday’s mainstream computers are subject to classical mechanics and limited by the speed of light. Quantum computers depend on quantum mechanics and, in their use of entanglement, are not limited by light speed.\r\n\r\nThe Nobel Prize for Physics in 2022 was awarded to physicists who showed that entanglement is real. So researchers in quantum computing who depend on entanglement can say, after Galileo: “And yet it computes.” (Galileo, on trial for asserting — correctly, as it turned out — that Earth is not at the center of the universe, is famously said to have whispered: “And yet it moves.”)\r\n<h2 id=\"tab5\" >Enabling quantum computing with coherence</h2>\r\nQubits can be used for quantum computing only when they’re kept in a state of <em>coherence,</em> free of interaction with their environment. To do quantum computing, qubits need to follow the rules of quantum mechanics, and these rules apply to only coherent qubits.\r\n\r\nQuantum particles zipping around the universe — photons emitted by the sun, for example — are in a state of coherence. What causes them to decohere? Any interaction with excessive interference (such as vibration or a strong magnetic field), a solid object, or a measuring device.\r\n\r\nKeeping qubits coherent is hard. Heat decoheres them, so qubits are kept cold. So do vibration (think of a truck going by on a road) and any collision with their environment. To prevent such collisions, qubits often use strong magnetic fields or targeted laser beams to prevent the quantum particles inside them from colliding with their physical containers.\r\n\r\nDecoherence is not the only disaster that can affect qubits. Temperature changes, vibration, or physical interaction may change the value of a qubit in an uncontrolled manner without causing it to decohere. This noise causes errors in the results of quantum computations. Minimizing noise and detecting errors are two of the biggest challenges facing quantum computers.\r\n\r\nTo manipulate each qubit — to program it, for instance, for quantum computing — the qubit must be controlled in such a way as to adjust its value without causing it to decohere. Magnetic fields and laser beams are among the means used to manipulate qubits without causing decoherence.\r\n\r\nWhen we measure the value of a qubit, two things happen:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>The qubit decoheres, becoming subject to the rules of classical mechanics.</li>\r\n \t<li>The qubit’s value collapses from somewhere between 0 and 1, inclusive, to either 0 or 1.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\nThe qubit must be reinitialized — returned to coherence — before it can be used again for computing.\r\n\r\nSome argue that the potential of quantum computers is very limited — that the level of coherence needed for quantum computers to achieve useful results is impossible, in theory and in fact.\r\n\r\nIn the extreme version of this argument, leaders in quantum computing are accused of deliberately committing fraud, which would mean that the entire field is a massive conspiracy. Only further work will show the limits to quantum computing, if any, but the fraud allegations are just a conspiracy theory.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab6\" >The math for the power of quantum computing</h2>\r\nIt’s challenging to fully grasp the potential power of quantum computing compared to classical computing because that power is based on quantum mechanical principles. But we can sum it up in just a bit of math.\r\n\r\nBecause the bits in classical computing can hold only one of two values — a 0 or a 1 — at the same time, the number of states that a classical computer can hold is represented by the number of bits, n, to the power of two: n<sup>2</sup>. But a set of entangled qubits can hold all the possible values of the qubits at the same time. For this reason, the number of states that a quantum computer can hold is represented by two to the power of qubits, n: 2<sup>n</sup>. For example, to represent a million possible states would require 1,000 bits but only 20 qubits.\r\n\r\nToday’s computers contain billions of bits, but we have to throw a lot of them at our most complex problems to get anywhere. Today’s quantum computers have a small number of qubits — a recent IBM quantum computer release clocked in with 433 — but we need only a few hundred qubits to begin tackling very complex problems.\r\n\r\nThe power of today’s quantum computers is limited by errors and short coherence times. But as these factors are addressed, the results are likely to be amazing.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab7\" >What will quantum computing do for people?</h2>\r\nIt’s easy to spend time geeking out on the strangeness and power of quantum computing. But what difference will quantum computing make to humanity?\r\n\r\nTo understand the answer, we first have to address a common misconception. People today tend to worry about how powerful today’s computers <em>are</em>: to worry about the power of the internet, social media, and machine learning and AI.\r\n\r\nBut there’s also a big problem around how powerful today’s computers <em>aren’t</em>: They simply aren’t up to big computational challenges in areas such as better batteries to fight climate change, better aerodynamics, better routing in complex transportation networks, and better discovery of new drugs, to name a few important examples.\r\n\r\nAnd these big computational challenges are exactly the areas where we expect quantum computing to make a big difference. Future quantum computers will be able to solve problems we can’t touch today, and to do so far faster, more cheaply, and with less energy expenditure than today’s computers.\r\n<p class=\"article-tips remember\">Quantum computers can only “do their thing” in partnership with computers of the kind we use today. So, when you see descriptions of what quantum computing can do, understand that these accomplishments will also require a whole lot of conventional computing power.</p>","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":35324,"name":"William Hurley","slug":"william-hurley","description":"<strong>William Hurley</strong> is the founder and CEO of Strangeworks, a startup that makes the power of quantum computing easily accessible and available to all. He is also co-author of <em>Quantum Computing For Babies</em>.","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/35324"}},{"authorId":35325,"name":"Floyd Smith","slug":"floyd-smith","description":"<strong>Floyd Smith</strong> is a tech communicator and longtime For Dummies author, who has most notably written several editions of the bestselling <em>Creating Web Pages For Dummies</em>.","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/35325"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33513,"title":"Computers","slug":"computers","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33513"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[{"label":"Superposition","target":"#tab1"},{"label":"Welcoming foreign entanglements","target":"#tab2"},{"label":"Entanglement and superposition work together","target":"#tab3"},{"label":"Blowing past C","target":"#tab4"},{"label":"Enabling quantum computing with coherence","target":"#tab5"},{"label":"The math for the power of quantum computing","target":"#tab6"},{"label":"What will quantum computing do for people?","target":"#tab7"}],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[{"articleId":300572,"title":"What Will Quantum Computers Be Able to Do?","slug":"what-will-quantum-computers-be-able-to-do","categoryList":["technology","computers"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/300572"}},{"articleId":300551,"title":"An Introduction to Quantum Computing","slug":"what-is-quantum-computing","categoryList":["technology","computers"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/300551"}},{"articleId":300467,"title":"Quantum Computing For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"quantum-computing-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["technology","computers"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/300467"}}],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":300572,"title":"What Will Quantum Computers Be Able to Do?","slug":"what-will-quantum-computers-be-able-to-do","categoryList":["technology","computers"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/300572"}},{"articleId":300551,"title":"An Introduction to Quantum Computing","slug":"what-is-quantum-computing","categoryList":["technology","computers"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/300551"}},{"articleId":300467,"title":"Quantum Computing For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"quantum-computing-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["technology","computers"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/300467"}},{"articleId":201996,"title":"The Types of Broadband Modems","slug":"the-types-of-broadband-modems","categoryList":["technology","computers"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/201996"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":300413,"slug":"quantum-computing-for-dummies","isbn":"9781119933908","categoryList":["technology","computers"],"amazon":{"default":"//www.amazon.com/gp/product/1119933900/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","ca":"//www.amazon.ca/gp/product/1119933900/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","indigo_ca":"//www.tkqlhce.com/click-9208661-13710633?url=//www.chapters.indigo.ca/en-ca/books/product/1119933900-item.html&cjsku=978111945484","gb":"//www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/1119933900/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","de":"//www.amazon.de/gp/product/1119933900/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20"},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/quantum-computing-for-dummies-cover-9781119933908-203x255.jpg","width":203,"height":255},"title":"Quantum Computing For Dummies","testBankPinActivationLink":"","bookOutOfPrint":true,"authorsInfo":"<p><p><b>“<b data-author-id=\"35331\">whurley</b>”</b> is the founder and CEO of Strangeworks, a startup that makes the power of quantum computing easily accessible and available to all. He is also co-author of <i>Quantum Computing For Babies</i>. <p><b>Floyd Smith</b> is a tech communicator and longtime <i>For Dummies</i> author, who has most notably written several editions of the bestselling <i>Creating Web Pages For Dummies</i>. <p><b>“whurley”</b> is the founder and CEO of Strangeworks, a startup that makes the power of quantum computing easily accessible and available to all. He is also co-author of <i>Quantum Computing For Babies</i>. <p><b>Floyd Smith</b> is a tech communicator and longtime <i>For Dummies</i> author, who has most notably written several editions of the bestselling <i>Creating Web Pages For Dummies</i>.</p>","authors":[{"authorId":35331,"name":"whurley","slug":"whurley","description":" <p><b>“whurley”</b> is the founder and CEO of Strangeworks, a startup that makes the power of quantum computing easily accessible and available to all. He is also co-author of <i>Quantum Computing For Babies</i>. <p><b>Floyd Smith</b> is a tech communicator and longtime <i>For Dummies</i> author, who has most notably written several editions of the bestselling <i>Creating Web Pages For Dummies</i>. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/35331"}},{"authorId":35332,"name":"Floyd Earl Smith","slug":"floyd-earl-smith","description":" <p><b>“whurley”</b> is the founder and CEO of Strangeworks, a startup that makes the power of quantum computing easily accessible and available to all. He is also co-author of <i>Quantum Computing For Babies</i>. <p><b>Floyd Smith</b> is a tech communicator and longtime <i>For Dummies</i> author, who has most notably written several editions of the bestselling <i>Creating Web Pages For Dummies</i>. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/35332"}}],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/books/"}},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;technology&quot;,&quot;computers&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781119933908&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-6508662f1ff52\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;technology&quot;,&quot;computers&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781119933908&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-6508662f21113\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Articles","articleList":null,"content":null,"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Explore","lifeExpectancy":"Two years","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2024-09-08T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":300563},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2024-09-05T15:12:33+00:00","modifiedTime":"2024-09-05T15:12:33+00:00","timestamp":"2024-09-05T18:01:02+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Technology","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33512"},"slug":"technology","categoryId":33512},{"name":"Computers","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33513"},"slug":"computers","categoryId":33513}],"title":"Quantum Computing For Dummies Cheat Sheet","strippedTitle":"quantum computing for dummies cheat sheet","slug":"quantum-computing-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","canonicalUrl":"","搜所模块推广":{"metaDescription":"Keep this handy Cheat Sheet nearby for basic quantum computing terms, types of quantum computing, qubit types, and online classes to learn more.","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"Have you heard about quantum computing? Do you want to learn more? Is programming a quantum computer in your future? Read on to learn some key terms, to discover the different kinds of quantum computing approaches, to survey the wonderful world of qubits, and to learn how to get yourself some class. (One or more online classes, that is.)","description":"Have you heard about quantum computing? Do you want to learn more? Is programming a quantum computer in your future? Read on to learn some key terms, to discover the different kinds of quantum computing approaches, to survey the wonderful world of qubits, and to learn how to get yourself some class. (One or more online classes, that is.)","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":35324,"name":"William Hurley","slug":"william-hurley","description":"<strong>William Hurley</strong> is the founder and CEO of Strangeworks, a startup that makes the power of quantum computing easily accessible and available to all. He is also co-author of <em>Quantum Computing For Babies</em>.","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/35324"}},{"authorId":35325,"name":"Floyd Smith","slug":"floyd-smith","description":"<strong>Floyd Smith</strong> is a tech communicator and longtime For Dummies author, who has most notably written several editions of the bestselling <em>Creating Web Pages For Dummies</em>.","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/35325"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33513,"title":"Computers","slug":"computers","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33513"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":201996,"title":"The Types of Broadband Modems","slug":"the-types-of-broadband-modems","categoryList":["technology","computers"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/201996"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":300413,"slug":"quantum-computing-for-dummies","isbn":"9781119933908","categoryList":["technology","computers"],"amazon":{"default":"//www.amazon.com/gp/product/1119933900/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","ca":"//www.amazon.ca/gp/product/1119933900/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","indigo_ca":"//www.tkqlhce.com/click-9208661-13710633?url=//www.chapters.indigo.ca/en-ca/books/product/1119933900-item.html&cjsku=978111945484","gb":"//www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/1119933900/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","de":"//www.amazon.de/gp/product/1119933900/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20"},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/quantum-computing-for-dummies-cover-9781119933908-203x255.jpg","width":203,"height":255},"title":"Quantum Computing For Dummies","testBankPinActivationLink":"","bookOutOfPrint":true,"authorsInfo":"<p><strong><b data-author-id=\"35324\">William Hurley</b></strong> is the founder and CEO of Strangeworks, a startup that makes the power of quantum computing easily accessible and available to all. He is also co-author of <em>Quantum Computing For Babies</em>. <strong><b data-author-id=\"35325\">Floyd Smith</b></strong> is a tech communicator and longtime For Dummies author, who has most notably written several editions of the bestselling <em>Creating Web Pages For Dummies</em>.</p>","authors":[{"authorId":35324,"name":"William Hurley","slug":"william-hurley","description":"<strong>William Hurley</strong> is the founder and CEO of Strangeworks, a startup that makes the power of quantum computing easily accessible and available to all. He is also co-author of <em>Quantum Computing For Babies</em>.","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/35324"}},{"authorId":35325,"name":"Floyd Smith","slug":"floyd-smith","description":"<strong>Floyd Smith</strong> is a tech communicator and longtime For Dummies author, who has most notably written several editions of the bestselling <em>Creating Web Pages For Dummies</em>.","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/35325"}}],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/books/"}},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;technology&quot;,&quot;computers&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781119933908&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-64f76cdef0f80\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;technology&quot;,&quot;computers&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781119933908&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-64f76cdef1fe4\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Cheat Sheet","articleList":[{"articleId":0,"title":"","slug":null,"categoryList":[],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/"}}],"content":[{"title":"Quantum computing definitions","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Quantum computing is a newer form of computing that uses the principles of quantum mechanics to perform computing tasks. The following definitions will help you find your way around the strange but fascinating new world of quantum computing.</p>\n<ul>\n<li><strong>Quantum mechanics:</strong> A different kind of physics than classical mechanics, which is what people encounter in their daily lives and expect from typical computers, known as classical computers. Quantum mechanical principles typically apply to very small particles, such as atoms, electrons, and photons. It works also with certain materials under extremes of temperature and pressure, such as certain metals when they’re supercooled (chilled to temperatures very near absolute zero) and arranged to alternately block or allow a current.</li>\n<li><strong>Coherence:</strong> When matter that can operate under quantum mechanical principles is not directly observed, measured, or placed in contact with larger amounts of matter, it&#8217;s coherent: able to demonstrate quantum mechanical, rather than classical, properties such as superposition, entanglement, and tunneling.</li>\n<li><strong>Superposition:</strong> A coherent particle can be in a multitude of states at the same time, and not in a definite state until it is measured. For instance, an electron in a state of superposition can have a spin — a magnetic property — that is neither up (1) nor down (0) until the spin is measured, at which point it takes on a spin of either 1 or 0, with equal probability.</li>\n<li><strong>Entanglement:</strong> When two coherent particles are entangled, the state of one and the state of the other are linked, across all relevant measurements. For instance, if two electrons are entangled, measuring one of them and finding it at a state of 0 tells the experimenter that the other electron is at a state of 1, whether the other electron is very close or very far away.</li>\n<li><strong>Tunneling:</strong> A coherent particle can tunnel, which means that it can appear in one place at a given instant and then appear at another place, potentially fairly distant in the very next instant. The particle does not pass through the space between the two locations. A tunneling particle is not affected or impeded by barriers placed between its initial location and its next location.</li>\n<li><strong>Supercooling:</strong> Chilling certain materials, such as some metals or ceramics, very close to absolute zero can put them in what is called a supercooled state. In this state, the material has zero resistance to conducting a current and can demonstrate quantum mechanical properties, even though the material may be made up of millions or billions of atoms.</li>\n<li><strong>Bose-Einstein Condensate:</strong> A Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) is a gas under extreme pressure, or reduced to an extremely cold temperature, or both such that it demonstrates quantum mechanical behavior, even though the gas may be made up of millions or billions of atoms.</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"Kinds of Quantum Computing","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Quantum computing today comes in several different flavors, each of which may be part of your journey into this new world of technology:</p>\n<ul>\n<li><strong>Quantum simulator:</strong> A quantum simulator running on a classical computer — usually available through a cloud service online — can give you a running start into quantum computing at low or no cost.</li>\n<li><strong>Quantum-inspired computing:</strong> Powerful high-performance computers (HPCs) running software algorithms that borrow ideas and approaches from the world of quantum computing are delivering useful results today, as “real” quantum computers gradually grow in capability.</li>\n<li><strong>Quantum annealing:</strong> A quantum annealer is a less powerful type of quantum computer that is easier to build and run. It can handle a more limited range of problems than a gate-based quantum computer.</li>\n<li><strong>Gate-based quantum computer:</strong> A gate-based quantum computer uses logic gates, like a classical computer, but of a different kind that performs quantum mechanically savvy steps.</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"Qubit types","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p><em>Qubits</em> are tiny bits of matter that display quantum mechanical properties and have control mechanisms, such as laser beams, microwave radiation, or magnetic fields.</p>\n<p>The control mechanisms allow the qubit to be initialized (to an indeterminate quantum state), manipulated through programming steps (called logic gates in gate-based computing), and measured to produce a result, either 0 or 1 for each qubit.</p>\n<p>Qubits can be placed in a state of superposition, can be entangled with one another, and can exhibit tunneling.</p>\n<p>Following, are the types of qubits used in logic-gate quantum computers that have the most development, investment, and use today.</p>\n<ul>\n<li><strong>Superconducting qubits:</strong> A superconducting qubit has at its core tiny bits of metal (but still containing a large number of atoms). The bits of metal are supercooled (chilled to very close to absolute zero). Microwaves and lasers are used for control. Quantum computers with superconducting qubits have the highest qubit counts, up to the low hundreds of qubits as of this writing.</li>\n<li><strong>Trapped ion qubits:</strong> An atom that initially has a neutral electrical charge is ionized, that is, an electron is added or removed, giving the ion a positive charge (if an electron, which has a negative charge, is removed) or a negative charge (if an electron has been added). Having a charge makes the atom easy to trap using magnetic fields, with lasers also used for control. Quantum computers with trapped ion qubits have demonstrated high degrees of fidelity (accuracy in completing programming steps) and stability.</li>\n<li><strong>Cold and neutral atom qubits:</strong> Non-ionized atoms can also be used as qubits by using lasers as the control mechanism.</li>\n<li><strong>Photonic qubits:</strong> Photons — the energetic, massless particles that make up light — can be used as qubits by using lasers and other techniques as a control mechanism.</li>\n<li><strong>Silicon spin:</strong> Electrons are trapped in tiny vacancies in silicon called <em>quantum dots</em> and are controlled by lasers and magnetic fields.</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"Learn more in online classes","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Online classes teach quantum computing basics, quantum computer programming, and other valuable skills in quantum computing. Here are some leading options:</p>\n<p><a href=\"//ocw.mit.edu/courses/8-370x-quantum-information-science-i-spring-2018/\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\"><strong>MIT Quantum Information Sciences</strong></a><strong>:</strong> The online version of a class from the renowned Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).</p>\n<p><a href=\"//www.edx.org/course/quantum-cryptography\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\"><strong>Quantum Cryptography</strong></a><strong>:</strong> An affordable online class from the widely known California Institute of Technology (Caltech).</p>\n<p><a href=\"//www.edx.org/course/the-quantum-internet-and-quantum-computers-how-w-2\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\"><strong>The Quantum Internet and Quantum Computers: How Will They Change the World?</strong></a><strong>:</strong> An online course for beginners from Delft University in the Netherlands. Taught in English.</p>\n<p><a href=\"//www.futurelearn.com/courses/intro-to-quantum-computing\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\"><strong>Understanding Quantum Computers</strong></a><strong>:</strong> An online course covering fundamentals and mostly avoiding math.</p>\n<p><a href=\"//www.quantum-quest.org/\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\"><strong>Quantum Quest</strong></a><strong>:</strong> A course for high-school students that uses the Discord online platform for course communications.</p>\n<p><a href=\"//www.edx.org/course/quantum-machine-learning\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\"><strong>Quantum Machine Learning</strong></a><strong>: </strong>A hands-on programming course from the University of Toronto.</p>\n<p><a href=\"//online.spbu.ru/quantum-computing-less-formulas-more-understanding/\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\"><strong>Quantum Computing: Less Formulas — More Understanding</strong></a><strong>:</strong> A solid introductory course from St. Petersburg University in Russia, taught in multiple languages.</p>\n<p><a href=\"//q-ctrl.com/black-opal\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\"><strong>Black Opal</strong></a><strong>:</strong> A course from quantum computing company Q-Ctrl focusing on job training with a certification option.</p>\n"}],"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Advance","lifeExpectancy":"Five years","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2024-09-05T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":300467},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2017-11-16T20:20:58+00:00","modifiedTime":"2024-08-10T20:29:29+00:00","timestamp":"2024-08-10T21:01:03+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Technology","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33512"},"slug":"technology","categoryId":33512},{"name":"Computers","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33513"},"slug":"computers","categoryId":33513},{"name":"Operating Systems","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33524"},"slug":"operating-systems","categoryId":33524},{"name":"Microsoft Windows","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33532"},"slug":"windows","categoryId":33532},{"name":"Windows 10","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33535"},"slug":"windows-10","categoryId":33535}],"title":"How to Transfer Your Files to Windows 10","strippedTitle":"how to transfer your files to windows 10","slug":"transfer-files-windows-10","canonicalUrl":"","搜所模块推广":{"metaDescription":"You can transfer files yourself if you're moving from a Windows 7, 8, 8.1, or 10 PC. You can do this with a combination of a Microsoft account and the built‐in ","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"You can<a href=\"//coursofppt.com/article/technology/computers/operating-systems/windows/windows-10/how-to-copy-files-to-or-from-a-flash-drive-on-your-windows-10-computer-255007/\"> transfer files</a> yourself if you're moving from a Windows 7, 8, 8.1, or 10 PC. You can do this with a combination of a Microsoft account and the built‐in File History backup program in Windows. You tell the program to back up your old PC's files, and then you tell your new PC's program to restore the files.\r\n\r\nHowever, you need a portable hard drive for this to work. Portable hard drives are fairly inexpensive, usually costing less than $100. But there's a bonus: When you're through transferring the files, the drive works perfectly for backing up your <em>new</em> computer.\r\n\r\nTo transfer files from an old Windows 7, 8, 8.1, or 10 computer to a new Windows 10 computer, follow these steps:\r\n<ol>\r\n \t<li><strong><strong>If you're running Windows 7 on your old PC, upgrade it to Windows 10.</strong></strong>For many Windows 7 owners, this is probably a deal breaker. Unless, of course, you took advantage of the free Windows 10 upgrade offer that ended July 29, 2016. Now that the deadline has passed, Windows 7 owners might be better off by buying a file transfer program.If you're running Windows 8, 8.1, or 10 on your old PC, move ahead to Step 2.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>If you've already been using File History on your old PC, jump to Step 5. Otherwise move to Step 3.</strong></li>\r\n \t<li><strong><strong>Sign in with your Microsoft account on your old PC.</strong></strong>When you sign in with a Microsoft account, Microsoft remembers many of your settings and services so it can duplicate them on other PCs you sign into.<strong>\r\n</strong></li>\r\n \t<li><strong><strong>Plug the portable hard drive into your old PC and then set up File History to save your files onto the portable hard drive.</strong></strong>File History comes built into Windows 8, 8.1, and 10. It could take anywhere from a few minutes to a few hours to back up your files for the first time.While File History backs up your files, it shows the statement \"File History is saving copies of your files for the first time.\" (It also lists the word <em>Stop</em> in case you want to stop the backup.)\r\n\r\nWhen File History has finished backing up your files to the portable drive, those words change to say \"Files last copied,\" followed by the date and time it finished backing up your files, as shown. At that point, move to Step 5.\r\n\r\n[caption id=\"attachment_229131\" align=\"alignnone\" width=\"535\"]<a href=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/windows-10-backups.jpg\"><img class=\"wp-image-229131 size-full\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/windows-10-backups.jpg\" alt=\"windows-10-backups\" width=\"535\" height=\"295\" /></a> The File History window lists the backup's date and time.[/caption]\r\n\r\n </li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Sign into your new Windows 10 PC with the same Microsoft account you used on your old PC. Then plug the portable hard drive into your new computer.</strong>By signing in with your Microsoft account, your settings automatically transfer to your new PC. (The wallpaper on your new PC quickly changes to match your old PC, letting you know that something is happening.)</li>\r\n \t<li><strong><strong>Open File History and direct your new Windows 10 PC toward your old File History backup.</strong></strong> \r\n\r\nOn your new Windows 10 PC, click the Start button and type File History into the Search box and press Enter. The Control Panel's File History window appears, as shown.\r\n\r\n[caption id=\"attachment_229142\" align=\"alignnone\" width=\"535\"]<a href=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/windows-10-history.jpg\"><img class=\"wp-image-229142 size-full\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/windows-10-history.jpg\" alt=\"windows-10-history\" width=\"535\" height=\"338\" /></a> Choose the backup you'd like to restore.[/caption]\r\n\r\nClick the check box labeled I Want to Use a Previous Backup on this File History Drive. A window drops down, listing the backup you've made on your old PC. Click its name, and click the Turn On button.\r\n\r\nYour new PC begins backing up its files for the first time, but these incoming files won't damage your old PC's backup.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Choose Restore Personal Files from the File History window's left pane.</strong></li>\r\n \t<li><strong><strong>Choose the files and folders to restore and then click the green Restore button.</strong></strong> \r\n\r\nClick the Forward or Back arrows next to the big green button along the window's bottom until you find the date and time of the files you'd like to restore.For example, if you used File History on your old PC for the first time in Step 4, click the Back arrow (on the left) until you're at the Number 1 backup.\r\n\r\nIf you've been using File History on your old PC all along, click the Forward arrow (on the right) to move to your most recent backup.\r\n\r\nWhen you're viewing the files or folders you want to restore, click the green button found on the window's bottom edge, shown here. File History begins copying your old PC's files and folders onto your new PC.</li>\r\n</ol>\r\n[caption id=\"attachment_229139\" align=\"aligncenter\" width=\"535\"]<a href=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/windows-10-green-button.jpg\"><img class=\"wp-image-229139 size-full\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/windows-10-green-button.jpg\" alt=\"windows-10-green-button\" width=\"535\" height=\"368\" /></a> Click the green button to restore the files and folders.[/caption]\r\n\r\nIf there are no complications, your new PC should soon have the files and folders from your old PC.\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>If you'd already been using File History on your old PC, all of your old PC's backups should still be available to you on your new PC.</li>\r\n \t<li>Your new PC will continue to back up your new computer's files to your portable hard drive. Keep the hard drive plugged in permanently. (Or, if you bought a new laptop or tablet, plug it in frequently so your computer can keep your backups current.)</li>\r\n \t<li>If you've just borrowed a friend's portable hard drive, you can unplug it at this point and give it back. But you should really have your own portable hard drive so you can begin backing up your new Windows 10 PC.</li>\r\n \t<li>Your Microsoft account and File History can transport your settings and files to your new PC. However, you must still install all of your old desktop <em>programs</em> onto your new PC.</li>\r\n \t<li>If you're moving to Windows 10 from a Windows 8 or 8.1 PC, you can find your apps waiting for you in the Windows Store: Click your icon near the Store app's upper‐right corner and choose My Library from the drop‐down menu. There you can find and download your old apps to your new PC.</li>\r\n</ul>","description":"You can<a href=\"//coursofppt.com/article/technology/computers/operating-systems/windows/windows-10/how-to-copy-files-to-or-from-a-flash-drive-on-your-windows-10-computer-255007/\"> transfer files</a> yourself if you're moving from a Windows 7, 8, 8.1, or 10 PC. You can do this with a combination of a Microsoft account and the built‐in File History backup program in Windows. You tell the program to back up your old PC's files, and then you tell your new PC's program to restore the files.\r\n\r\nHowever, you need a portable hard drive for this to work. Portable hard drives are fairly inexpensive, usually costing less than $100. But there's a bonus: When you're through transferring the files, the drive works perfectly for backing up your <em>new</em> computer.\r\n\r\nTo transfer files from an old Windows 7, 8, 8.1, or 10 computer to a new Windows 10 computer, follow these steps:\r\n<ol>\r\n \t<li><strong><strong>If you're running Windows 7 on your old PC, upgrade it to Windows 10.</strong></strong>For many Windows 7 owners, this is probably a deal breaker. Unless, of course, you took advantage of the free Windows 10 upgrade offer that ended July 29, 2016. Now that the deadline has passed, Windows 7 owners might be better off by buying a file transfer program.If you're running Windows 8, 8.1, or 10 on your old PC, move ahead to Step 2.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>If you've already been using File History on your old PC, jump to Step 5. Otherwise move to Step 3.</strong></li>\r\n \t<li><strong><strong>Sign in with your Microsoft account on your old PC.</strong></strong>When you sign in with a Microsoft account, Microsoft remembers many of your settings and services so it can duplicate them on other PCs you sign into.<strong>\r\n</strong></li>\r\n \t<li><strong><strong>Plug the portable hard drive into your old PC and then set up File History to save your files onto the portable hard drive.</strong></strong>File History comes built into Windows 8, 8.1, and 10. It could take anywhere from a few minutes to a few hours to back up your files for the first time.While File History backs up your files, it shows the statement \"File History is saving copies of your files for the first time.\" (It also lists the word <em>Stop</em> in case you want to stop the backup.)\r\n\r\nWhen File History has finished backing up your files to the portable drive, those words change to say \"Files last copied,\" followed by the date and time it finished backing up your files, as shown. At that point, move to Step 5.\r\n\r\n[caption id=\"attachment_229131\" align=\"alignnone\" width=\"535\"]<a href=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/windows-10-backups.jpg\"><img class=\"wp-image-229131 size-full\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/windows-10-backups.jpg\" alt=\"windows-10-backups\" width=\"535\" height=\"295\" /></a> The File History window lists the backup's date and time.[/caption]\r\n\r\n </li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Sign into your new Windows 10 PC with the same Microsoft account you used on your old PC. Then plug the portable hard drive into your new computer.</strong>By signing in with your Microsoft account, your settings automatically transfer to your new PC. (The wallpaper on your new PC quickly changes to match your old PC, letting you know that something is happening.)</li>\r\n \t<li><strong><strong>Open File History and direct your new Windows 10 PC toward your old File History backup.</strong></strong> \r\n\r\nOn your new Windows 10 PC, click the Start button and type File History into the Search box and press Enter. The Control Panel's File History window appears, as shown.\r\n\r\n[caption id=\"attachment_229142\" align=\"alignnone\" width=\"535\"]<a href=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/windows-10-history.jpg\"><img class=\"wp-image-229142 size-full\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/windows-10-history.jpg\" alt=\"windows-10-history\" width=\"535\" height=\"338\" /></a> Choose the backup you'd like to restore.[/caption]\r\n\r\nClick the check box labeled I Want to Use a Previous Backup on this File History Drive. A window drops down, listing the backup you've made on your old PC. Click its name, and click the Turn On button.\r\n\r\nYour new PC begins backing up its files for the first time, but these incoming files won't damage your old PC's backup.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Choose Restore Personal Files from the File History window's left pane.</strong></li>\r\n \t<li><strong><strong>Choose the files and folders to restore and then click the green Restore button.</strong></strong> \r\n\r\nClick the Forward or Back arrows next to the big green button along the window's bottom until you find the date and time of the files you'd like to restore.For example, if you used File History on your old PC for the first time in Step 4, click the Back arrow (on the left) until you're at the Number 1 backup.\r\n\r\nIf you've been using File History on your old PC all along, click the Forward arrow (on the right) to move to your most recent backup.\r\n\r\nWhen you're viewing the files or folders you want to restore, click the green button found on the window's bottom edge, shown here. File History begins copying your old PC's files and folders onto your new PC.</li>\r\n</ol>\r\n[caption id=\"attachment_229139\" align=\"aligncenter\" width=\"535\"]<a href=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/windows-10-green-button.jpg\"><img class=\"wp-image-229139 size-full\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/windows-10-green-button.jpg\" alt=\"windows-10-green-button\" width=\"535\" height=\"368\" /></a> Click the green button to restore the files and folders.[/caption]\r\n\r\nIf there are no complications, your new PC should soon have the files and folders from your old PC.\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>If you'd already been using File History on your old PC, all of your old PC's backups should still be available to you on your new PC.</li>\r\n \t<li>Your new PC will continue to back up your new computer's files to your portable hard drive. Keep the hard drive plugged in permanently. (Or, if you bought a new laptop or tablet, plug it in frequently so your computer can keep your backups current.)</li>\r\n \t<li>If you've just borrowed a friend's portable hard drive, you can unplug it at this point and give it back. But you should really have your own portable hard drive so you can begin backing up your new Windows 10 PC.</li>\r\n \t<li>Your Microsoft account and File History can transport your settings and files to your new PC. However, you must still install all of your old desktop <em>programs</em> onto your new PC.</li>\r\n \t<li>If you're moving to Windows 10 from a Windows 8 or 8.1 PC, you can find your apps waiting for you in the Windows Store: Click your icon near the Store app's upper‐right corner and choose My Library from the drop‐down menu. There you can find and download your old apps to your new PC.</li>\r\n</ul>","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":9105,"name":"Andy Rathbone","slug":"andy-rathbone","description":" Andy Rathbone's computer books, which include Windows? 2000 Professional For Dummies? and Upgrading and Fixing PCs For Dummies?, have sold more than 11 million copies.","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9105"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33535,"title":"Windows 10","slug":"windows-10","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33535"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":285564,"title":"How to Use Android and iPhone Devices with Windows 10","slug":"how-to-use-android-and-iphone-devices-with-windows-10","categoryList":["technology","computers","operating-systems","windows","windows-10"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/285564"}},{"articleId":285540,"title":"How to Work Remotely with Windows 10","slug":"how-to-work-remotely-with-windows-10","categoryList":["technology","computers","operating-systems","windows","windows-10"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/285540"}},{"articleId":283486,"title":"Your Laptop and Windows","slug":"your-laptop-and-windows","categoryList":["technology","computers","operating-systems","windows","windows-10"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/283486"}},{"articleId":272866,"title":"How to Create Microsoft and Local Accounts in Windows 10","slug":"how-to-create-microsoft-and-local-accounts-in-windows-10","categoryList":["technology","computers","operating-systems","windows","windows-10"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/272866"}},{"articleId":272856,"title":"How to Open Windows 10 Apps","slug":"how-to-open-windows-10-apps","categoryList":["technology","computers","operating-systems","windows","windows-10"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/272856"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":0,"slug":null,"isbn":null,"categoryList":null,"amazon":null,"image":null,"title":null,"testBankPinActivationLink":null,"bookOutOfPrint":false,"authorsInfo":null,"authors":null,"_links":null},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;technology&quot;,&quot;computers&quot;,&quot;operating-systems&quot;,&quot;windows&quot;,&quot;windows-10&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[null]}]\" id=\"du-slot-64d5500f39ddc\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;technology&quot;,&quot;computers&quot;,&quot;operating-systems&quot;,&quot;windows&quot;,&quot;windows-10&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[null]}]\" id=\"du-slot-64d5500f3a2e3\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Articles","articleList":null,"content":null,"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Solve","lifeExpectancy":"One year","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2024-08-10T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":229195},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2019-02-02T05:01:14+00:00","modifiedTime":"2024-07-10T18:45:48+00:00","timestamp":"2024-07-10T21:01:03+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Technology","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33512"},"slug":"technology","categoryId":33512},{"name":"Computers","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33513"},"slug":"computers","categoryId":33513},{"name":"Macs","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33520"},"slug":"macs","categoryId":33520},{"name":"General Macs","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33523"},"slug":"general-macs","categoryId":33523}],"title":"How To Obtain Your Credit Reports and Fix Errors","strippedTitle":"how to obtain your credit reports and fix errors","slug":"personal-finance-20s-30s-obtain-credit-reports-fix-errors","canonicalUrl":"","搜所模块推广":{"metaDescription":"You want to get your hands on your credit report so you know what lenders are reviewing. You're entitled to receive a free copy of your credit report (which doe","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"You want to get your hands on your credit report so you know what lenders are reviewing. You're entitled to receive a free copy of your credit report (which does <em>not</em> contain your credit score) every 12 months from each of the three credit bureaus — Equifax, Experian, and TransUnion. If you visit <a href=\"//www.annualcreditreport.com/\">this website</a>, you can view and print copies of your credit report from each of the three credit agencies. (Alternatively, you can call 877-322-8228 and request that your reports be mailed to you.)\r\n\r\nWhen you receive your reports, inspect them for possible mistakes. Credit-reporting bureaus and the creditors who report credit information to these bureaus make plenty of errors.\r\n\r\nIf your problems are fixable, there's no need to hire someone to do so for you — you can direct getting them fixed yourself, but you will likely have to make some phone calls or write a letter or two. Some credit-report errors arise from other people's negative information getting on your credit report. This can happen if you have a common name, have moved a lot, or for other reasons. If the problematic information on your report appears not to be yours, tell that particular credit bureau and explain that you need more information because you don't recognize the creditor.\r\n\r\nCreditors are the source of some reporting mistakes as well. For example, perhaps a bill you paid off is still incorrectly being reported as a balance you owe. If that's the case with your report, write or call the creditor to get the incorrect information fixed. Phoning first usually works best. (The credit bureau should be able to tell you how to reach the creditor if you don't know how.) If necessary, follow up with a letter or an email. You can also dispute errors online directly with the credit reporting agency.\r\n<p class=\"article-tips tip\">Whether you speak with a credit bureau or an actual lender, make notes of your conversations. If representatives say that they can fix the problem, get their name and extension, and follow up with them if they don't deliver the promised results. If you're ensnared in bureaucratic red tape, escalate the situation by speaking with a department manager. By law, bureaus are required to respond to a request to fix a credit error within 30 days. And if you file a dispute and the creditor doesn't respond, the credit bureau must then remove the derogatory item.</p>\r\n<p class=\"article-tips tip\">You and a creditor may not see eye to eye on a problem, and the creditor may refuse to budge. If that's the case, credit bureaus are required by law to allow you to add a 100-word explanation to your credit file. Just remember that if you go this route, be factual in your write-up and steer clear of broad attacks on the creditor (such as \"their customer service sucks\").</p>\r\n<p class=\"article-tips warning\">Avoid \"credit-repair\" firms that claim to be able to fix your credit report problems. In the worst cases I've seen, these firms charge outrageous amounts of money and don't come close to fulfilling their marketing hype. If you have legitimate glitches on your credit report, credit-repair firms can't make the glitches disappear. You can easily fix errors on your own without the charge.</p>","description":"You want to get your hands on your credit report so you know what lenders are reviewing. You're entitled to receive a free copy of your credit report (which does <em>not</em> contain your credit score) every 12 months from each of the three credit bureaus — Equifax, Experian, and TransUnion. If you visit <a href=\"//www.annualcreditreport.com/\">this website</a>, you can view and print copies of your credit report from each of the three credit agencies. (Alternatively, you can call 877-322-8228 and request that your reports be mailed to you.)\r\n\r\nWhen you receive your reports, inspect them for possible mistakes. Credit-reporting bureaus and the creditors who report credit information to these bureaus make plenty of errors.\r\n\r\nIf your problems are fixable, there's no need to hire someone to do so for you — you can direct getting them fixed yourself, but you will likely have to make some phone calls or write a letter or two. Some credit-report errors arise from other people's negative information getting on your credit report. This can happen if you have a common name, have moved a lot, or for other reasons. If the problematic information on your report appears not to be yours, tell that particular credit bureau and explain that you need more information because you don't recognize the creditor.\r\n\r\nCreditors are the source of some reporting mistakes as well. For example, perhaps a bill you paid off is still incorrectly being reported as a balance you owe. If that's the case with your report, write or call the creditor to get the incorrect information fixed. Phoning first usually works best. (The credit bureau should be able to tell you how to reach the creditor if you don't know how.) If necessary, follow up with a letter or an email. You can also dispute errors online directly with the credit reporting agency.\r\n<p class=\"article-tips tip\">Whether you speak with a credit bureau or an actual lender, make notes of your conversations. If representatives say that they can fix the problem, get their name and extension, and follow up with them if they don't deliver the promised results. If you're ensnared in bureaucratic red tape, escalate the situation by speaking with a department manager. By law, bureaus are required to respond to a request to fix a credit error within 30 days. And if you file a dispute and the creditor doesn't respond, the credit bureau must then remove the derogatory item.</p>\r\n<p class=\"article-tips tip\">You and a creditor may not see eye to eye on a problem, and the creditor may refuse to budge. If that's the case, credit bureaus are required by law to allow you to add a 100-word explanation to your credit file. Just remember that if you go this route, be factual in your write-up and steer clear of broad attacks on the creditor (such as \"their customer service sucks\").</p>\r\n<p class=\"article-tips warning\">Avoid \"credit-repair\" firms that claim to be able to fix your credit report problems. In the worst cases I've seen, these firms charge outrageous amounts of money and don't come close to fulfilling their marketing hype. If you have legitimate glitches on your credit report, credit-repair firms can't make the glitches disappear. You can easily fix errors on your own without the charge.</p>","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":8975,"name":"Eric Tyson","slug":"eric-tyson","description":" <p><b>Eric Tyson, MBA,</b> has been a personal finance writer, lecturer, and counselor for the past 25+ years. He is the author or coauthor of numerous For Dummies bestsellers on personal finance, investing, and home buying.</p> <p><b>Bob Nelson, PhD,</b> is considered one of the world&#8217;s leading experts on employee engagement, recognition, and rewards. He is president of Nelson Motivation, Inc., a management training and consulting company that helps organizations improve their administration practices, programs, and systems. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/8975"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33523,"title":"General Macs","slug":"general-macs","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33523"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[{"articleId":249652,"title":"10 Things to Know About Apps in Your 20s and 30s","slug":"10-things-know-apps-20s-30s","categoryList":["technology","computers","macs","general-macs"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/249652"}},{"articleId":249649,"title":"Getting Your Career Going in Your 20s and 30s","slug":"getting-career-going-20s-30s","categoryList":["technology","computers","macs","general-macs"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/249649"}},{"articleId":249646,"title":"Seek Value for Your Education Dollars","slug":"seek-value-education-dollars","categoryList":["technology","computers","macs","general-macs"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/249646"}},{"articleId":249643,"title":"Exploring Entrepreneurial Options in Your 20s and 30s","slug":"exploring-entrepreneurial-options-20s-30s","categoryList":["technology","computers","macs","general-macs"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/249643"}},{"articleId":249640,"title":"Changing Jobs or Careers in Your 20s or 30s","slug":"changing-jobs-careers-20s-30s","categoryList":["technology","computers","macs","general-macs"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/249640"}}],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":267212,"title":"How to Establish an Apple Identity on a Mac","slug":"how-to-establish-an-apple-identity-on-a-mac","categoryList":["technology","computers","macs","general-macs"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/267212"}},{"articleId":267203,"title":"How to Store Your Data in iCloud","slug":"how-to-store-your-data-in-icloud","categoryList":["technology","computers","macs","general-macs"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/267203"}},{"articleId":267197,"title":"Safari Privacy: Safe Ways to Store Personal Info","slug":"safari-privacy-safe-ways-to-store-personal-info","categoryList":["technology","computers","macs","general-macs"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/267197"}},{"articleId":267194,"title":"How to Use Touch ID on Your Mac","slug":"how-to-use-touch-id-on-your-mac","categoryList":["technology","computers","macs","general-macs"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/267194"}},{"articleId":266528,"title":"How to Customize Your MacBook’s Catalina Firewall","slug":"how-to-customize-your-macbooks-catalina-firewall","categoryList":["technology","computers","macs","general-macs"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/266528"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":282459,"slug":"personal-finance-in-your-20s-30s-for-dummies","isbn":"9781119805434","categoryList":["business-careers-money","personal-finance","general-personal-finance"],"amazon":{"default":"//www.amazon.com/gp/product/1119805430/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","ca":"//www.amazon.ca/gp/product/1119805430/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","indigo_ca":"//www.tkqlhce.com/click-9208661-13710633?url=//www.chapters.indigo.ca/en-ca/books/product/1119805430-item.html&cjsku=978111945484","gb":"//www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/1119805430/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","de":"//www.amazon.de/gp/product/1119805430/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20"},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/personal-finance-in-your-20s-30s-for-dummies-3e-cover-9781119805434-203x255.jpg","width":203,"height":255},"title":"Personal Finance in Your 20s & 30s For Dummies","testBankPinActivationLink":"","bookOutOfPrint":true,"authorsInfo":"<p><p><b><b data-author-id=\"8975\">Eric Tyson</b>, MBA,</b> has been a personal finance writer, lecturer, and counselor for the past 25+ years. He is the author or coauthor of numerous For Dummies bestsellers on personal finance, investing, and home buying.</p> <p><b>Bob Nelson, PhD,</b> is considered one of the world&#8217;s leading experts on employee engagement, recognition, and rewards. He is president of Nelson Motivation, Inc., a management training and consulting company that helps organizations improve their administration practices, programs, and systems.</p>","authors":[{"authorId":8975,"name":"Eric Tyson","slug":"eric-tyson","description":" <p><b>Eric Tyson, MBA,</b> has been a personal finance writer, lecturer, and counselor for the past 25+ years. He is the author or coauthor of numerous For Dummies bestsellers on personal finance, investing, and home buying.</p> <p><b>Bob Nelson, PhD,</b> is considered one of the world&#8217;s leading experts on employee engagement, recognition, and rewards. He is president of Nelson Motivation, Inc., a management training and consulting company that helps organizations improve their administration practices, programs, and systems. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/8975"}}],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/books/"}},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;technology&quot;,&quot;computers&quot;,&quot;macs&quot;,&quot;general-macs&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781119805434&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-64ac718f4c7ca\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;technology&quot;,&quot;computers&quot;,&quot;macs&quot;,&quot;general-macs&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781119805434&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-64ac718f4cf10\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Articles","articleList":null,"content":null,"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Advance","lifeExpectancy":"Five years","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2024-07-10T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":249534},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2019-02-02T05:58:50+00:00","modifiedTime":"2024-07-10T17:07:04+00:00","timestamp":"2024-07-10T18:01:05+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Technology","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33512"},"slug":"technology","categoryId":33512},{"name":"Computers","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33513"},"slug":"computers","categoryId":33513},{"name":"Macs","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33520"},"slug":"macs","categoryId":33520},{"name":"General Macs","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33523"},"slug":"general-macs","categoryId":33523}],"title":"Budgeting and Saving Money in Your 20s and 30s","strippedTitle":"budgeting and saving money in your 20s and 30s","slug":"personal-finance-20s-30s-budgeting-boosting-savings","canonicalUrl":"","搜所模块推广":{"metaDescription":"When most people hear the word budgeting, they think unpleasant thoughts, like those associated with dieting, and rightfully so. Who wants to count calories or ","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"When most people hear the word <em>budgeting,</em> they think unpleasant thoughts, like those associated with dieting, and rightfully so. Who wants to count calories or dollars and pennies? But <em>budgeting</em> — planning your future spending — can help you move from knowing how much you spend on various things to reducing your spending.\r\n\r\nThe following process breaks down budgeting in simple steps:\r\n<ol>\r\n \t<li><strong>Analyze how and where you're currently spending.</strong></li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Calculate how much more you want to save each month.</strong></li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Determine where to make cuts in your spending.</strong></li>\r\n</ol>\r\nSuppose you're currently not saving any of your monthly income and you want to save 10 percent for retirement. If you can save and invest through a tax-sheltered retirement account — such as a 401(k), 403(b), SEP-IRA, and so forth — then you don't actually need to cut your spending by 10 percent to reach a savings goal of 10 percent of your gross income.\r\n\r\nWhen you contribute money to a tax-deductible retirement account, you generally reduce your federal and state income taxes. If you're a moderate-income earner paying approximately 30 percent in federal and state taxes on your <em>marginal income</em>, you actually need to reduce your spending by only 7 percent to save 10 percent. The other 3 percent of the savings comes from the lowering of your taxes. (The higher your tax bracket, the less you need to cut your spending to reach a particular savings goal.)\r\n\r\nSo to boost your savings rate to 10 percent, you simply need to go through your current spending, category by category, until you come up with enough proposed cuts to reduce your spending by 7 percent. Make your cuts in areas that are the least painful and in areas where you're getting the least value from your current level of spending.\r\n<p class=\"article-tips remember\">If you don't have access to a tax-deductible retirement account or you're saving for other goals in nonretirement accounts, budgeting still involves the same process of assessment and making cuts in various spending categories.</p>","description":"When most people hear the word <em>budgeting,</em> they think unpleasant thoughts, like those associated with dieting, and rightfully so. Who wants to count calories or dollars and pennies? But <em>budgeting</em> — planning your future spending — can help you move from knowing how much you spend on various things to reducing your spending.\r\n\r\nThe following process breaks down budgeting in simple steps:\r\n<ol>\r\n \t<li><strong>Analyze how and where you're currently spending.</strong></li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Calculate how much more you want to save each month.</strong></li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Determine where to make cuts in your spending.</strong></li>\r\n</ol>\r\nSuppose you're currently not saving any of your monthly income and you want to save 10 percent for retirement. If you can save and invest through a tax-sheltered retirement account — such as a 401(k), 403(b), SEP-IRA, and so forth — then you don't actually need to cut your spending by 10 percent to reach a savings goal of 10 percent of your gross income.\r\n\r\nWhen you contribute money to a tax-deductible retirement account, you generally reduce your federal and state income taxes. If you're a moderate-income earner paying approximately 30 percent in federal and state taxes on your <em>marginal income</em>, you actually need to reduce your spending by only 7 percent to save 10 percent. The other 3 percent of the savings comes from the lowering of your taxes. (The higher your tax bracket, the less you need to cut your spending to reach a particular savings goal.)\r\n\r\nSo to boost your savings rate to 10 percent, you simply need to go through your current spending, category by category, until you come up with enough proposed cuts to reduce your spending by 7 percent. Make your cuts in areas that are the least painful and in areas where you're getting the least value from your current level of spending.\r\n<p class=\"article-tips remember\">If you don't have access to a tax-deductible retirement account or you're saving for other goals in nonretirement accounts, budgeting still involves the same process of assessment and making cuts in various spending categories.</p>","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":8975,"name":"Eric Tyson","slug":"eric-tyson","description":" <p><b>Eric Tyson, MBA,</b> has been a personal finance writer, lecturer, and counselor for the past 25+ years. He is the author or coauthor of numerous For Dummies bestsellers on personal finance, investing, and home buying.</p> <p><b>Bob Nelson, PhD,</b> is considered one of the world&#8217;s leading experts on employee engagement, recognition, and rewards. He is president of Nelson Motivation, Inc., a management training and consulting company that helps organizations improve their administration practices, programs, and systems. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/8975"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33523,"title":"General Macs","slug":"general-macs","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33523"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[{"articleId":249652,"title":"10 Things to Know About Apps in Your 20s and 30s","slug":"10-things-know-apps-20s-30s","categoryList":["technology","computers","macs","general-macs"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/249652"}},{"articleId":249649,"title":"Getting Your Career Going in Your 20s and 30s","slug":"getting-career-going-20s-30s","categoryList":["technology","computers","macs","general-macs"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/249649"}},{"articleId":249646,"title":"Seek Value for Your Education Dollars","slug":"seek-value-education-dollars","categoryList":["technology","computers","macs","general-macs"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/249646"}},{"articleId":249643,"title":"Exploring Entrepreneurial Options in Your 20s and 30s","slug":"exploring-entrepreneurial-options-20s-30s","categoryList":["technology","computers","macs","general-macs"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/249643"}},{"articleId":249640,"title":"Changing Jobs or Careers in Your 20s or 30s","slug":"changing-jobs-careers-20s-30s","categoryList":["technology","computers","macs","general-macs"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/249640"}}],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":267212,"title":"How to Establish an Apple Identity on a Mac","slug":"how-to-establish-an-apple-identity-on-a-mac","categoryList":["technology","computers","macs","general-macs"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/267212"}},{"articleId":267203,"title":"How to Store Your Data in iCloud","slug":"how-to-store-your-data-in-icloud","categoryList":["technology","computers","macs","general-macs"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/267203"}},{"articleId":267197,"title":"Safari Privacy: Safe Ways to Store Personal Info","slug":"safari-privacy-safe-ways-to-store-personal-info","categoryList":["technology","computers","macs","general-macs"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/267197"}},{"articleId":267194,"title":"How to Use Touch ID on Your Mac","slug":"how-to-use-touch-id-on-your-mac","categoryList":["technology","computers","macs","general-macs"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/267194"}},{"articleId":266528,"title":"How to Customize Your MacBook’s Catalina Firewall","slug":"how-to-customize-your-macbooks-catalina-firewall","categoryList":["technology","computers","macs","general-macs"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/266528"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":282459,"slug":"personal-finance-in-your-20s-30s-for-dummies","isbn":"9781119805434","categoryList":["business-careers-money","personal-finance","general-personal-finance"],"amazon":{"default":"//www.amazon.com/gp/product/1119805430/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","ca":"//www.amazon.ca/gp/product/1119805430/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","indigo_ca":"//www.tkqlhce.com/click-9208661-13710633?url=//www.chapters.indigo.ca/en-ca/books/product/1119805430-item.html&cjsku=978111945484","gb":"//www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/1119805430/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","de":"//www.amazon.de/gp/product/1119805430/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20"},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/personal-finance-in-your-20s-30s-for-dummies-3e-cover-9781119805434-203x255.jpg","width":203,"height":255},"title":"Personal Finance in Your 20s & 30s For Dummies","testBankPinActivationLink":"","bookOutOfPrint":true,"authorsInfo":"<p><p><b><b data-author-id=\"8975\">Eric Tyson</b>, MBA,</b> has been a personal finance writer, lecturer, and counselor for the past 25+ years. He is the author or coauthor of numerous For Dummies bestsellers on personal finance, investing, and home buying.</p> <p><b>Bob Nelson, PhD,</b> is considered one of the world&#8217;s leading experts on employee engagement, recognition, and rewards. He is president of Nelson Motivation, Inc., a management training and consulting company that helps organizations improve their administration practices, programs, and systems.</p>","authors":[{"authorId":8975,"name":"Eric Tyson","slug":"eric-tyson","description":" <p><b>Eric Tyson, MBA,</b> has been a personal finance writer, lecturer, and counselor for the past 25+ years. He is the author or coauthor of numerous For Dummies bestsellers on personal finance, investing, and home buying.</p> <p><b>Bob Nelson, PhD,</b> is considered one of the world&#8217;s leading experts on employee engagement, recognition, and rewards. He is president of Nelson Motivation, Inc., a management training and consulting company that helps organizations improve their administration practices, programs, and systems. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/8975"}}],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/books/"}},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;technology&quot;,&quot;computers&quot;,&quot;macs&quot;,&quot;general-macs&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781119805434&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-64ac476151447\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;technology&quot;,&quot;computers&quot;,&quot;macs&quot;,&quot;general-macs&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781119805434&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-64ac476151ce3\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Articles","articleList":null,"content":null,"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Advance","lifeExpectancy":"Five years","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2024-07-10T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":249555},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2019-02-02T05:44:33+00:00","modifiedTime":"2024-07-05T18:08:00+00:00","timestamp":"2024-07-05T21:01:03+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Technology","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33512"},"slug":"technology","categoryId":33512},{"name":"Computers","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33513"},"slug":"computers","categoryId":33513},{"name":"Macs","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33520"},"slug":"macs","categoryId":33520},{"name":"General Macs","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33523"},"slug":"general-macs","categoryId":33523}],"title":"Developing a Savings Mindset in Your 20s & 30s","strippedTitle":"developing a savings mindset in your 20s & 30s","slug":"personal-finance-20s-30s-developing-savings-mind-set","canonicalUrl":"","搜所模块推广":{"metaDescription":"People typically learn their financial habits, both good and not so good, at a young age. During childhood, most people are exposed to messages and lessons abou","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"People typically learn their financial habits, both good and not so good, at a young age. During childhood, most people are exposed to messages and lessons about money, both at home with their parents and siblings and also in the world at large, such as at school and with their friends.\r\n\r\nThe expression \"You can't teach an old dog new tricks\" has some validity, at least for our four-legged friends, but even then, the expression actually requires some modification to be accurate. It should be, \"It's hard to teach an old dog new tricks, but how hard it is depends on the dog.\"\r\n\r\nThe same is true for people and their financial habits and decision making. For most people, spending money is easier and more enjoyable than earning and saving it. Of course, you can and should spend money, but there's a world of difference between spending money carelessly and spending money wisely.\r\n\r\nHere are some tips and tricks so you can get even better at saving more and spending less:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Live within your means.</strong> Spending too much is a relative problem. If you spend $40,000 per year and your income is $50,000 annually, you should be in good shape and will be able to save a decent chunk of your income. But if your income is only $35,000 per year and you spend $40,000 annually, you'll be accumulating debt or spending from your investments to finance your lifestyle.\r\n<p class=\"article-tips tip\">How much you can safely spend while working toward your financial goals depends on what your goals are and where you are financially. At a minimum, you should be saving at least 5 percent of your gross annual (pretax — that is, before taxes are deducted from your paycheck) income, and ideally, you should save at least 10 percent.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Search for the best values.</strong> The expression \"You get what you pay for\" is an excuse for being a lazy shopper. The truth is that you can find high quality and low cost in the same product. Conversely, paying a high price is no guarantee that you're getting high quality. When you evaluate the cost of a product or service, think in terms of total, long-term costs. Buying a cheaper product only to spend a lot of additional money servicing and repairing it is no bargain. Research options and comparison shop to understand what's important to you. Don't waste money on bells and whistles that you don't need and may not ever use. Is that $700 smartphone significantly better than the best $200 smartphones?</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Don't assume brand names are the best.</strong> Be suspicious of companies that spend gobs on image-oriented advertising. Branding is often used to charge premium prices. Blind taste tests have demonstrated that consumers can't readily discern quality differences between high- and low-cost brands with many products. Question the importance of the name and image of the products you buy. Companies spend a lot of money creating and cultivating an image, which has no impact on how their products taste or perform.\r\n<p class=\"article-tips tip\">When you're grocery shopping, consider the store or house brand. Most of the time the ingredients are the same as the brand-name product (and may even be made by that same company). You don't need to shell out money to pay for the name, as store/house brands are typically much less costly than the well-known brands in a given category.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Get your refunds.</strong> Have you ever bought a product or service and not gotten' what was promised? What did you do about it? Most people do nothing and let the company off the hook. Ask for your money back or at least a partial refund.\r\n<p class=\"article-tips tip\">If you don't get satisfaction from a frontline employee, request to speak with a supervisor. Most larger companies have websites through which you can submit complaints. Reputable companies that stand behind their products and services will offer partial refunds or gift cards good toward a future purchase. If all else fails and you bought the item with your credit or debit card, dispute the charge with the credit-card company. You generally have up to 60 days to dispute and get your money back.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Trim your spending fat.</strong> What you spend your money on is sometimes a matter of habit rather than a matter of what you really want or value. When was the last time you comparison priced and shopped for the most common things that you buy? You need to set priorities and make choices about where you want and don't want to spend your money.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Turn your back on consumer credit (for example, credit-card debt, auto loans).</strong> Borrowing money to buy consumer items that depreciate (such as cars and electronics) is hazardous to your long-term financial health. Buy only what you can afford today. If you'll be forced to carry a debt on credit cards or an auto loan for months or years on end, you can't really afford what you're buying on credit today. Not only does consumer debt enable you to spend more than you can afford today, but the interest rate on that consumer debt is generally high, and it isn't tax-deductible.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<p class=\"article-tips remember\">If you spend too much and spend unwisely, you put pressure on your income and your future need to continue working, perhaps at a job that you don't really enjoy. Savings dwindle, debts may accumulate, and you won't be able to achieve your personal and financial goals. Living within your means and continually growing your savings can give you more freedom, choices, and comfort with taking some risks (for example, changing careers, leaving your job to raise children, joining a start-up or starting your own company, and so on) that you may not otherwise feel as comfortable taking.</p>","description":"People typically learn their financial habits, both good and not so good, at a young age. During childhood, most people are exposed to messages and lessons about money, both at home with their parents and siblings and also in the world at large, such as at school and with their friends.\r\n\r\nThe expression \"You can't teach an old dog new tricks\" has some validity, at least for our four-legged friends, but even then, the expression actually requires some modification to be accurate. It should be, \"It's hard to teach an old dog new tricks, but how hard it is depends on the dog.\"\r\n\r\nThe same is true for people and their financial habits and decision making. For most people, spending money is easier and more enjoyable than earning and saving it. Of course, you can and should spend money, but there's a world of difference between spending money carelessly and spending money wisely.\r\n\r\nHere are some tips and tricks so you can get even better at saving more and spending less:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Live within your means.</strong> Spending too much is a relative problem. If you spend $40,000 per year and your income is $50,000 annually, you should be in good shape and will be able to save a decent chunk of your income. But if your income is only $35,000 per year and you spend $40,000 annually, you'll be accumulating debt or spending from your investments to finance your lifestyle.\r\n<p class=\"article-tips tip\">How much you can safely spend while working toward your financial goals depends on what your goals are and where you are financially. At a minimum, you should be saving at least 5 percent of your gross annual (pretax — that is, before taxes are deducted from your paycheck) income, and ideally, you should save at least 10 percent.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Search for the best values.</strong> The expression \"You get what you pay for\" is an excuse for being a lazy shopper. The truth is that you can find high quality and low cost in the same product. Conversely, paying a high price is no guarantee that you're getting high quality. When you evaluate the cost of a product or service, think in terms of total, long-term costs. Buying a cheaper product only to spend a lot of additional money servicing and repairing it is no bargain. Research options and comparison shop to understand what's important to you. Don't waste money on bells and whistles that you don't need and may not ever use. Is that $700 smartphone significantly better than the best $200 smartphones?</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Don't assume brand names are the best.</strong> Be suspicious of companies that spend gobs on image-oriented advertising. Branding is often used to charge premium prices. Blind taste tests have demonstrated that consumers can't readily discern quality differences between high- and low-cost brands with many products. Question the importance of the name and image of the products you buy. Companies spend a lot of money creating and cultivating an image, which has no impact on how their products taste or perform.\r\n<p class=\"article-tips tip\">When you're grocery shopping, consider the store or house brand. Most of the time the ingredients are the same as the brand-name product (and may even be made by that same company). You don't need to shell out money to pay for the name, as store/house brands are typically much less costly than the well-known brands in a given category.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Get your refunds.</strong> Have you ever bought a product or service and not gotten' what was promised? What did you do about it? Most people do nothing and let the company off the hook. Ask for your money back or at least a partial refund.\r\n<p class=\"article-tips tip\">If you don't get satisfaction from a frontline employee, request to speak with a supervisor. Most larger companies have websites through which you can submit complaints. Reputable companies that stand behind their products and services will offer partial refunds or gift cards good toward a future purchase. If all else fails and you bought the item with your credit or debit card, dispute the charge with the credit-card company. You generally have up to 60 days to dispute and get your money back.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Trim your spending fat.</strong> What you spend your money on is sometimes a matter of habit rather than a matter of what you really want or value. When was the last time you comparison priced and shopped for the most common things that you buy? You need to set priorities and make choices about where you want and don't want to spend your money.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Turn your back on consumer credit (for example, credit-card debt, auto loans).</strong> Borrowing money to buy consumer items that depreciate (such as cars and electronics) is hazardous to your long-term financial health. Buy only what you can afford today. If you'll be forced to carry a debt on credit cards or an auto loan for months or years on end, you can't really afford what you're buying on credit today. Not only does consumer debt enable you to spend more than you can afford today, but the interest rate on that consumer debt is generally high, and it isn't tax-deductible.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<p class=\"article-tips remember\">If you spend too much and spend unwisely, you put pressure on your income and your future need to continue working, perhaps at a job that you don't really enjoy. Savings dwindle, debts may accumulate, and you won't be able to achieve your personal and financial goals. Living within your means and continually growing your savings can give you more freedom, choices, and comfort with taking some risks (for example, changing careers, leaving your job to raise children, joining a start-up or starting your own company, and so on) that you may not otherwise feel as comfortable taking.</p>","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":8975,"name":"Eric Tyson","slug":"eric-tyson","description":" <p><b>Eric Tyson, MBA,</b> has been a personal finance writer, lecturer, and counselor for the past 25+ years. He is the author or coauthor of numerous For Dummies bestsellers on personal finance, investing, and home buying.</p> <p><b>Bob Nelson, PhD,</b> is considered one of the world&#8217;s leading experts on employee engagement, recognition, and rewards. He is president of Nelson Motivation, Inc., a management training and consulting company that helps organizations improve their administration practices, programs, and systems. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/8975"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33523,"title":"General Macs","slug":"general-macs","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33523"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[{"articleId":249652,"title":"10 Things to Know About Apps in Your 20s and 30s","slug":"10-things-know-apps-20s-30s","categoryList":["technology","computers","macs","general-macs"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/249652"}},{"articleId":249649,"title":"Getting Your Career Going in Your 20s and 30s","slug":"getting-career-going-20s-30s","categoryList":["technology","computers","macs","general-macs"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/249649"}},{"articleId":249646,"title":"Seek Value for Your Education Dollars","slug":"seek-value-education-dollars","categoryList":["technology","computers","macs","general-macs"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/249646"}},{"articleId":249643,"title":"Exploring Entrepreneurial Options in Your 20s and 30s","slug":"exploring-entrepreneurial-options-20s-30s","categoryList":["technology","computers","macs","general-macs"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/249643"}},{"articleId":249640,"title":"Changing Jobs or Careers in Your 20s or 30s","slug":"changing-jobs-careers-20s-30s","categoryList":["technology","computers","macs","general-macs"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/249640"}}],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":267212,"title":"How to Establish an Apple Identity on a Mac","slug":"how-to-establish-an-apple-identity-on-a-mac","categoryList":["technology","computers","macs","general-macs"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/267212"}},{"articleId":267203,"title":"How to Store Your Data in iCloud","slug":"how-to-store-your-data-in-icloud","categoryList":["technology","computers","macs","general-macs"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/267203"}},{"articleId":267197,"title":"Safari Privacy: Safe Ways to Store Personal Info","slug":"safari-privacy-safe-ways-to-store-personal-info","categoryList":["technology","computers","macs","general-macs"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/267197"}},{"articleId":267194,"title":"How to Use Touch ID on Your Mac","slug":"how-to-use-touch-id-on-your-mac","categoryList":["technology","computers","macs","general-macs"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/267194"}},{"articleId":266528,"title":"How to Customize Your MacBook’s Catalina Firewall","slug":"how-to-customize-your-macbooks-catalina-firewall","categoryList":["technology","computers","macs","general-macs"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/266528"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":282459,"slug":"personal-finance-in-your-20s-30s-for-dummies","isbn":"9781119805434","categoryList":["business-careers-money","personal-finance","general-personal-finance"],"amazon":{"default":"//www.amazon.com/gp/product/1119805430/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","ca":"//www.amazon.ca/gp/product/1119805430/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","indigo_ca":"//www.tkqlhce.com/click-9208661-13710633?url=//www.chapters.indigo.ca/en-ca/books/product/1119805430-item.html&cjsku=978111945484","gb":"//www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/1119805430/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","de":"//www.amazon.de/gp/product/1119805430/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20"},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/personal-finance-in-your-20s-30s-for-dummies-3e-cover-9781119805434-203x255.jpg","width":203,"height":255},"title":"Personal Finance in Your 20s & 30s For Dummies","testBankPinActivationLink":"","bookOutOfPrint":true,"authorsInfo":"<p><p><b><b data-author-id=\"8975\">Eric Tyson</b>, MBA,</b> has been a personal finance writer, lecturer, and counselor for the past 25+ years. He is the author or coauthor of numerous For Dummies bestsellers on personal finance, investing, and home buying.</p> <p><b>Bob Nelson, PhD,</b> is considered one of the world&#8217;s leading experts on employee engagement, recognition, and rewards. He is president of Nelson Motivation, Inc., a management training and consulting company that helps organizations improve their administration practices, programs, and systems.</p>","authors":[{"authorId":8975,"name":"Eric Tyson","slug":"eric-tyson","description":" <p><b>Eric Tyson, MBA,</b> has been a personal finance writer, lecturer, and counselor for the past 25+ years. He is the author or coauthor of numerous For Dummies bestsellers on personal finance, investing, and home buying.</p> <p><b>Bob Nelson, PhD,</b> is considered one of the world&#8217;s leading experts on employee engagement, recognition, and rewards. He is president of Nelson Motivation, Inc., a management training and consulting company that helps organizations improve their administration practices, programs, and systems. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/8975"}}],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/books/"}},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;technology&quot;,&quot;computers&quot;,&quot;macs&quot;,&quot;general-macs&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781119805434&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-64a5da0f2bf0b\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;technology&quot;,&quot;computers&quot;,&quot;macs&quot;,&quot;general-macs&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781119805434&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-64a5da0f2c7b8\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Articles","articleList":null,"content":null,"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Advance","lifeExpectancy":"Five years","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2024-07-05T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":249549},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2023-11-15T22:07:26+00:00","modifiedTime":"2024-05-08T17:49:00+00:00","timestamp":"2024-05-08T18:01:02+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Technology","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33512"},"slug":"technology","categoryId":33512},{"name":"Computers","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33513"},"slug":"computers","categoryId":33513},{"name":"Operating Systems","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33524"},"slug":"operating-systems","categoryId":33524},{"name":"MacOS","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33527"},"slug":"macos","categoryId":33527},{"name":"Ventura","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/35291"},"slug":"ventura","categoryId":35291}],"title":"macOS Ventura For Dummies Cheat Sheet","strippedTitle":"macos ventura for dummies cheat sheet","slug":"macos-ventura-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","canonicalUrl":"","搜所模块推广":{"metaDescription":"Whether you’ve purchased a new Mac with macOS Ventura pre-installed or you’ve upgraded from a previous version of macOS, you’ll find that Ventura makes your com","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"Whether you’ve purchased a new Mac with macOS Ventura pre-installed or you’ve upgraded from a previous version of macOS, you’ll find that Ventura makes your computer easier to use and offers myriad improvements to make you more productive.\r\n\r\nThis Cheat Sheet includes information on things you should never do to your Mac; a compendium of useful and timesaving keyboard shortcuts; recommendations for backing up data; and website recommendations for smart Ventura users.","description":"Whether you’ve purchased a new Mac with macOS Ventura pre-installed or you’ve upgraded from a previous version of macOS, you’ll find that Ventura makes your computer easier to use and offers myriad improvements to make you more productive.\r\n\r\nThis Cheat Sheet includes information on things you should never do to your Mac; a compendium of useful and timesaving keyboard shortcuts; recommendations for backing up data; and website recommendations for smart Ventura users.","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":35211,"name":"Guy Hart-Davis","slug":"guy-hart-davis","description":" <p><b>Guy Hart-Davis is author or coauthor of various technology books, including <i>iPhone For Dummies </i>and<i> Teach Yourself VISUALLY iPhone 14.</i></b> ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/35211"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":35291,"title":"Ventura","slug":"ventura","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/35291"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[],"fromCategory":[]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":295703,"slug":"macos-ventura-for-dummies","isbn":"9781119912873","categoryList":["technology","computers","operating-systems","macos","ventura"],"amazon":{"default":"//www.amazon.com/gp/product/1119912873/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","ca":"//www.amazon.ca/gp/product/1119912873/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","indigo_ca":"//www.tkqlhce.com/click-9208661-13710633?url=//www.chapters.indigo.ca/en-ca/books/product/1119912873-item.html&cjsku=978111945484","gb":"//www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/1119912873/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","de":"//www.amazon.de/gp/product/1119912873/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20"},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/macos-ventura-for-dummies-cover-9781119912873-203x255.jpg","width":203,"height":255},"title":"macOS Ventura For Dummies","testBankPinActivationLink":"","bookOutOfPrint":true,"authorsInfo":"<p><p><b><b data-author-id=\"35211\">Guy Hart-Davis</b> is author or coauthor of various technology books, including <i>iPhone For Dummies </i>and<i> Teach Yourself VISUALLY iPhone 14.</i></b></p>","authors":[{"authorId":35211,"name":"Guy Hart-Davis","slug":"guy-hart-davis","description":" <p><b>Guy Hart-Davis is author or coauthor of various technology books, including <i>iPhone For Dummies </i>and<i> Teach Yourself VISUALLY iPhone 14.</i></b> ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/35211"}}],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/books/"}},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;technology&quot;,&quot;computers&quot;,&quot;operating-systems&quot;,&quot;macos&quot;,&quot;ventura&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781119912873&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-645938deed0b0\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;technology&quot;,&quot;computers&quot;,&quot;operating-systems&quot;,&quot;macos&quot;,&quot;ventura&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781119912873&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-645938deed663\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Cheat Sheet","articleList":[{"articleId":0,"title":"","slug":null,"categoryList":[],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/"}}],"content":[{"title":"What not to do with your Mac running Ventura","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Treat your Mac and macOS Ventura with care. To keep your work and leisure projects safe, never do any of these things with your Mac:</p>\n<ul>\n<li><strong>Never shut off your Mac by pulling the plug. </strong>Always use the Shut Down command from the Apple menu (or press the power button and then click the Shut Down button).If you’re using a MacBook, you can usually get away with pulling the plug while it’s running because the battery automatically kicks in. The only caveat is that if your battery is totally depleted, damaged, or missing entirely, you could suffer directory damage or data loss by pulling the plug. Just use the Shut Down command, and you’ll sleep well.</li>\n<li><strong>Never bump, drop, shake, wobble, dribble, drop-kick, or play catch with a hard drive while it’s running macOS.</strong> Don’t forget: Your desktop Mac has a hard or solid-state drive inside it, too.</li>\n<li><strong>Never get up from your Mac without saving your work.</strong> Just before your butt leaves the chair, your fingers should press Command+S (the keyboard shortcut in macOS that saves your work). Make it a habit.</li>\n<li><strong>Never keep only one copy of your important documents. </strong>Make at least two backup copies and keep one of them in another physical location. Period.</li>\n<li><strong>Never clean your monitor with a glass cleaner, such as Windex (or another product not designed to be used on a video display). </strong>And nix the paper towels or tissues, too. Use a soft cloth (microfiber is best) to avoid scratching the display.</li>\n<li><strong>Never pay attention to anyone who says that Windows is just like the Mac. </strong>Yeah, right. And a Kia is just like a Porsche.</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"Handy keyboard shortcuts for macOS Ventura","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Make your work go faster by using these macOS keyboard shortcuts with your flying fingers. Print this chart and refer to it while you work or play.</p>\n<table>\n<tbody>\n<tr>\n<td><strong>Command</strong></td>\n<td><strong>Keyboard Shortcut</strong></td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Add Selected Item to Dock</td>\n<td>Command+Control+Shift+T</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Add Selected Item to Sidebar</td>\n<td>Command+Control+T</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Close All Windows</td>\n<td>Command+Option+W</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Close Window</td>\n<td>Command+W</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Copy</td>\n<td>Command+C</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Cut</td>\n<td>Command+X</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Duplicate</td>\n<td>Command+D</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Eject Disk</td>\n<td>Command+E</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Empty Trash</td>\n<td>Command+Shift+Delete</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Find</td>\n<td>Command+F</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Get Info (on selected item or items)</p>\n<p>Get Info Inspector (on selected item or items)</td>\n<td>Command+I</p>\n<p>Command+Option+I</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Go to Recents</td>\n<td>Command+Shift+F</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Go to Applications Folder</td>\n<td>Command+Shift+A</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Go to Desktop</td>\n<td>Command+Shift+D</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Go to Documents Folder</td>\n<td>Command+Shift+O</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Go to Home Folder</td>\n<td>Command+Shift+H</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Help</td>\n<td>Command+Shift+?</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Hide Current Application</td>\n<td>Command+H</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Hide Other Applications</td>\n<td>Command+Option+H</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Log Out Current User</td>\n<td>Command+Shift+Q</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Make Alias</td>\n<td>Command+L</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Minimize Window</td>\n<td>Command+M</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Mission Control: All Windows</td>\n<td>Control+Up Arrow (F3 on Apple keyboards)</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Mission Control: Application Windows</td>\n<td>Control+Down Arrow (Control+F3 on Apple keyboards)</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Mission Control: Show Desktop</td>\n<td>F11 (fn+F11 on laptops) (Command+F3 on Apple keyboards)</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Move to Trash</td>\n<td>Command+Delete</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>New Finder Window</td>\n<td>Command+N</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>New Folder</td>\n<td>Command+Shift+N</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>New Smart Folder</td>\n<td>Command+Option+N</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Next Window</td>\n<td>Command+` (backtick)</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Open</td>\n<td>Command+O</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Paste</td>\n<td>Command+V</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Quick Look (at selected item)</td>\n<td>Command+Y or Spacebar</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Redo</td>\n<td>Command+Shift+Z</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Select All</td>\n<td>Command+A</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Show Original (of selected alias)</td>\n<td>Command+R</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Show View Options</td>\n<td>Command+J</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Show/Hide Dock</td>\n<td>Command+Option+D</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Show/Hide Path Bar</td>\n<td>Command+Option +P</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Show/Hide Sidebar</td>\n<td>Command+Option +S</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Show/Hide Status Bar</td>\n<td>Command+/</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Show/Hide Tab Bar</td>\n<td>Command+Shift+T</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Show/Hide Toolbar</td>\n<td>Command+Option+T</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Turn VoiceOver On/Off</td>\n<td>Command+F5 (fn+F5 on laptops)</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Undo</td>\n<td>Command+Z</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>View Window as Columns</td>\n<td>Command+3</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>View Window as Gallery</td>\n<td>Command+4</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>View Window as Icons</td>\n<td>Command+1</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>View Window as List</td>\n<td>Command+2</td>\n</tr>\n</tbody>\n</table>\n"},{"title":"Tabbing around Ventura's Save As dialog","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>In the expanded view of macOS Ventura&#8217;s &#8220;Save As&#8221; dialog, if you press the Tab key while the Save As field is active, it becomes inactive and the Tags field becomes active. Press Tab again, and the Search field becomes active. Press Tab again and the sidebar becomes active. And if you press Tab again, the Save As field will, once again, be active.</p>\n<p>That’s because the Save As field, the Tags and Search fields, and the sidebar are mutually exclusive, and only one can be active at any time. You can always tell which item is active by the thin blue border around it.</p>\n<p>When you want to switch to a different folder to save a file, click the folder in the sidebar or click anywhere in the file list box to make the file list active. The following tricks help you get a hold on this whole active/inactive silliness:</p>\n<ul>\n<li><strong>If you type while the file list box is active, the list box selects the folder that most closely matches the letter(s) that you type.</strong> It’s a little strange because you won’t see what you type: You’ll be typing blind, so to speak.</li>\n<li><strong>When the file list is active, the letters that you type don’t appear in the Save As field. </strong>If you want to type a filename, you have to activate the Save As field again (by clicking in it or using the Tab key) before you can type in it.</li>\n<li><strong>If you type while the sidebar is active, nothing happens.</strong> But you can use the up- and down-arrow keys to move around in the sidebar.</li>\n<li><strong>Pressing Shift reverses the order of the sequence. </strong>If you press Shift+Tab, the active item moves from the Save As field to the Sidebar to the Search box and back to the Save As field again.</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"Backup made straightforward","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>When working in macOS Ventura, would you like to ensure that you won’t lose more than a little work no matter what happens — even if your office burns, floods, is destroyed by tornado, hurricane, or earthquake, or robbed? If so, follow these recommendations.</p>\n<p>Keeping a single backup is — frankly, my dear — not enough. Two backups might be okay. Three is much safer and gives you the option of keeping the third somewhere offsite, such as at a friend or relative&#8217;s house or in a safe-deposit box at your bank.</p>\n<p>To make those three backups, you need to create a set-and-forget system that runs automatically in the background without you needing to start them. Consider these options:</p>\n<h3>Time Machine</h3>\n<p>Use macOS&#8217;s excellent Time Machine feature as your first line of defense. Time Machine is so easy and so effective that there&#8217;s no excuse not to use it. But although Time Machine maintains multiple copies of files, they’re all stored on the same disk. If something’s worth backing up to one place, it’s worth backing up three times.</p>\n<p>You can add a second or third backup disk (or even more) to Time Machine if you like. Connect the disk and choose System Settings; then choose General; then choose Time Machine to display the Time Machine pane in System Settings.</p>\n<p>Click the Add (+) button, select the disk in the dialog that opens, and click Set Up Disk. Choose backup options — you&#8217;ll probably want to encrypt the backups — and then click Done. Time Machine then backs up to both the disks. But (you&#8217;ll have spotted the problem here) both your Time Machine backup disks are in the same place, so a single natural disaster (conflagration, inundation, fulmination&#8230;) or deliberate disaster (your choice) can take them both out.</p>\n<h3>Online backup services</h3>\n<p>You can use an online backup service, such as iDrive (<a href=\"//www.idrive.com/\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\">www.idrive.com</a>) or Backblaze (<a href=\"//www.backblaze.com/\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\">www.backblaze.com</a>) to back up your Mac to the cloud.</p>\n<p>These services start around the $5 to $10 per month level, so they&#8217;re good value. Most can back up your other computers and devices as well as your Mac.</p>\n<h3>Cloning apps</h3>\n<p>You can use a cloning app, such as <a href=\"//www.bombich.com/\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\">Carbon Copy Cloner</a> ($39.99) or <a href=\"//shirt-pocket.com/\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\">SuperDuper</a> ($27.99) to clone your Mac&#8217;s startup disk to another hard drive every day (for example, in the early hours of the morning). This gives you a bootable backup you can use for recovery if your Mac goes south.</p>\n<h3>iCloud</h3>\n<p>Another options is to store your current work in iCloud or a competitor, such as Dropbox or Microsoft&#8217;s OneDrive, so that you have an instantly accessible online backup, as well as being able to work on your documents no matter where you happen to be.</p>\n<p>One final thing: You must test the integrity of each backup to make sure it will work when you need it. Just restore a few files and make sure they&#8217;re usable. You&#8217;ll then be sure you can recover fully should disaster strike.</p>\n"},{"title":"10 favorite websites for macOS Ventura users","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>To learn about all things Macintosh and macOS Ventura, check out these sites, and stuff your brain with Mac information:</p>\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"//www.macobserver.com/\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\"><strong>The Mac Observer</strong></a> offers insightful opinion pieces in addition to the usual Apple news and product reviews. The quality and depth of the writing at <em>The Mac Observer </em>is superior to most other sites covering the Apple beat.</li>\n<li>The <a href=\"//support.apple.com/\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\"><strong>Apple support site</strong> </a>and <a href=\"//discussions.apple.com/\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\"><strong>Apple support communities</strong></a> are treasure troves of tech notes, software update information, troubleshooting tips, and documentation for most Apple products.</li>\n<li><a href=\"//www.download.com/\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\"><strong>Download.com</strong></a>, the site formerly known as VersionTracker, is the place to go to find freeware, shareware, and software updates for macOS. If this site doesn’t have it, it probably doesn’t exist.</li>\n<li><a href=\"//www.macworld.com/\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\"><strong>Macworld</strong></a> describes itself as, “Your best source for all things Apple,” and it’s not far from the truth. <em>Macworld</em> is especially strong for comparative reviews of Mac and iPhone/iPad products. If you want to find out which inkjet printer or digital camera is the best in its price class, Macworld.com probably has feature comparison charts and real-world test results.</li>\n<li><a href=\"//www.tidbits.com/\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\"><strong>TidBITS</strong></a> bills itself as “Thoughtful, detailed coverage of everything Apple for 30 years” but there’s much more to <em>TidBITS </em>than just news. You can also find thoughtful commentary, in-depth analysis, and detailed product reviews, written and edited by pros who really know the Apple ecosystem.</li>\n<li><a href=\"//www.sixcolors.com/\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\"><strong>Six Colors</strong></a> is Jason Snell’s magazine on the web. The former editor for <em>Macworld</em> magazine for over a decade, he and his team provide daily coverage of Apple, other technology companies, and the intersection of technology and culture. Six Colors has been around for a few years, and the writing continues to get stronger, more opinionated, and even more fun to read.</li>\n<li><a href=\"//thewirecutter.com/\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\"><strong>Wirecutter</strong> </a>is a great place to learn what experts consider the best peripherals, tech tools, and toys. Now a <em>New York Times</em> company, Wirecutter has the resources to objectively evaluate many products in a category and declare one of them the “best.”</li>\n<li><a href=\"//eshop.macsales.com/\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\"><strong>Other World Computing</strong></a> is a terrific favorite maker of accessories and peripherals for Macs. They have a wide array of storage upgrade kits and memory upgrades that are guaranteed for life, as well as great documentation and instructional videos.</li>\n<li><a href=\"//www.dealmac.com/\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\"><strong>DealMac</strong></a> is the place to shop for deals on Mac stuff. With a motto like “How to go broke saving money,” this site is often the first to find out about sale prices, rebates, and other bargain opportunities on upgrades, software, peripherals, and more.</li>\n<li><a href=\"//www.apple.com/shop/refurbished\"><strong>Apple’s refurbished and clearance store</strong></a> can save you up to 30 percent on like-new Apple products.</li>\n</ul>\n"}],"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Explore","lifeExpectancy":"Five 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