chơi xổ số keno trực tuyến

{"appState":{"pageLoadApiCallsStatus":true},"categoryState":{"relatedCategories":{"headers":{"timestamp":"2025-01-31T04:01:09+00:00"},"categoryId":33746,"data":{"title":"General Music","slug":"general-music","image":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Academics & The Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"Music","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33730"},"slug":"music","categoryId":33730},{"name":"General Music","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33746"},"slug":"general-music","categoryId":33746}],"parentCategory":{"categoryId":33730,"title":"Music","slug":"music","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33730"}},"childCategories":[],"description":"Whether you're playing to a crowd of thousands or listening solo in your armchair, we've got pro tips to help you make and appreciate beautiful music.","relatedArticles":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles?category=33746&offset=0&size=5"},"hasArticle":true,"hasBook":true,"articleCount":114,"bookCount":3},"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33746"}},"relatedCategoriesLoadedStatus":"success"},"listState":{"list":{"count":10,"total":115,"items":[{"headers":{"creationTime":"2017-03-26T22:49:37+00:00","modifiedTime":"2024-10-09T19:55:12+00:00","timestamp":"2024-10-09T21:01:03+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Academics & The Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"Music","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33730"},"slug":"music","categoryId":33730},{"name":"General Music","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33746"},"slug":"general-music","categoryId":33746}],"title":"Examining Rap's Origins","strippedTitle":"examining rap's origins","slug":"examining-raps-origins","canonicalUrl":"","检目录擎系统提升系统":{"metaDescription":"Learn about the beginnings of rap, or hip-hop, in the 1970s and how this music genre has evolved into what it is today.","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"The rap music of today is an outgrowth of the mid-1970s <em>hip-hop, </em>a brash mixture of rhythm and boastful talking. Out of nowhere, the Sugarhill Gang's \"Rapper's Delight,\" rhymed over CHIC's \"Good Times\" and cut in 1979, became a commercial hit on the R&B, pop, and U.K. charts.\r\n\r\nBy the early 1980s, hip-hop pioneers, such as Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five, Kurtis Blow (the first rapper signed to a major label, Mercury Records), the Funky Four Plus One, and Run-D.M.C., were changing the music scene. Run-D.M.C.'s 1986 album <em>Raising Hell, </em>which became the first rap album in the Billboard Top 10, along with their rock collaboration with white rock band Aerosmith on \"Walk This Way,\" paved the way for hip-hop's subsequent dominance.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" >Hip-hop matures</h2>\r\nGrandmaster Flash and the Furious Five had shown rap's political <em>potential</em> with 1982's \"The Message,\" which detailed the horrendous conditions of ghetto life, but Public Enemy completely embodied it. Signed to Def Jam Records, Public Enemy, marked by lead rapper Chuck D's preacher-like presentation, directly politicized rap in the late 1980s and beyond with hits like \"Fight the Power.\"\r\n\r\nHip-hop also came into its own artistically. The Bomb Squad, Public Enemy's producers, took hip-hop production to another level with multitextured layering and customized beats. Artists such as Rakim from Eric B & Rakim and KRS-One placed a greater emphasis on lyricism, as metaphors became a hip-hop staple. Others, such as X-Clan, the Jungle Brothers, and A Tribe Called Quest, comfortably flexed their Afrocentric views. During the late 1980s into the early 1990s, a variety of hip-hop styles flourished. Def Jam's first artist, LL Cool J, even emerged as a sex symbol.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab2\" >The West Coast opens rap up</h2>\r\nThe West Coast was the first area to expand hip-hop beyond the East Coast. Initially, Too Short, Ice T, and N.W.A. were the artists that shined the brightest. Too Short injected the pimp game into rap lyrics, and Ice T incorporated themes of pimping and hustling into his rhymes. N.W.A., however, had the biggest impact.\r\n\r\nThe brainchild of Eric \"Eazy-E\" Wright, N.W.A. core members included Dr. Dre, Ice Cube, MC Ren, and Eazy-E. Although \"Boyz-N-the-Hood\" was their first hit, the group headed in a bolder direction with their second album, <em>Straight Outta Compton,</em> released in 1988<em>. </em>Guns, women, liquor, and other aspects of urban life weren't new to hip-hop, but those things viewed from the perspective of a gangster were.\r\n\r\nIronically, N.W.A. uncovered both the hopelessness and resiliency borne out of oppressed conditions. \"F*** Tha Police,\" a response to police brutality, officially placed N.W.A. on the FBI's radar and labeled hip-hop, and gangsta rap in particular, America's real public enemy number one.\r\n\r\nAfter leaving N.W.A., Ice Cube successfully established a solo career as a lyricist from the West Coast with his 1990 debut, <em>AmeriKKKa's Most Wanted. </em>Meanwhile, Dr. Dre's 1992 multi-platinum solo debut, <em>The Chronic, </em>officially ended the East Coast's rap dominance. It also formalized a new sound, G-Funk, inspired by the music of funkateers Roger Troutman (and Zapp) and George Clinton, and established Snoop Doggy Dogg, whose 1993 debut <em>Doggystyle </em>entered the charts at number one, as a star. Heavily influenced by his family's Mississippi roots, Snoop's rap style arguably made the Southern drawl more acceptable to the rap masses.\r\n<p class=\"Warning\">Personal arguments and misunderstandings between the West and East Coast rap communities — most notably between label owners Suge Knight and Sean \"Puffy\" Combs and their rappers Tupac Shakur and the Notorious B.I.G. (also known as Biggie) — culminated in the violent, unsolved murders of Tupac in 1995 and Biggie in 1996.</p>\r\n<p class=\"Warning\">Stunned by the tragic loss of two hip-hop titans, the rap community took steps to mend the rift between the coasts. Violence, however, has remained an issue. In 2002, Run-D.M.C.'s Jam Master Jay became another victim of violence. Equally as frustrating to the rap community has been the police's inability to make arrests in any of these murders.</p>\r\n\r\n<h2 id=\"tab3\" >Women and the state of rap</h2>\r\nRap has continually battled allegations of sexism and misogyny. Miami-based 2 Live Crew fueled those objections with its signature Miami Bass music, featuring pulsating rhythms and sexually explicit lyrics such as those on the 1989 hit \"Me So Horny\" off the <em>Nasty As They Wanna Be </em>album. In addition, the mostly naked women featured on the group's album covers and in their videos generated more outrage.\r\n\r\nSome women, however, have grabbed the mic to represent for themselves. Rap's most visible female pioneers have been Salt-N-Pepa, MC Lyte, Queen Latifah, and Yo Yo. Guided by Atlanta-based hip-hop producer Jermaine Dupri, Chicago native Da Brat became the first female rapper to go platinum with 1994's <em>Funkdafied</em>.\r\n\r\nBeginning in the mid-1990s, Lauryn Hill made a big splash, first as a member of the Fugees and then as a solo artist, with her hip-hop infused <em>The Miseducation of Lauryn Hill,</em> her 1998 album that won five Grammys. Lil Kim, Foxy Brown, Missy Elliott, Eve, and Trina created a second wave of female rappers.\r\n\r\nMary J. Blige, known as the queen of hip-hop soul, mastered the fusion of hip-hop with R&B, especially with her 1992 debut <em>What's the 411? </em>to give the everyday young urban woman a voice within the hard-edged genre.","description":"The rap music of today is an outgrowth of the mid-1970s <em>hip-hop, </em>a brash mixture of rhythm and boastful talking. Out of nowhere, the Sugarhill Gang's \"Rapper's Delight,\" rhymed over CHIC's \"Good Times\" and cut in 1979, became a commercial hit on the R&B, pop, and U.K. charts.\r\n\r\nBy the early 1980s, hip-hop pioneers, such as Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five, Kurtis Blow (the first rapper signed to a major label, Mercury Records), the Funky Four Plus One, and Run-D.M.C., were changing the music scene. Run-D.M.C.'s 1986 album <em>Raising Hell, </em>which became the first rap album in the Billboard Top 10, along with their rock collaboration with white rock band Aerosmith on \"Walk This Way,\" paved the way for hip-hop's subsequent dominance.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" >Hip-hop matures</h2>\r\nGrandmaster Flash and the Furious Five had shown rap's political <em>potential</em> with 1982's \"The Message,\" which detailed the horrendous conditions of ghetto life, but Public Enemy completely embodied it. Signed to Def Jam Records, Public Enemy, marked by lead rapper Chuck D's preacher-like presentation, directly politicized rap in the late 1980s and beyond with hits like \"Fight the Power.\"\r\n\r\nHip-hop also came into its own artistically. The Bomb Squad, Public Enemy's producers, took hip-hop production to another level with multitextured layering and customized beats. Artists such as Rakim from Eric B & Rakim and KRS-One placed a greater emphasis on lyricism, as metaphors became a hip-hop staple. Others, such as X-Clan, the Jungle Brothers, and A Tribe Called Quest, comfortably flexed their Afrocentric views. During the late 1980s into the early 1990s, a variety of hip-hop styles flourished. Def Jam's first artist, LL Cool J, even emerged as a sex symbol.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab2\" >The West Coast opens rap up</h2>\r\nThe West Coast was the first area to expand hip-hop beyond the East Coast. Initially, Too Short, Ice T, and N.W.A. were the artists that shined the brightest. Too Short injected the pimp game into rap lyrics, and Ice T incorporated themes of pimping and hustling into his rhymes. N.W.A., however, had the biggest impact.\r\n\r\nThe brainchild of Eric \"Eazy-E\" Wright, N.W.A. core members included Dr. Dre, Ice Cube, MC Ren, and Eazy-E. Although \"Boyz-N-the-Hood\" was their first hit, the group headed in a bolder direction with their second album, <em>Straight Outta Compton,</em> released in 1988<em>. </em>Guns, women, liquor, and other aspects of urban life weren't new to hip-hop, but those things viewed from the perspective of a gangster were.\r\n\r\nIronically, N.W.A. uncovered both the hopelessness and resiliency borne out of oppressed conditions. \"F*** Tha Police,\" a response to police brutality, officially placed N.W.A. on the FBI's radar and labeled hip-hop, and gangsta rap in particular, America's real public enemy number one.\r\n\r\nAfter leaving N.W.A., Ice Cube successfully established a solo career as a lyricist from the West Coast with his 1990 debut, <em>AmeriKKKa's Most Wanted. </em>Meanwhile, Dr. Dre's 1992 multi-platinum solo debut, <em>The Chronic, </em>officially ended the East Coast's rap dominance. It also formalized a new sound, G-Funk, inspired by the music of funkateers Roger Troutman (and Zapp) and George Clinton, and established Snoop Doggy Dogg, whose 1993 debut <em>Doggystyle </em>entered the charts at number one, as a star. Heavily influenced by his family's Mississippi roots, Snoop's rap style arguably made the Southern drawl more acceptable to the rap masses.\r\n<p class=\"Warning\">Personal arguments and misunderstandings between the West and East Coast rap communities — most notably between label owners Suge Knight and Sean \"Puffy\" Combs and their rappers Tupac Shakur and the Notorious B.I.G. (also known as Biggie) — culminated in the violent, unsolved murders of Tupac in 1995 and Biggie in 1996.</p>\r\n<p class=\"Warning\">Stunned by the tragic loss of two hip-hop titans, the rap community took steps to mend the rift between the coasts. Violence, however, has remained an issue. In 2002, Run-D.M.C.'s Jam Master Jay became another victim of violence. Equally as frustrating to the rap community has been the police's inability to make arrests in any of these murders.</p>\r\n\r\n<h2 id=\"tab3\" >Women and the state of rap</h2>\r\nRap has continually battled allegations of sexism and misogyny. Miami-based 2 Live Crew fueled those objections with its signature Miami Bass music, featuring pulsating rhythms and sexually explicit lyrics such as those on the 1989 hit \"Me So Horny\" off the <em>Nasty As They Wanna Be </em>album. In addition, the mostly naked women featured on the group's album covers and in their videos generated more outrage.\r\n\r\nSome women, however, have grabbed the mic to represent for themselves. Rap's most visible female pioneers have been Salt-N-Pepa, MC Lyte, Queen Latifah, and Yo Yo. Guided by Atlanta-based hip-hop producer Jermaine Dupri, Chicago native Da Brat became the first female rapper to go platinum with 1994's <em>Funkdafied</em>.\r\n\r\nBeginning in the mid-1990s, Lauryn Hill made a big splash, first as a member of the Fugees and then as a solo artist, with her hip-hop infused <em>The Miseducation of Lauryn Hill,</em> her 1998 album that won five Grammys. Lil Kim, Foxy Brown, Missy Elliott, Eve, and Trina created a second wave of female rappers.\r\n\r\nMary J. Blige, known as the queen of hip-hop soul, mastered the fusion of hip-hop with R&B, especially with her 1992 debut <em>What's the 411? </em>to give the everyday young urban woman a voice within the hard-edged genre.","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":10229,"name":"Ronda Racha Penrice","slug":"ronda-racha-penrice","description":" <p><b>Ronda Racha Penrice</b> attended the M.A. program in Southern Studies at the University of Mississippi. A veteran freelance writer, the Columbia University alum has covered Black history and culture for publications including <i>Zora, Essence</i>, the <i>Atlanta Journal-Constitution, Ebony, theGrio, The Root</i>, and <i>NBC THINK</i>.</p> ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/10229"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33746,"title":"General Music","slug":"general-music","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33746"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[{"label":"Hip-hop matures","target":"#tab1"},{"label":"The West Coast opens rap up","target":"#tab2"},{"label":"Women and the state of rap","target":"#tab3"}],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":207498,"title":"Music Business For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"music-business-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","music","general-music"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/207498"}},{"articleId":207495,"title":"Classical Music For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"classical-music-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","music","general-music"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/207495"}},{"articleId":200516,"title":"Defining Jazz: The Swingin' Thing","slug":"defining-jazz-the-swingin-thing","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","music","general-music"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/200516"}},{"articleId":200475,"title":"Discovering Jazz History","slug":"discovering-jazz-history","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","music","general-music"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/200475"}},{"articleId":200372,"title":"Exploring the Delta Blues","slug":"exploring-the-delta-blues","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","music","general-music"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/200372"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":0,"slug":null,"isbn":null,"categoryList":null,"amazon":null,"image":null,"title":null,"testBankPinActivationLink":null,"bookOutOfPrint":false,"authorsInfo":null,"authors":null,"_links":null},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;music&quot;,&quot;general-music&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[null]}]\" id=\"du-slot-65246a0f2739c\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;music&quot;,&quot;general-music&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[null]}]\" id=\"du-slot-65246a0f27c91\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Articles","articleList":null,"content":null,"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Explore","lifeExpectancy":"Five years","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2024-10-09T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":200403},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2017-03-26T22:50:08+00:00","modifiedTime":"2024-10-09T18:22:41+00:00","timestamp":"2024-10-09T21:01:02+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Academics & The Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"Music","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33730"},"slug":"music","categoryId":33730},{"name":"General Music","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33746"},"slug":"general-music","categoryId":33746}],"title":"Discovering Jazz History","strippedTitle":"discovering jazz history","slug":"discovering-jazz-history","canonicalUrl":"","检目录擎系统提升系统":{"metaDescription":"Learn about the origins of jazz and how its creators and innovators — African slaves — incorporated classical music and the blues.","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"Although jazz is performed by musicians of many backgrounds, and mixes elements of many kinds of music, it's essentially African-American music. Interwoven with jazz's history is the history of the Black experience in America. However, European music and blues also influenced jazz.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" >Adapting West African traditions</h2>\r\nEssential elements of jazz arrived in America in 1619 with the first Africans brought as slaves by Dutch sailors who landed in Jamestown, Virginia. Various African musical elements that eventually surfaced in jazz came from areas where slaves were taken along the West African coast, known as the Ivory Coast or Gold Coast, stretching from Dakar in the north to Congo in the south, and including Senegal, Ghana, Guinea, Dahomey (now part of Benin), and the Niger delta.\r\n\r\nMany of the Africans sold into slavery weren't commoners but, instead, were kings and priests who led tribal rituals and musical performances. Among the tribes raided for slaves were the Yoruba, Ibo, Fanti, Ashanti, Susu, and Ewe; many of these musicians eventually became leading performers in both Black and European cultures in the New World.\r\n\r\nVarious traders preferred slaves from particular regions and tribes, and the traditions of those slaves influenced the music in the traders' home regions. For example, the French acquired Dahomeans. Thus, Dahomeans who worshipped vodun (spirit) and the snake god, Damballa, brought rituals to New Orleans that became known as <i>voodoo</i> — elements of which appeared in early blues and jazz. Various bluesmen referenced \"mojo hands\" and black cats, and jazz pioneer Jelly Roll Morton blamed a voodoo curse for ill health and a declining career.\r\n\r\nIn Africa, music was a vital part of daily life and members of a community all participated. African musicians played a variety of string, percussion, and wind instruments, but after these musicians landed in America, they adapted to a new array of drums, fiddles, trumpets, French horns, and other instruments.\r\n\r\nMusicians found themselves relocated within a musical culture partially based on formal notation instead of the unwritten and improvised traditions of Africa, where <i>griots</i> — resident tribal poet-historians — sang and told tales that preserved tribal history, arts, philosophy, and mythology.\r\n\r\n<!-- break -->\r\n\r\nMuch of the adaptation to the new musical setting occurred in white churches, where slaves were taught to read music from hymnals and song books and where they often performed alongside white people at services. The harsh change was difficult for African musicians who found their music restrained or redirected along Euro-American lines, yet the blending of African rhythms, melodies, harmonies, and improvisation, with more formal Euro-American music, was at the heart of the invention of jazz.\r\n\r\nEven in the early stages, the impact of African musicians on American music began to emerge. Here are key elements:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><b>Call and response:</b> like when a preacher or dance leader shouts a statement, and his audience shouts back; when instrumentalists have a \"conversation\" consisting of traded musical \"statements\"</li>\r\n \t<li><b>Improvisation:</b> embellishment around a song's primary melody</li>\r\n \t<li><b>Pentatonic scales:</b> five-tone scales later used as primary scales in blues</li>\r\n \t<li><b>Polyrhythms:</b> the overlapping of different rhythmic patterns</li>\r\n \t<li><b>Swing or forward momentum:</b> a sense of urgency created by relentless rhythmic drive</li>\r\n \t<li><b>Syncopation:</b> rhythmic accents around the underlying beat</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<h2 id=\"tab2\" >Borrowing from European classics</h2>\r\nEuropean musical traditions also make up a vital part of jazz. Elements like swing and improvisation found their way into jazz from Africa, but jazz's major instruments, including the piano, saxophone (invented in Belgium about 1840 by Adolphe Sax), and assorted horns came to jazz by way of Europe.\r\n\r\nLargely because of the availability, popularity, and portability of violins, slaves received training in classical music and performed a range of music that also included dance and folk. In the 1700s, slaves sometimes accompanied their owners to colleges, such as William & Mary, for musical education. This classical training eventually turned up in jazz. Violin found its way into jazz in the 1920s, playing the same sorts of melodies and solos as saxophonists and trumpeters.\r\n\r\nBlacks who worshipped at some churches in East Coast cities often received training in European music including classical. During the 18th and 19th centuries, some congregations (and choirs) were interracial.\r\n<p class=\"Remember\">Contrary to the common belief that jazz was created primarily by uneducated blacks with roots in blues, folk, and field chants, African Americans had the ability to read music and to play classical and other styles of music well before the inception of jazz. Jazz pioneers, such as Scott Joplin, Jelly Roll Morton, and James P. Johnson, brought sophisticated musical knowledge to their music.</p>\r\nWhile jazz musicians brought classical elements into jazz, classical composers borrowed from African-American music. This transferring of styles proves that even before the invention of jazz and before African-American music was valued by American universities, concert halls, and arts patrons, the quality and originality of black music had already captivated the leading artists of classical music.\r\n\r\n<!-- break -->\r\n\r\nIn turn, classical composers, such as Bartok and Debussy, inspired jazz bassist and composer Charles Mingus. These classical composers utilized folk music in their creations. Mingus, in the 1950s and 1960s, composed ambitious suites, like \"The Black Saint and the Sinner Lady\" (1963), which, like pieces by Bartok and Debussy, combined a variety of influences (blues, jazz, folk, classical) into an elaborate piece that explored various themes using an 11-piece ensemble.\r\n\r\nFrom Joplin and Johnson to Duke Ellington and Billy Strayhorn, Gil Evans, and, today, Maria Schneider, some jazz composers have brought a knowledge of classical arranging, composing, and musical theory to their masterful jazz compositions.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab3\" >Adding some blues</h2>\r\nJazz partially builds on the blues, and some jazz directly grows on a blues foundation, utilizing the structure of the traditional blues known as 12-bar blues.\r\n\r\nThe tradition of call and response, and more simply, improvisation, is a big part of jazz. In good blues, jazz, and gospel, players listen intently to each other's playing, and have an almost intuitive connection — an uncanny sixth sense felt between musicians. Here are some examples:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>In the gospel church, the preacher sings out a line of sermon, and his congregation tosses it back to him.</li>\r\n \t<li>In blues and jazz, one musician plays or sings something, and another player throws it back in slightly new, altered form, adding a new variation to the theme and exploring a song further.</li>\r\n \t<li>Still another player may take a swing at the musical phrase, even adding a new melodic run.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\nSome of the earliest jazz musicians were vocalists who branched into jazz from roots in blues. Some notable singers give jazz its bluesy beginnings:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>Ida Cox</li>\r\n \t<li>Ma Rainey</li>\r\n \t<li>Jimmy Rushing</li>\r\n \t<li>Bessie Smith</li>\r\n \t<li>Mamie Smith</li>\r\n \t<li>Jack Teagarden</li>\r\n \t<li>Ethel Waters</li>\r\n \t<li>Louis Armstrong</li>\r\n</ul>","description":"Although jazz is performed by musicians of many backgrounds, and mixes elements of many kinds of music, it's essentially African-American music. Interwoven with jazz's history is the history of the Black experience in America. However, European music and blues also influenced jazz.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" >Adapting West African traditions</h2>\r\nEssential elements of jazz arrived in America in 1619 with the first Africans brought as slaves by Dutch sailors who landed in Jamestown, Virginia. Various African musical elements that eventually surfaced in jazz came from areas where slaves were taken along the West African coast, known as the Ivory Coast or Gold Coast, stretching from Dakar in the north to Congo in the south, and including Senegal, Ghana, Guinea, Dahomey (now part of Benin), and the Niger delta.\r\n\r\nMany of the Africans sold into slavery weren't commoners but, instead, were kings and priests who led tribal rituals and musical performances. Among the tribes raided for slaves were the Yoruba, Ibo, Fanti, Ashanti, Susu, and Ewe; many of these musicians eventually became leading performers in both Black and European cultures in the New World.\r\n\r\nVarious traders preferred slaves from particular regions and tribes, and the traditions of those slaves influenced the music in the traders' home regions. For example, the French acquired Dahomeans. Thus, Dahomeans who worshipped vodun (spirit) and the snake god, Damballa, brought rituals to New Orleans that became known as <i>voodoo</i> — elements of which appeared in early blues and jazz. Various bluesmen referenced \"mojo hands\" and black cats, and jazz pioneer Jelly Roll Morton blamed a voodoo curse for ill health and a declining career.\r\n\r\nIn Africa, music was a vital part of daily life and members of a community all participated. African musicians played a variety of string, percussion, and wind instruments, but after these musicians landed in America, they adapted to a new array of drums, fiddles, trumpets, French horns, and other instruments.\r\n\r\nMusicians found themselves relocated within a musical culture partially based on formal notation instead of the unwritten and improvised traditions of Africa, where <i>griots</i> — resident tribal poet-historians — sang and told tales that preserved tribal history, arts, philosophy, and mythology.\r\n\r\n<!-- break -->\r\n\r\nMuch of the adaptation to the new musical setting occurred in white churches, where slaves were taught to read music from hymnals and song books and where they often performed alongside white people at services. The harsh change was difficult for African musicians who found their music restrained or redirected along Euro-American lines, yet the blending of African rhythms, melodies, harmonies, and improvisation, with more formal Euro-American music, was at the heart of the invention of jazz.\r\n\r\nEven in the early stages, the impact of African musicians on American music began to emerge. Here are key elements:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><b>Call and response:</b> like when a preacher or dance leader shouts a statement, and his audience shouts back; when instrumentalists have a \"conversation\" consisting of traded musical \"statements\"</li>\r\n \t<li><b>Improvisation:</b> embellishment around a song's primary melody</li>\r\n \t<li><b>Pentatonic scales:</b> five-tone scales later used as primary scales in blues</li>\r\n \t<li><b>Polyrhythms:</b> the overlapping of different rhythmic patterns</li>\r\n \t<li><b>Swing or forward momentum:</b> a sense of urgency created by relentless rhythmic drive</li>\r\n \t<li><b>Syncopation:</b> rhythmic accents around the underlying beat</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<h2 id=\"tab2\" >Borrowing from European classics</h2>\r\nEuropean musical traditions also make up a vital part of jazz. Elements like swing and improvisation found their way into jazz from Africa, but jazz's major instruments, including the piano, saxophone (invented in Belgium about 1840 by Adolphe Sax), and assorted horns came to jazz by way of Europe.\r\n\r\nLargely because of the availability, popularity, and portability of violins, slaves received training in classical music and performed a range of music that also included dance and folk. In the 1700s, slaves sometimes accompanied their owners to colleges, such as William & Mary, for musical education. This classical training eventually turned up in jazz. Violin found its way into jazz in the 1920s, playing the same sorts of melodies and solos as saxophonists and trumpeters.\r\n\r\nBlacks who worshipped at some churches in East Coast cities often received training in European music including classical. During the 18th and 19th centuries, some congregations (and choirs) were interracial.\r\n<p class=\"Remember\">Contrary to the common belief that jazz was created primarily by uneducated blacks with roots in blues, folk, and field chants, African Americans had the ability to read music and to play classical and other styles of music well before the inception of jazz. Jazz pioneers, such as Scott Joplin, Jelly Roll Morton, and James P. Johnson, brought sophisticated musical knowledge to their music.</p>\r\nWhile jazz musicians brought classical elements into jazz, classical composers borrowed from African-American music. This transferring of styles proves that even before the invention of jazz and before African-American music was valued by American universities, concert halls, and arts patrons, the quality and originality of black music had already captivated the leading artists of classical music.\r\n\r\n<!-- break -->\r\n\r\nIn turn, classical composers, such as Bartok and Debussy, inspired jazz bassist and composer Charles Mingus. These classical composers utilized folk music in their creations. Mingus, in the 1950s and 1960s, composed ambitious suites, like \"The Black Saint and the Sinner Lady\" (1963), which, like pieces by Bartok and Debussy, combined a variety of influences (blues, jazz, folk, classical) into an elaborate piece that explored various themes using an 11-piece ensemble.\r\n\r\nFrom Joplin and Johnson to Duke Ellington and Billy Strayhorn, Gil Evans, and, today, Maria Schneider, some jazz composers have brought a knowledge of classical arranging, composing, and musical theory to their masterful jazz compositions.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab3\" >Adding some blues</h2>\r\nJazz partially builds on the blues, and some jazz directly grows on a blues foundation, utilizing the structure of the traditional blues known as 12-bar blues.\r\n\r\nThe tradition of call and response, and more simply, improvisation, is a big part of jazz. In good blues, jazz, and gospel, players listen intently to each other's playing, and have an almost intuitive connection — an uncanny sixth sense felt between musicians. Here are some examples:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>In the gospel church, the preacher sings out a line of sermon, and his congregation tosses it back to him.</li>\r\n \t<li>In blues and jazz, one musician plays or sings something, and another player throws it back in slightly new, altered form, adding a new variation to the theme and exploring a song further.</li>\r\n \t<li>Still another player may take a swing at the musical phrase, even adding a new melodic run.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\nSome of the earliest jazz musicians were vocalists who branched into jazz from roots in blues. Some notable singers give jazz its bluesy beginnings:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>Ida Cox</li>\r\n \t<li>Ma Rainey</li>\r\n \t<li>Jimmy Rushing</li>\r\n \t<li>Bessie Smith</li>\r\n \t<li>Mamie Smith</li>\r\n \t<li>Jack Teagarden</li>\r\n \t<li>Ethel Waters</li>\r\n \t<li>Louis Armstrong</li>\r\n</ul>","blurb":"","authors":[],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33746,"title":"General Music","slug":"general-music","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33746"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[{"label":"Adapting West African traditions","target":"#tab1"},{"label":"Borrowing from European classics","target":"#tab2"},{"label":"Adding some blues","target":"#tab3"}],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":207498,"title":"Music Business For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"music-business-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","music","general-music"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/207498"}},{"articleId":207495,"title":"Classical Music For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"classical-music-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","music","general-music"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/207495"}},{"articleId":200516,"title":"Defining Jazz: The Swingin' Thing","slug":"defining-jazz-the-swingin-thing","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","music","general-music"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/200516"}},{"articleId":200403,"title":"Examining Rap's Origins","slug":"examining-raps-origins","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","music","general-music"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/200403"}},{"articleId":200372,"title":"Exploring the Delta Blues","slug":"exploring-the-delta-blues","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","music","general-music"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/200372"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":0,"slug":null,"isbn":null,"categoryList":null,"amazon":null,"image":null,"title":null,"testBankPinActivationLink":null,"bookOutOfPrint":false,"authorsInfo":null,"authors":null,"_links":null},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;music&quot;,&quot;general-music&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[null]}]\" id=\"du-slot-65246a0ec9be8\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;music&quot;,&quot;general-music&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[null]}]\" id=\"du-slot-65246a0ecacef\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Articles","articleList":null,"content":null,"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Explore","lifeExpectancy":"Five years","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2024-10-09T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":200475},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2017-03-26T07:34:11+00:00","modifiedTime":"2024-10-09T17:27:26+00:00","timestamp":"2024-10-09T18:01:03+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Academics & The Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"Music","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33730"},"slug":"music","categoryId":33730},{"name":"General Music","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33746"},"slug":"general-music","categoryId":33746}],"title":"The Role of the Clarinet in Classical Music","strippedTitle":"the role of the clarinet in classical music","slug":"the-role-of-the-clarinet-in-classical-music","canonicalUrl":"","检目录擎系统提升系统":{"metaDescription":"Learn about the clarinet in classical music, including the kind of sound it adds and some compositions that feature its particular abilities.","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"The <i>clarinet</i> looks somewhat like an oboe, but it makes a very different sound in classical music: full, but without the edge of the oboe’s sound. One important reason for this difference is that, whereas the oboe has a double reed (a piece of shaved cane doubled over on itself), the clarinet has a <i>single</i> reed.\r\n<div class=\"imageBlock\" style=\"width: 75px;\">\r\n\r\n<img src=\"//www.coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/485642.image0.jpg\" alt=\"A clarinet.\" width=\"75\" height=\"450\" />\r\n<div class=\"imageCredit\">Credit: <i>Source: Creative Commons</i></div>\r\n<div class=\"imageCaption\">A clarinet.</div>\r\n</div>\r\nUnlike oboists (and bassoonists), clarinetists don’t need to make their own reeds; they can buy reeds ready-made because clarinet reeds are much less temperamental than oboe reeds. Consequently, clarinetists — like their instruments — tend to be quite mellow as a species. The following information covers the most important clarinet facts to remember.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" >Transposing instruments</h2>\r\nClarinetists’ mellowness is fortunate, because they must contend with one of the strangest musical concepts: that the clarinet is a <i>transposing</i> instrument (one of several in the orchestra). This means that when you play one note, you get another.\r\n\r\nDon’t panic: there’s an explanation.\r\n<p class=\"Tip\">On your average instrument — a flute, for example — what you play is what you get. You see a G on your sheet music, you play a G, and a G comes out. But play a G on a standard clarinet, and the note <i>F</i> comes out! In other words, it <i>transposes</i> down by one note.</p>\r\nAnd that’s just the <i>most common</i> kind of clarinet. Since ancient times — long before the Age of Reason — clarinets have been available in a mind-blowing array of different sizes: big ones to play low notes, small ones to play higher notes. And each size of clarinet transposes by a different amount; that is, on a bigger clarinet, you might play what should be the note G, but an E comes out!\r\n\r\nAs you can imagine, the mathematical complexities of trying to make the correct notes come out of the correct clarinet model drove decades of clarinetists quietly mad.\r\n\r\nThankfully, some hotshot musician of the past had a great idea. How about making the <i>composer</i> do all the math? Suppose the composer compensated for the clarinet’s tendency to produce notes that were actually <i>lower</i> than what the player played — by writing the notes too high <i>in the first place?</i> Then all the player would have to do is play what she saw, and the right notes would come out.\r\n\r\nSo suppose you’re playing the most common kind of clarinet, the one that transposes down one note. The composer wants to hear an F. No big deal — he just writes a G in the sheet music. You see the G, you play it — and F comes out. Just what the composer intended in the first place. The composer gets what he wants, nobody has to know about it, no money changes hands, and everybody’s happy.\r\n<p class=\"Tip\">Clarinetists can now play <i>any</i> kind of clarinet with no adjustments whatsoever, thanks to composers’ extra effort of writing clarinet sheet music in a different <i>key</i> than the rest of the orchestra. Composers, conductors, and music lovers have come to accept that this sheet music is printed in the “wrong” key — for the sake of clarinetists all over the world. Most trumpet, saxophone, and French horn music works the same way; all of those are transposing instruments, as well.</p>\r\n\r\n<h2 id=\"tab2\" >Hearing the clarinet</h2>\r\nClarinets are instruments of great grace and agility, with a smooth, lovely sound; they blend beautifully with just about every other instrument in the orchestra. You might say that they’re easy to get along with — much like the people who play them.\r\n\r\nCheck out some wonderful clarinet playing, such as the finale of Mozart’s <em>Piano Concerto Number 22</em>. Then listen to a very different sound — a high clarinet bird call in Stravinsky’s <em>The Rite of Spring.</em>\r\n\r\nIf you’d like to hear some great concertos for the clarinet, you should definitely listen to the following compositions:\r\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Mozart:</b> <em>Clarinet Concerto in A major, K. 622</em></p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Aaron Copland:</b> <em>Clarinet Concerto</em></p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Debussy:</b> <em>Première Rhapsodie</em> for clarinet and orchestra</p>\r\n</li>\r\n</ul>\r\nOr check out these beautiful pieces:\r\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Brahms:</b> S<em>onatas for Clarinet and Piano, Opus 120, Number 1 (in F minor) and Number 2 (in E-flat major)</em></p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Mozart:</b> <em>Clarinet Quintet in A Major</em></p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Franz Schubert:</b> <em>The Shepherd on the Rock</em><i>,</i> songs for voice, clarinet, and piano</p>\r\n</li>\r\n</ul>\r\nAnd, finally, you really should hear these beautiful clarinet parts within the orchestra:\r\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Mendelssohn:</b><em> Incidental Music to</em> <i>A Midsummer Night</i><i>’</i><i>s Dream</i></p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Sergei Rachmaninoff:</b> <em>Symphony Number 2 in E Minor (third movement)</em></p>\r\n</li>\r\n</ul>","description":"The <i>clarinet</i> looks somewhat like an oboe, but it makes a very different sound in classical music: full, but without the edge of the oboe’s sound. One important reason for this difference is that, whereas the oboe has a double reed (a piece of shaved cane doubled over on itself), the clarinet has a <i>single</i> reed.\r\n<div class=\"imageBlock\" style=\"width: 75px;\">\r\n\r\n<img src=\"//www.coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/485642.image0.jpg\" alt=\"A clarinet.\" width=\"75\" height=\"450\" />\r\n<div class=\"imageCredit\">Credit: <i>Source: Creative Commons</i></div>\r\n<div class=\"imageCaption\">A clarinet.</div>\r\n</div>\r\nUnlike oboists (and bassoonists), clarinetists don’t need to make their own reeds; they can buy reeds ready-made because clarinet reeds are much less temperamental than oboe reeds. Consequently, clarinetists — like their instruments — tend to be quite mellow as a species. The following information covers the most important clarinet facts to remember.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" >Transposing instruments</h2>\r\nClarinetists’ mellowness is fortunate, because they must contend with one of the strangest musical concepts: that the clarinet is a <i>transposing</i> instrument (one of several in the orchestra). This means that when you play one note, you get another.\r\n\r\nDon’t panic: there’s an explanation.\r\n<p class=\"Tip\">On your average instrument — a flute, for example — what you play is what you get. You see a G on your sheet music, you play a G, and a G comes out. But play a G on a standard clarinet, and the note <i>F</i> comes out! In other words, it <i>transposes</i> down by one note.</p>\r\nAnd that’s just the <i>most common</i> kind of clarinet. Since ancient times — long before the Age of Reason — clarinets have been available in a mind-blowing array of different sizes: big ones to play low notes, small ones to play higher notes. And each size of clarinet transposes by a different amount; that is, on a bigger clarinet, you might play what should be the note G, but an E comes out!\r\n\r\nAs you can imagine, the mathematical complexities of trying to make the correct notes come out of the correct clarinet model drove decades of clarinetists quietly mad.\r\n\r\nThankfully, some hotshot musician of the past had a great idea. How about making the <i>composer</i> do all the math? Suppose the composer compensated for the clarinet’s tendency to produce notes that were actually <i>lower</i> than what the player played — by writing the notes too high <i>in the first place?</i> Then all the player would have to do is play what she saw, and the right notes would come out.\r\n\r\nSo suppose you’re playing the most common kind of clarinet, the one that transposes down one note. The composer wants to hear an F. No big deal — he just writes a G in the sheet music. You see the G, you play it — and F comes out. Just what the composer intended in the first place. The composer gets what he wants, nobody has to know about it, no money changes hands, and everybody’s happy.\r\n<p class=\"Tip\">Clarinetists can now play <i>any</i> kind of clarinet with no adjustments whatsoever, thanks to composers’ extra effort of writing clarinet sheet music in a different <i>key</i> than the rest of the orchestra. Composers, conductors, and music lovers have come to accept that this sheet music is printed in the “wrong” key — for the sake of clarinetists all over the world. Most trumpet, saxophone, and French horn music works the same way; all of those are transposing instruments, as well.</p>\r\n\r\n<h2 id=\"tab2\" >Hearing the clarinet</h2>\r\nClarinets are instruments of great grace and agility, with a smooth, lovely sound; they blend beautifully with just about every other instrument in the orchestra. You might say that they’re easy to get along with — much like the people who play them.\r\n\r\nCheck out some wonderful clarinet playing, such as the finale of Mozart’s <em>Piano Concerto Number 22</em>. Then listen to a very different sound — a high clarinet bird call in Stravinsky’s <em>The Rite of Spring.</em>\r\n\r\nIf you’d like to hear some great concertos for the clarinet, you should definitely listen to the following compositions:\r\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Mozart:</b> <em>Clarinet Concerto in A major, K. 622</em></p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Aaron Copland:</b> <em>Clarinet Concerto</em></p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Debussy:</b> <em>Première Rhapsodie</em> for clarinet and orchestra</p>\r\n</li>\r\n</ul>\r\nOr check out these beautiful pieces:\r\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Brahms:</b> S<em>onatas for Clarinet and Piano, Opus 120, Number 1 (in F minor) and Number 2 (in E-flat major)</em></p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Mozart:</b> <em>Clarinet Quintet in A Major</em></p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Franz Schubert:</b> <em>The Shepherd on the Rock</em><i>,</i> songs for voice, clarinet, and piano</p>\r\n</li>\r\n</ul>\r\nAnd, finally, you really should hear these beautiful clarinet parts within the orchestra:\r\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Mendelssohn:</b><em> Incidental Music to</em> <i>A Midsummer Night</i><i>’</i><i>s Dream</i></p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Sergei Rachmaninoff:</b> <em>Symphony Number 2 in E Minor (third movement)</em></p>\r\n</li>\r\n</ul>","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":9103,"name":"David Pogue","slug":"david-pogue","description":" About David Pogue David Pogue is a member of the International Brotherhood of Magicians and has performed magic at parties, special events, on TV, and even over the radio for 25 years. He created and taught the beginning magic programs at the New School for Social Research and the Learning Annex. He has been known to mesmerize audiences with his magic tricks while on tour promoting his many bestselling books, including Macs?? For Dummies??, 5th Edition, Opera For Dummies??, and Classical Music For Dummies??. Contributor Mark Levy, magic consultant, has levitated and read spectators' minds for nearly 30 years. His writings have appeared in some of magic's most revered literary sources, including Richard Kaufman's CardMagic, Apocalypse magazine, and Magic.","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9103"}},{"authorId":9104,"name":"Scott Speck","slug":"scott-speck","description":" <p><b>Scott Speck</b> has conducted hundreds of ballet performances throughout the United States and Europe. He is Music Director of the Joffrey Ballet, Artistic Director of the Chicago Philharmonic Orchestra, and former Conductor of the San Francisco Ballet. <b>Evelyn Cisneros</b> danced for the San Francisco Ballet for 23 years and is the Artistic Director of the National Dance Institute of New Mexico in Albuquerque. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9104"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33746,"title":"General Music","slug":"general-music","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33746"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[{"label":"Transposing instruments","target":"#tab1"},{"label":"Hearing the clarinet","target":"#tab2"}],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[{"articleId":207495,"title":"Classical Music For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"classical-music-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","music","general-music"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/207495"}},{"articleId":143025,"title":"Classical Music Notation: It’s Only an Approximation","slug":"classical-music-notation-its-only-an-approximation","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","music","general-music"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/143025"}},{"articleId":143024,"title":"Exploring the Classical Music of the 21st Century","slug":"exploring-the-classical-music-of-the-21st-century","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","music","general-music"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/143024"}},{"articleId":143026,"title":"10 Great Chamber Music Pieces","slug":"10-great-chamber-music-pieces","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","music","general-music"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/143026"}},{"articleId":143023,"title":"How the Classical Concert Experience Has Changed","slug":"how-the-classical-concert-experience-is-changing-and-how-you-can-expect-it-to-change-still-further","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","music","general-music"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/143023"}}],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":207498,"title":"Music Business For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"music-business-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","music","general-music"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/207498"}},{"articleId":207495,"title":"Classical Music For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"classical-music-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","music","general-music"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/207495"}},{"articleId":200516,"title":"Defining Jazz: The Swingin' Thing","slug":"defining-jazz-the-swingin-thing","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","music","general-music"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/200516"}},{"articleId":200475,"title":"Discovering Jazz History","slug":"discovering-jazz-history","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","music","general-music"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/200475"}},{"articleId":200403,"title":"Examining Rap's Origins","slug":"examining-raps-origins","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","music","general-music"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/200403"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":282084,"slug":"classical-music-for-dummies","isbn":"9781119847748","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","music","general-music"],"amazon":{"default":"//www.amazon.com/gp/product/1119847745/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","ca":"//www.amazon.ca/gp/product/1119847745/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","indigo_ca":"//www.tkqlhce.com/click-9208661-13710633?url=//www.chapters.indigo.ca/en-ca/books/product/1119847745-item.html&cjsku=978111945484","gb":"//www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/1119847745/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","de":"//www.amazon.de/gp/product/1119847745/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20"},"image":{"src":"//www.coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/9781119847748-203x255.jpg","width":203,"height":255},"title":"Classical Music For Dummies, 3rd Edition","testBankPinActivationLink":"","bookOutOfPrint":true,"authorsInfo":"<p>About <b data-author-id=\"9103\">David Pogue</b> <b data-author-id=\"9103\">David Pogue</b> is a member of the International Brotherhood of Magicians and has performed magic at parties, special events, on TV, and even over the radio for 25 years. He created and taught the beginning magic programs at the New School for Social Research and the Learning Annex. He has been known to mesmerize audiences with his magic tricks while on tour promoting his many bestselling books, including Macs?? For Dummies??, 5th Edition, Opera For Dummies??, and Classical Music For Dummies??. Contributor Mark Levy, magic consultant, has levitated and read spectators' minds for nearly 30 years. His writings have appeared in some of magic's most revered literary sources, including Richard Kaufman's CardMagic, Apocalypse magazine, and Magic. <p><b><b data-author-id=\"9104\">Scott Speck</b></b> has conducted hundreds of ballet performances throughout the United States and Europe. He is Music Director of the Joffrey Ballet, Artistic Director of the Chicago Philharmonic Orchestra, and former Conductor of the San Francisco Ballet. <b>Evelyn Cisneros</b> danced for the San Francisco Ballet for 23 years and is the Artistic Director of the National Dance Institute of New Mexico in Albuquerque.</p>","authors":[{"authorId":9103,"name":"David Pogue","slug":"david-pogue","description":" About David Pogue David Pogue is a member of the International Brotherhood of Magicians and has performed magic at parties, special events, on TV, and even over the radio for 25 years. He created and taught the beginning magic programs at the New School for Social Research and the Learning Annex. He has been known to mesmerize audiences with his magic tricks while on tour promoting his many bestselling books, including Macs?? For Dummies??, 5th Edition, Opera For Dummies??, and Classical Music For Dummies??. Contributor Mark Levy, magic consultant, has levitated and read spectators' minds for nearly 30 years. His writings have appeared in some of magic's most revered literary sources, including Richard Kaufman's CardMagic, Apocalypse magazine, and Magic.","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9103"}},{"authorId":9104,"name":"Scott Speck","slug":"scott-speck","description":" <p><b>Scott Speck</b> has conducted hundreds of ballet performances throughout the United States and Europe. He is Music Director of the Joffrey Ballet, Artistic Director of the Chicago Philharmonic Orchestra, and former Conductor of the San Francisco Ballet. <b>Evelyn Cisneros</b> danced for the San Francisco Ballet for 23 years and is the Artistic Director of the National Dance Institute of New Mexico in Albuquerque. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9104"}}],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/books/"}},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;music&quot;,&quot;general-music&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781119847748&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-65243fdf942f9\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;music&quot;,&quot;general-music&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781119847748&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-65243fdf94bca\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Articles","articleList":null,"content":null,"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Explore","lifeExpectancy":"Five years","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2024-10-09T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":141995},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2017-03-26T22:49:26+00:00","modifiedTime":"2024-10-09T17:13:34+00:00","timestamp":"2024-10-09T18:01:03+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Academics & The Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"Music","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33730"},"slug":"music","categoryId":33730},{"name":"General Music","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33746"},"slug":"general-music","categoryId":33746}],"title":"Exploring the Delta Blues","strippedTitle":"exploring the delta blues","slug":"exploring-the-delta-blues","canonicalUrl":"","检目录擎系统提升系统":{"metaDescription":"The Delta style of blues was the first acoustic guitar-based blues to be recorded, in the 1920s and 1930s, and was usually performed solo.","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"<i>Delta blues</i> also goes by the moniker <i>Mississippi blues,</i> but either term refers to the blues style of playing that came out of the Delta region of Mississippi, the fertile cotton-producing area of the state (not to be confused with the Mississippi River delta).\r\n\r\nMost Delta blues is played <i>acoustically,</i> in the manner of the original recordings of the 1920s and 1930s, with hollow-bodied guitars that were made before the electric guitar was introduced to the blues in the late 1940s. This brand of blues stands as the first guitar-based blues to be recorded.\r\n\r\nIn the Delta style, performers typically work solo and are usually self-accompanied on an acoustic six-string guitar. In the Delta style, you can also hear the first flowerings of the small combo format — sometimes called a <i>string band </i>combo — that would reach its zenith with the Chicago and modern electric blues styles.\r\n\r\nThe Delta blues style features plenty of great guitar playing with elaborate finger-picking, slashing slide work, and deep boogie rhythms, and all of it delivered with an emotional depth that oozes from each recording.\r\n\r\nIn the <i>slide guitar</i> style of playing, the guitarist depresses the strings of the guitar with a cylindrical slider worn over a finger of the left hand, rather than using his or her fingertips. This style is also called <i>bottleneck</i> guitar because early sliders were fashioned from glass bottlenecks that were fired to create a smooth surface. Slider material has included everything from bones to knives to various metals, such as brass.\r\n\r\nNotable early blues artists who played in the Delta style include some of the very greatest:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>Son House</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>Robert Johnson</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>Mississippi Fred McDowell</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>Charlie Patton</li>\r\n</ul>\r\nHere are a few recordings to check out:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>Various Artists — <i>Deep Blues</i> (Atlantic). This collection contains modern-day Delta blues (recorded in 1992) played with a passion that's seldom heard on today's records. Features great performances by R.L. Burnside, Junior Kimbrough, Big Jack Johnson, Booba Barnes, and others.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>Various Artists — <i>The Friends of Charlie Patton</i> (Yazoo). This superb collection contains original Delta-Mississippi blues recordings by some of the all-time greats, including performances by Tommy Johnson, Son House, Willie Brown, Kid Bailey, Bukka White, and Ishmon Bracey.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><i>Searching For Robert Johnson</i> by Peter Guralnick (E.P. Dutton). A small (83 pages) biography of the life, times, and music of the most famous (and mysterious) Delta bluesman of all time. While hard-and-fast facts about Robert Johnson are in short supply, Guralnick assembles as many of them as possible, and his quotes from legendary blues players Johnny Shines and Robert Jr. Lockwood are so provocative that they alone are worth the cover price. Guralnick carefully speculates — and sheds new light — on how Johnson created the timeless music he did during his short and tragic life.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><i>King of the Delta Blues: The Life and Music of Charlie Patton</i> by Stephen Calt and Gayle Wardlow (Rock Chapel Press). Patton ruled the Delta blues circuit during the 1920s and early 1930s, packing the barrelhouses and selling loads of records to prove it. An essential read in finding out about the early history of the Delta blues, it includes an appendix featuring examples of Patton's songs and a glossary of expressions used in his lyrics.</li>\r\n</ul>","description":"<i>Delta blues</i> also goes by the moniker <i>Mississippi blues,</i> but either term refers to the blues style of playing that came out of the Delta region of Mississippi, the fertile cotton-producing area of the state (not to be confused with the Mississippi River delta).\r\n\r\nMost Delta blues is played <i>acoustically,</i> in the manner of the original recordings of the 1920s and 1930s, with hollow-bodied guitars that were made before the electric guitar was introduced to the blues in the late 1940s. This brand of blues stands as the first guitar-based blues to be recorded.\r\n\r\nIn the Delta style, performers typically work solo and are usually self-accompanied on an acoustic six-string guitar. In the Delta style, you can also hear the first flowerings of the small combo format — sometimes called a <i>string band </i>combo — that would reach its zenith with the Chicago and modern electric blues styles.\r\n\r\nThe Delta blues style features plenty of great guitar playing with elaborate finger-picking, slashing slide work, and deep boogie rhythms, and all of it delivered with an emotional depth that oozes from each recording.\r\n\r\nIn the <i>slide guitar</i> style of playing, the guitarist depresses the strings of the guitar with a cylindrical slider worn over a finger of the left hand, rather than using his or her fingertips. This style is also called <i>bottleneck</i> guitar because early sliders were fashioned from glass bottlenecks that were fired to create a smooth surface. Slider material has included everything from bones to knives to various metals, such as brass.\r\n\r\nNotable early blues artists who played in the Delta style include some of the very greatest:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>Son House</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>Robert Johnson</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>Mississippi Fred McDowell</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>Charlie Patton</li>\r\n</ul>\r\nHere are a few recordings to check out:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>Various Artists — <i>Deep Blues</i> (Atlantic). This collection contains modern-day Delta blues (recorded in 1992) played with a passion that's seldom heard on today's records. Features great performances by R.L. Burnside, Junior Kimbrough, Big Jack Johnson, Booba Barnes, and others.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>Various Artists — <i>The Friends of Charlie Patton</i> (Yazoo). This superb collection contains original Delta-Mississippi blues recordings by some of the all-time greats, including performances by Tommy Johnson, Son House, Willie Brown, Kid Bailey, Bukka White, and Ishmon Bracey.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><i>Searching For Robert Johnson</i> by Peter Guralnick (E.P. Dutton). A small (83 pages) biography of the life, times, and music of the most famous (and mysterious) Delta bluesman of all time. While hard-and-fast facts about Robert Johnson are in short supply, Guralnick assembles as many of them as possible, and his quotes from legendary blues players Johnny Shines and Robert Jr. Lockwood are so provocative that they alone are worth the cover price. Guralnick carefully speculates — and sheds new light — on how Johnson created the timeless music he did during his short and tragic life.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><i>King of the Delta Blues: The Life and Music of Charlie Patton</i> by Stephen Calt and Gayle Wardlow (Rock Chapel Press). Patton ruled the Delta blues circuit during the 1920s and early 1930s, packing the barrelhouses and selling loads of records to prove it. An essential read in finding out about the early history of the Delta blues, it includes an appendix featuring examples of Patton's songs and a glossary of expressions used in his lyrics.</li>\r\n</ul>","blurb":"","authors":[],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33746,"title":"General Music","slug":"general-music","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33746"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":207498,"title":"Music Business For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"music-business-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","music","general-music"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/207498"}},{"articleId":207495,"title":"Classical Music For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"classical-music-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","music","general-music"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/207495"}},{"articleId":200516,"title":"Defining Jazz: The Swingin' Thing","slug":"defining-jazz-the-swingin-thing","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","music","general-music"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/200516"}},{"articleId":200475,"title":"Discovering Jazz History","slug":"discovering-jazz-history","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","music","general-music"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/200475"}},{"articleId":200403,"title":"Examining Rap's Origins","slug":"examining-raps-origins","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","music","general-music"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/200403"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":0,"slug":null,"isbn":null,"categoryList":null,"amazon":null,"image":null,"title":null,"testBankPinActivationLink":null,"bookOutOfPrint":false,"authorsInfo":null,"authors":null,"_links":null},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;music&quot;,&quot;general-music&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[null]}]\" id=\"du-slot-65243fdf6773b\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;music&quot;,&quot;general-music&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[null]}]\" id=\"du-slot-65243fdf67fda\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Articles","articleList":null,"content":null,"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Explore","lifeExpectancy":"Five years","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2024-10-09T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":200372},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2017-03-26T22:47:42+00:00","modifiedTime":"2024-10-09T16:59:14+00:00","timestamp":"2024-10-09T18:01:03+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Academics & The Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"Music","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33730"},"slug":"music","categoryId":33730},{"name":"General Music","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33746"},"slug":"general-music","categoryId":33746}],"title":"Examining Rests in Musical Notation for Piano","strippedTitle":"examining rests in musical notation for piano","slug":"examining-rests-in-musical-notation","canonicalUrl":"","检目录擎系统提升系统":{"metaDescription":"Rests in musical notation have different symbols, as notes do, including for whole, half, quarter, eighth, and sixteenth.","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"A <i>musical rest</i> is simply a pause in which you play nothing. You'll see rests all over your sheet music; it's inevitable. The beat goes on — remember it's a constant pulse — but you pause. This pause can be as short as the length of one sixteenth note or as long as several measures. However, a rest is usually not long enough to order a pizza or do anything else very useful.\r\n<p class=\"Tip\">During a rest, you should get your fingers and hands ready to play the next set of notes. Don't put your hands in your lap or your pockets. Keep them on the keys, ready to play whatever may follow.</p>\r\nFor every note length, a corresponding rest exists. And, as you may guess, for every rest there is a corresponding symbol. Here they are for the taking.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" >Whole and half rests: Hold on to your hat</h2>\r\nWhen you see a whole note F, you play F and hold it for four beats. For a half note, you play and hold the note for two beats. A <i>whole rest</i> and <i>half rest</i> ask you to pause, not play anything, for the corresponding number of beats.\r\n\r\nFigure 1 shows both the whole and half rests. They look like little hats, one \"on\" and one \"off.\" This hat analogy, and the rules of etiquette, make for a good way to remember these rests:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>If you rest for only half of the measure (two beats), the hat stays on.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>If you rest for the entire measure (four beats), take off your hat and stay for a while.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<div class=\"figure\"><img src=\"//www.coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/0-7645-5105-1_0601.jpg\" border=\"0\" /></div>\r\n \r\n<div class=\"caption\"><b>Figure 1:</b> Wearing more than one hat.</div>\r\nThese hats, er, rests always hang in the same positions on both staves, making it easy for you to spot them in the music. A half rest sits on the middle line, while a whole rest hangs from the fourth line up, shown in Figure 2.\r\n<div class=\"figure\"><img src=\"//www.coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/0-7645-5105-1_0602.jpg\" border=\"0\" /></div>\r\n \r\n<div class=\"caption\"><b>Figure 2:</b> Hanging your hat.</div>\r\nTo see whole and half rests in action, take a peek at Figure 3. In the first measure of Figure 3, you play the two A quarter notes, and then the half rest tells you not to play anything for the next two beats. In the next measure, the whole rest tells you that you're off duty — you rest for four beats. In the third measure, you put down your donut and play two G quarter notes, two beats of rest, and finally, the whole show ends in the next measure with a whole note A.\r\n<div class=\"figure\"><img src=\"//www.coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/0-7645-5105-1_0603.jpg\" border=\"0\" /></div>\r\n \r\n<div class=\"caption\"><b>Figure 3:</b> Rocking and resting.</div>\r\n<!-- break -->\r\n<h2 id=\"tab2\" >Quarter rests and more</h2>\r\nComposers also use rests to tell you to stop playing for the equivalent of quarter notes, eighth notes, and sixteenth notes. Figure 4 shows you the musical squigglies that correspond to each of these resting periods.\r\n<div class=\"figure\"><img src=\"//www.coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/0-7645-5105-1_0604.jpg\" border=\"0\" /></div>\r\n \r\n<div class=\"caption\"><b>Figure 4:</b> Quarter, eighth, and sixteenth rests.</div>\r\n<p class=\"Tip\">Think of the <i>quarter rest</i> as an uncomfortable-looking chair. Because it's uncomfortable, you won't rest too long. In fact, you don't rest any longer than one beat in this chair.</p>\r\nThe <i>eighth rest</i> and <i>sixteenth rest</i> are easy to recognize: They have the same number of \"flags\" — although slightly different in fashion — as their note counterparts. An eighth note and eighth rest each have one flag. Sixteenth notes and rests have two flags.\r\n\r\nQuarter rests are easy to count — they last only one beat. Eighth rests are a bit harder to count simply because they happen faster. When you play eighth rests, count out loud \"1-and, 2-and,\" and so on. Doing so helps you place the eighth rests more precisely, and may even cause others to sing along.\r\n\r\nFigure 5 gives you a chance to count out some quarter and eighth rests.\r\n<div class=\"figure\"><img src=\"//www.coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/0-7645-5105-1_0605.jpg\" border=\"0\" /></div>\r\n \r\n<div class=\"caption\"><b>Figure 5:</b> Counting smaller rests.</div>\r\nSixteenth notes also have a corresponding rest, but these are very tricky to play, except at very slow tempos. Until you get into more advanced music, you really don't need to know much more about these rests than what they look like (refer to Figure 4).","description":"A <i>musical rest</i> is simply a pause in which you play nothing. You'll see rests all over your sheet music; it's inevitable. The beat goes on — remember it's a constant pulse — but you pause. This pause can be as short as the length of one sixteenth note or as long as several measures. However, a rest is usually not long enough to order a pizza or do anything else very useful.\r\n<p class=\"Tip\">During a rest, you should get your fingers and hands ready to play the next set of notes. Don't put your hands in your lap or your pockets. Keep them on the keys, ready to play whatever may follow.</p>\r\nFor every note length, a corresponding rest exists. And, as you may guess, for every rest there is a corresponding symbol. Here they are for the taking.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" >Whole and half rests: Hold on to your hat</h2>\r\nWhen you see a whole note F, you play F and hold it for four beats. For a half note, you play and hold the note for two beats. A <i>whole rest</i> and <i>half rest</i> ask you to pause, not play anything, for the corresponding number of beats.\r\n\r\nFigure 1 shows both the whole and half rests. They look like little hats, one \"on\" and one \"off.\" This hat analogy, and the rules of etiquette, make for a good way to remember these rests:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>If you rest for only half of the measure (two beats), the hat stays on.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>If you rest for the entire measure (four beats), take off your hat and stay for a while.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<div class=\"figure\"><img src=\"//www.coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/0-7645-5105-1_0601.jpg\" border=\"0\" /></div>\r\n \r\n<div class=\"caption\"><b>Figure 1:</b> Wearing more than one hat.</div>\r\nThese hats, er, rests always hang in the same positions on both staves, making it easy for you to spot them in the music. A half rest sits on the middle line, while a whole rest hangs from the fourth line up, shown in Figure 2.\r\n<div class=\"figure\"><img src=\"//www.coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/0-7645-5105-1_0602.jpg\" border=\"0\" /></div>\r\n \r\n<div class=\"caption\"><b>Figure 2:</b> Hanging your hat.</div>\r\nTo see whole and half rests in action, take a peek at Figure 3. In the first measure of Figure 3, you play the two A quarter notes, and then the half rest tells you not to play anything for the next two beats. In the next measure, the whole rest tells you that you're off duty — you rest for four beats. In the third measure, you put down your donut and play two G quarter notes, two beats of rest, and finally, the whole show ends in the next measure with a whole note A.\r\n<div class=\"figure\"><img src=\"//www.coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/0-7645-5105-1_0603.jpg\" border=\"0\" /></div>\r\n \r\n<div class=\"caption\"><b>Figure 3:</b> Rocking and resting.</div>\r\n<!-- break -->\r\n<h2 id=\"tab2\" >Quarter rests and more</h2>\r\nComposers also use rests to tell you to stop playing for the equivalent of quarter notes, eighth notes, and sixteenth notes. Figure 4 shows you the musical squigglies that correspond to each of these resting periods.\r\n<div class=\"figure\"><img src=\"//www.coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/0-7645-5105-1_0604.jpg\" border=\"0\" /></div>\r\n \r\n<div class=\"caption\"><b>Figure 4:</b> Quarter, eighth, and sixteenth rests.</div>\r\n<p class=\"Tip\">Think of the <i>quarter rest</i> as an uncomfortable-looking chair. Because it's uncomfortable, you won't rest too long. In fact, you don't rest any longer than one beat in this chair.</p>\r\nThe <i>eighth rest</i> and <i>sixteenth rest</i> are easy to recognize: They have the same number of \"flags\" — although slightly different in fashion — as their note counterparts. An eighth note and eighth rest each have one flag. Sixteenth notes and rests have two flags.\r\n\r\nQuarter rests are easy to count — they last only one beat. Eighth rests are a bit harder to count simply because they happen faster. When you play eighth rests, count out loud \"1-and, 2-and,\" and so on. Doing so helps you place the eighth rests more precisely, and may even cause others to sing along.\r\n\r\nFigure 5 gives you a chance to count out some quarter and eighth rests.\r\n<div class=\"figure\"><img src=\"//www.coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/0-7645-5105-1_0605.jpg\" border=\"0\" /></div>\r\n \r\n<div class=\"caption\"><b>Figure 5:</b> Counting smaller rests.</div>\r\nSixteenth notes also have a corresponding rest, but these are very tricky to play, except at very slow tempos. Until you get into more advanced music, you really don't need to know much more about these rests than what they look like (refer to Figure 4).","blurb":"","authors":[],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33746,"title":"General Music","slug":"general-music","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33746"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[{"label":"Whole and half rests: Hold on to your hat","target":"#tab1"},{"label":"Quarter rests and more","target":"#tab2"}],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":207498,"title":"Music Business For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"music-business-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","music","general-music"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/207498"}},{"articleId":207495,"title":"Classical Music For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"classical-music-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","music","general-music"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/207495"}},{"articleId":200516,"title":"Defining Jazz: The Swingin' Thing","slug":"defining-jazz-the-swingin-thing","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","music","general-music"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/200516"}},{"articleId":200475,"title":"Discovering Jazz History","slug":"discovering-jazz-history","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","music","general-music"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/200475"}},{"articleId":200403,"title":"Examining Rap's Origins","slug":"examining-raps-origins","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","music","general-music"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/200403"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":0,"slug":null,"isbn":null,"categoryList":null,"amazon":null,"image":null,"title":null,"testBankPinActivationLink":null,"bookOutOfPrint":false,"authorsInfo":null,"authors":null,"_links":null},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;music&quot;,&quot;general-music&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[null]}]\" id=\"du-slot-65243fdf6019f\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;music&quot;,&quot;general-music&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[null]}]\" id=\"du-slot-65243fdf60b5d\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Articles","articleList":null,"content":null,"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Explore","lifeExpectancy":"Five years","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2024-10-09T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":200164},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2017-03-26T07:42:44+00:00","modifiedTime":"2024-09-28T19:54:01+00:00","timestamp":"2024-09-28T21:01:03+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Academics & The Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"Music","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33730"},"slug":"music","categoryId":33730},{"name":"General Music","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33746"},"slug":"general-music","categoryId":33746}],"title":"10 Great Chamber Music Pieces","strippedTitle":"10 great chamber music pieces","slug":"10-great-chamber-music-pieces","canonicalUrl":"","检目录擎系统提升系统":{"metaDescription":"These ten chamber music compositions by some of history's greatest classical music composers are definitely worth listening to.","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"<i>Ch</i><i>amber music</i> is music originally written for a small group of instruments, to be played in someone’s living room (or “chamber”) instead of a concert hall. These days, you’re most likely to hear it in a small public venue — a university recital hall, perhaps, or maybe even a coffeehouse or subway platform. In general, any group of instruments that can play <i>without a conductor</i> is chamber music.\r\n\r\nThere’s much less public demand for chamber music than there is for big orchestral concerts. As a result, tickets to chamber music concerts are usually very cheap, or even free. But don’t think that chamber music is less fun to listen to; a really good performance can knock your socks off.\r\n<p class=\"Remember\">In chamber music, the number of musicians is small, and each musician is usually just as important as every other. Instruments play off one another in delightful musical conversations. Because of the intimate and cooperative nature of chamber music, most musicians enjoy playing it more than anything else. And many of the recordings you hear are likely to be phenomenal performances.</p>\r\nHere are some all-time chamber music favorites, organized by composer:\r\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Giovanni Gabrieli (1551–1612): </b><i>Canzona noni toni</i> for three brass groups (12 players). The Italian word <i>canzona </i>means “song.” A master of the Renaissance era, Gabrieli wrote many pieces like this one for the warm, generous acoustics of the Basilica of San Marco in Venice. The three brass groups sat in different parts of the church, and their sounds literally bounced off one another. Truly inspiring music.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756–1791): </b><em>Serenade no. 12 in C Minor</em> for winds. Mozart created this intense, four-movement wind serenade for an evening’s background entertainment. It begins lugubriously but works its way to a jubilant close.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Ludwig van Beethoven (1770–1827): </b><em>String Quartet in C Major, Opus 59, No. 3</em>. This piece is one of the three “Razumovsky” Quartets, dedicated to a rich Russian guy. Each quartet contains at least one Russian theme; it’s fun to pick out the themes as you listen.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Franz Schubert (1797–1828):</b> <em>Quintet in A Major</em> (<i>The Trout</i>). Schubert wrote this piece for one each of piano, violin, viola, cello, and bass. It’s in five movements, the fourth of which is a set of variations on one of Schubert’s best-loved songs, called (logically enough) “The Trout.” If you want to convince yourself that chamber music is fun, this is the piece!</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Felix Mendelssohn (1809–1847): </b><em>Octet in E-flat Major, Opus 20</em>. At least two things are amazing about this composition: First, Felix wrote it when he was 16; second, it was his 20th published work! One of the best things he ever wrote.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Johannes Brahms (1833–1897): </b><em>Clarinet Quintet, Opus 115 in B Minor</em>. Don’t be misled by its name — actually, this piece is written for a clarinet, two violins, a viola, and a cello. One critic wrote his review without having even attended the concert. “It was a good piece,” he wrote, “but the sound of five clarinets was rather odd.” Oops.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>César Franck (1822–1890): </b><em>Sonata for Violin and Piano in A Major</em>. Franck wrote this gorgeous piece near the end of his life, and it reflects his maturity and mastery of composing. Although Franck wrote it for the violin, it’s a favorite among flutists and cellists, too.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Claude Debussy (1862–1918): </b><em>Sonata for Cello and Piano</em>. People often complain that modern music lacks <i>melody.</i> So what happens when the most well-known Impressionist composer (Debussy) teams up with the most singing of all instruments (the cello)? <i>This </i>happens. Lyrical, lush, and gorgeous, this sonata will convert you to Impressionism or your money back.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Dmitri Shostakovich (1906–1975): </b><em>String Quartet No. 3</em>. Shostakovich wrote 15 string quartets, of which this one is his most lighthearted. It’s constructed in traditional sonata form (which you can read about in Chapter 3), but it’s full of modern, sparkling, humorous touches.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Igor Stravinsky (1882–1971):</b> <i>L</i><i>’</i><i>histoire du soldat </i>(<i>The Soldier</i><i>’</i><i>s Tale</i>). The piece is included, although it often needs a conductor to negotiate the tricky rhythms in performance. This piece uses seven instruments — the highly unusual combination of violin, bass, clarinet, bassoon, trumpet, trombone, drums — and a <i>person, </i>who reads a story about a soldier, a princess, and the devil. The music is clever, spicy, and surprisingly powerful.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n</ul>","description":"<i>Ch</i><i>amber music</i> is music originally written for a small group of instruments, to be played in someone’s living room (or “chamber”) instead of a concert hall. These days, you’re most likely to hear it in a small public venue — a university recital hall, perhaps, or maybe even a coffeehouse or subway platform. In general, any group of instruments that can play <i>without a conductor</i> is chamber music.\r\n\r\nThere’s much less public demand for chamber music than there is for big orchestral concerts. As a result, tickets to chamber music concerts are usually very cheap, or even free. But don’t think that chamber music is less fun to listen to; a really good performance can knock your socks off.\r\n<p class=\"Remember\">In chamber music, the number of musicians is small, and each musician is usually just as important as every other. Instruments play off one another in delightful musical conversations. Because of the intimate and cooperative nature of chamber music, most musicians enjoy playing it more than anything else. And many of the recordings you hear are likely to be phenomenal performances.</p>\r\nHere are some all-time chamber music favorites, organized by composer:\r\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Giovanni Gabrieli (1551–1612): </b><i>Canzona noni toni</i> for three brass groups (12 players). The Italian word <i>canzona </i>means “song.” A master of the Renaissance era, Gabrieli wrote many pieces like this one for the warm, generous acoustics of the Basilica of San Marco in Venice. The three brass groups sat in different parts of the church, and their sounds literally bounced off one another. Truly inspiring music.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756–1791): </b><em>Serenade no. 12 in C Minor</em> for winds. Mozart created this intense, four-movement wind serenade for an evening’s background entertainment. It begins lugubriously but works its way to a jubilant close.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Ludwig van Beethoven (1770–1827): </b><em>String Quartet in C Major, Opus 59, No. 3</em>. This piece is one of the three “Razumovsky” Quartets, dedicated to a rich Russian guy. Each quartet contains at least one Russian theme; it’s fun to pick out the themes as you listen.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Franz Schubert (1797–1828):</b> <em>Quintet in A Major</em> (<i>The Trout</i>). Schubert wrote this piece for one each of piano, violin, viola, cello, and bass. It’s in five movements, the fourth of which is a set of variations on one of Schubert’s best-loved songs, called (logically enough) “The Trout.” If you want to convince yourself that chamber music is fun, this is the piece!</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Felix Mendelssohn (1809–1847): </b><em>Octet in E-flat Major, Opus 20</em>. At least two things are amazing about this composition: First, Felix wrote it when he was 16; second, it was his 20th published work! One of the best things he ever wrote.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Johannes Brahms (1833–1897): </b><em>Clarinet Quintet, Opus 115 in B Minor</em>. Don’t be misled by its name — actually, this piece is written for a clarinet, two violins, a viola, and a cello. One critic wrote his review without having even attended the concert. “It was a good piece,” he wrote, “but the sound of five clarinets was rather odd.” Oops.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>César Franck (1822–1890): </b><em>Sonata for Violin and Piano in A Major</em>. Franck wrote this gorgeous piece near the end of his life, and it reflects his maturity and mastery of composing. Although Franck wrote it for the violin, it’s a favorite among flutists and cellists, too.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Claude Debussy (1862–1918): </b><em>Sonata for Cello and Piano</em>. People often complain that modern music lacks <i>melody.</i> So what happens when the most well-known Impressionist composer (Debussy) teams up with the most singing of all instruments (the cello)? <i>This </i>happens. Lyrical, lush, and gorgeous, this sonata will convert you to Impressionism or your money back.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Dmitri Shostakovich (1906–1975): </b><em>String Quartet No. 3</em>. Shostakovich wrote 15 string quartets, of which this one is his most lighthearted. It’s constructed in traditional sonata form (which you can read about in Chapter 3), but it’s full of modern, sparkling, humorous touches.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Igor Stravinsky (1882–1971):</b> <i>L</i><i>’</i><i>histoire du soldat </i>(<i>The Soldier</i><i>’</i><i>s Tale</i>). The piece is included, although it often needs a conductor to negotiate the tricky rhythms in performance. This piece uses seven instruments — the highly unusual combination of violin, bass, clarinet, bassoon, trumpet, trombone, drums — and a <i>person, </i>who reads a story about a soldier, a princess, and the devil. The music is clever, spicy, and surprisingly powerful.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n</ul>","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":9103,"name":"David Pogue","slug":"david-pogue","description":" About David Pogue David Pogue is a member of the International Brotherhood of Magicians and has performed magic at parties, special events, on TV, and even over the radio for 25 years. He created and taught the beginning magic programs at the New School for Social Research and the Learning Annex. He has been known to mesmerize audiences with his magic tricks while on tour promoting his many bestselling books, including Macs?? For Dummies??, 5th Edition, Opera For Dummies??, and Classical Music For Dummies??. Contributor Mark Levy, magic consultant, has levitated and read spectators' minds for nearly 30 years. His writings have appeared in some of magic's most revered literary sources, including Richard Kaufman's CardMagic, Apocalypse magazine, and Magic.","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9103"}},{"authorId":9104,"name":"Scott Speck","slug":"scott-speck","description":" <p><b>Scott Speck</b> has conducted hundreds of ballet performances throughout the United States and Europe. He is Music Director of the Joffrey Ballet, Artistic Director of the Chicago Philharmonic Orchestra, and former Conductor of the San Francisco Ballet. <b>Evelyn Cisneros</b> danced for the San Francisco Ballet for 23 years and is the Artistic Director of the National Dance Institute of New Mexico in Albuquerque. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9104"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33746,"title":"General Music","slug":"general-music","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33746"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[{"articleId":207495,"title":"Classical Music For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"classical-music-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","music","general-music"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/207495"}},{"articleId":143025,"title":"Classical Music Notation: It’s Only an Approximation","slug":"classical-music-notation-its-only-an-approximation","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","music","general-music"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/143025"}},{"articleId":143024,"title":"Exploring the Classical Music of the 21st Century","slug":"exploring-the-classical-music-of-the-21st-century","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","music","general-music"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/143024"}},{"articleId":143023,"title":"How the Classical Concert Experience Has Changed","slug":"how-the-classical-concert-experience-is-changing-and-how-you-can-expect-it-to-change-still-further","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","music","general-music"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/143023"}},{"articleId":143021,"title":"Meet the Classical Orchestra","slug":"meet-the-classical-orchestra","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","music","general-music"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/143021"}}],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":207498,"title":"Music Business For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"music-business-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","music","general-music"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/207498"}},{"articleId":207495,"title":"Classical Music For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"classical-music-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","music","general-music"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/207495"}},{"articleId":200516,"title":"Defining Jazz: The Swingin' Thing","slug":"defining-jazz-the-swingin-thing","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","music","general-music"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/200516"}},{"articleId":200475,"title":"Discovering Jazz History","slug":"discovering-jazz-history","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","music","general-music"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/200475"}},{"articleId":200403,"title":"Examining Rap's Origins","slug":"examining-raps-origins","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","music","general-music"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/200403"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":282084,"slug":"classical-music-for-dummies","isbn":"9781119847748","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","music","general-music"],"amazon":{"default":"//www.amazon.com/gp/product/1119847745/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","ca":"//www.amazon.ca/gp/product/1119847745/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","indigo_ca":"//www.tkqlhce.com/click-9208661-13710633?url=//www.chapters.indigo.ca/en-ca/books/product/1119847745-item.html&cjsku=978111945484","gb":"//www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/1119847745/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","de":"//www.amazon.de/gp/product/1119847745/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20"},"image":{"src":"//www.coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/9781119847748-203x255.jpg","width":203,"height":255},"title":"Classical Music For Dummies, 3rd Edition","testBankPinActivationLink":"","bookOutOfPrint":true,"authorsInfo":"<p>About <b data-author-id=\"9103\">David Pogue</b> <b data-author-id=\"9103\">David Pogue</b> is a member of the International Brotherhood of Magicians and has performed magic at parties, special events, on TV, and even over the radio for 25 years. He created and taught the beginning magic programs at the New School for Social Research and the Learning Annex. He has been known to mesmerize audiences with his magic tricks while on tour promoting his many bestselling books, including Macs?? For Dummies??, 5th Edition, Opera For Dummies??, and Classical Music For Dummies??. Contributor Mark Levy, magic consultant, has levitated and read spectators' minds for nearly 30 years. His writings have appeared in some of magic's most revered literary sources, including Richard Kaufman's CardMagic, Apocalypse magazine, and Magic. <p><b><b data-author-id=\"9104\">Scott Speck</b></b> has conducted hundreds of ballet performances throughout the United States and Europe. He is Music Director of the Joffrey Ballet, Artistic Director of the Chicago Philharmonic Orchestra, and former Conductor of the San Francisco Ballet. <b>Evelyn Cisneros</b> danced for the San Francisco Ballet for 23 years and is the Artistic Director of the National Dance Institute of New Mexico in Albuquerque.</p>","authors":[{"authorId":9103,"name":"David Pogue","slug":"david-pogue","description":" About David Pogue David Pogue is a member of the International Brotherhood of Magicians and has performed magic at parties, special events, on TV, and even over the radio for 25 years. He created and taught the beginning magic programs at the New School for Social Research and the Learning Annex. He has been known to mesmerize audiences with his magic tricks while on tour promoting his many bestselling books, including Macs?? For Dummies??, 5th Edition, Opera For Dummies??, and Classical Music For Dummies??. Contributor Mark Levy, magic consultant, has levitated and read spectators' minds for nearly 30 years. His writings have appeared in some of magic's most revered literary sources, including Richard Kaufman's CardMagic, Apocalypse magazine, and Magic.","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9103"}},{"authorId":9104,"name":"Scott Speck","slug":"scott-speck","description":" <p><b>Scott Speck</b> has conducted hundreds of ballet performances throughout the United States and Europe. He is Music Director of the Joffrey Ballet, Artistic Director of the Chicago Philharmonic Orchestra, and former Conductor of the San Francisco Ballet. <b>Evelyn Cisneros</b> danced for the San Francisco Ballet for 23 years and is the Artistic Director of the National Dance Institute of New Mexico in Albuquerque. 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It’s the big night: You show up at the concert hall. But holy smokes, there are almost 100 people up on that stage. Here’s what they’re playing:\r\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Violin: </b>The instrument is made of wood; the bow is made of horsehair; the four strings are made of metal; the sound is sweet, singing, and divine. Violin players are divided into two sections, first and second violins, each with different music to play.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Viola: </b>Slightly larger than a violin, a viola plays slightly lower notes, with a breathier or throatier sound than a violin.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Cello: </b>The cello is<b> </b>played sitting down, with the instrument between the legs. It makes a beautiful, rich, singing sound.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Bass</b> <b>(or Double Bass):</b> Enormous, bigger around than the average human being, the bass plays the lowest notes of all the strings, providing the foundation for the orchestra’s sound. It’s played sitting on a tall stool or standing up.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Flute: </b>The flute’s mouthpiece is blown across, just like a bottle; it produces a sweet, silvery sound.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Oboe: </b>This instrument is played by blowing into a reed, a whittled-down flat piece of sugar cane. It produces one of the most beautiful sounds on earth: clear, vibrant, sweet, plaintive, and full.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Clarinet:</b> This dark, tubular woodwind instrument creates a full, round sound, very pure, without the edge of the oboe’s sound.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Bassoon:</b> It looks like a plumbing pipe, but it sounds like a dream. The high notes sound throaty, even otherworldly. The middle notes sound luscious, full, mellow; low notes can be very powerful.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>French Horn</b> <b>(or just Horn):</b> The most noble-sounding brass instrument has a full, round, dark tone, which is great for majestic hunting calls.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Trumpet:</b> The most powerful orchestral instrument and the highest-pitched brass instrument, the trumpet executes impressive runs and leaps in a single bound.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Trombone: </b>A<b> </b>powerful low brass instrument with a movable slide to change notes, the trombone is essential for parades, as well as symphonies.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Tuba:</b> The lowest of the brass instruments can produce a wall of low, blasting sound.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Percussion: </b>The player is expected to be a master of a vast range of different instruments: timpani (the great big kettledrums), bass drum, snare drum (for marches), cymbals<b> </b>(for crashing together), xylophone (played with mallets), and other oddities.</p>\r\n<img src=\"//www.coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/479174.image0.jpg\" alt=\"image0.jpg\" width=\"452\" height=\"400\" /></li>\r\n</ul>","description":"Let’s meet the Classical orchestra. It’s the big night: You show up at the concert hall. But holy smokes, there are almost 100 people up on that stage. Here’s what they’re playing:\r\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Violin: </b>The instrument is made of wood; the bow is made of horsehair; the four strings are made of metal; the sound is sweet, singing, and divine. Violin players are divided into two sections, first and second violins, each with different music to play.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Viola: </b>Slightly larger than a violin, a viola plays slightly lower notes, with a breathier or throatier sound than a violin.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Cello: </b>The cello is<b> </b>played sitting down, with the instrument between the legs. It makes a beautiful, rich, singing sound.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Bass</b> <b>(or Double Bass):</b> Enormous, bigger around than the average human being, the bass plays the lowest notes of all the strings, providing the foundation for the orchestra’s sound. It’s played sitting on a tall stool or standing up.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Flute: </b>The flute’s mouthpiece is blown across, just like a bottle; it produces a sweet, silvery sound.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Oboe: </b>This instrument is played by blowing into a reed, a whittled-down flat piece of sugar cane. It produces one of the most beautiful sounds on earth: clear, vibrant, sweet, plaintive, and full.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Clarinet:</b> This dark, tubular woodwind instrument creates a full, round sound, very pure, without the edge of the oboe’s sound.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Bassoon:</b> It looks like a plumbing pipe, but it sounds like a dream. The high notes sound throaty, even otherworldly. The middle notes sound luscious, full, mellow; low notes can be very powerful.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>French Horn</b> <b>(or just Horn):</b> The most noble-sounding brass instrument has a full, round, dark tone, which is great for majestic hunting calls.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Trumpet:</b> The most powerful orchestral instrument and the highest-pitched brass instrument, the trumpet executes impressive runs and leaps in a single bound.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Trombone: </b>A<b> </b>powerful low brass instrument with a movable slide to change notes, the trombone is essential for parades, as well as symphonies.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Tuba:</b> The lowest of the brass instruments can produce a wall of low, blasting sound.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Percussion: </b>The player is expected to be a master of a vast range of different instruments: timpani (the great big kettledrums), bass drum, snare drum (for marches), cymbals<b> </b>(for crashing together), xylophone (played with mallets), and other oddities.</p>\r\n<img src=\"//www.coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/479174.image0.jpg\" alt=\"image0.jpg\" width=\"452\" height=\"400\" /></li>\r\n</ul>","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":9103,"name":"David Pogue","slug":"david-pogue","description":" About David Pogue David Pogue is a member of the International Brotherhood of Magicians and has performed magic at parties, special events, on TV, and even over the radio for 25 years. He created and taught the beginning magic programs at the New School for Social Research and the Learning Annex. He has been known to mesmerize audiences with his magic tricks while on tour promoting his many bestselling books, including Macs?? For Dummies??, 5th Edition, Opera For Dummies??, and Classical Music For Dummies??. Contributor Mark Levy, magic consultant, has levitated and read spectators' minds for nearly 30 years. His writings have appeared in some of magic's most revered literary sources, including Richard Kaufman's CardMagic, Apocalypse magazine, and Magic.","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9103"}},{"authorId":9104,"name":"Scott Speck","slug":"scott-speck","description":" <p><b>Scott Speck</b> has conducted hundreds of ballet performances throughout the United States and Europe. He is Music Director of the Joffrey Ballet, Artistic Director of the Chicago Philharmonic Orchestra, and former Conductor of the San Francisco Ballet. <b>Evelyn Cisneros</b> danced for the San Francisco Ballet for 23 years and is the Artistic Director of the National Dance Institute of New Mexico in Albuquerque. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9104"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33746,"title":"General Music","slug":"general-music","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33746"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[{"articleId":207495,"title":"Classical Music For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"classical-music-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","music","general-music"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/207495"}},{"articleId":143024,"title":"Exploring the Classical Music of the 21st Century","slug":"exploring-the-classical-music-of-the-21st-century","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","music","general-music"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/143024"}},{"articleId":143025,"title":"Classical Music Notation: It’s Only an Approximation","slug":"classical-music-notation-its-only-an-approximation","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","music","general-music"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/143025"}},{"articleId":143026,"title":"10 Great Chamber Music Pieces","slug":"10-great-chamber-music-pieces","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","music","general-music"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/143026"}},{"articleId":143023,"title":"How the Classical Concert Experience Has Changed","slug":"how-the-classical-concert-experience-is-changing-and-how-you-can-expect-it-to-change-still-further","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","music","general-music"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/143023"}}],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":207498,"title":"Music Business For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"music-business-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","music","general-music"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/207498"}},{"articleId":207495,"title":"Classical Music For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"classical-music-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","music","general-music"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/207495"}},{"articleId":200516,"title":"Defining Jazz: The Swingin' Thing","slug":"defining-jazz-the-swingin-thing","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","music","general-music"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/200516"}},{"articleId":200475,"title":"Discovering Jazz History","slug":"discovering-jazz-history","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","music","general-music"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/200475"}},{"articleId":200403,"title":"Examining Rap's Origins","slug":"examining-raps-origins","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","music","general-music"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/200403"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":282084,"slug":"classical-music-for-dummies","isbn":"9781119847748","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","music","general-music"],"amazon":{"default":"//www.amazon.com/gp/product/1119847745/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","ca":"//www.amazon.ca/gp/product/1119847745/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","indigo_ca":"//www.tkqlhce.com/click-9208661-13710633?url=//www.chapters.indigo.ca/en-ca/books/product/1119847745-item.html&cjsku=978111945484","gb":"//www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/1119847745/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","de":"//www.amazon.de/gp/product/1119847745/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20"},"image":{"src":"//www.coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/9781119847748-203x255.jpg","width":203,"height":255},"title":"Classical Music For Dummies, 3rd Edition","testBankPinActivationLink":"","bookOutOfPrint":true,"authorsInfo":"<p>About <b data-author-id=\"9103\">David Pogue</b> <b data-author-id=\"9103\">David Pogue</b> is a member of the International Brotherhood of Magicians and has performed magic at parties, special events, on TV, and even over the radio for 25 years. He created and taught the beginning magic programs at the New School for Social Research and the Learning Annex. He has been known to mesmerize audiences with his magic tricks while on tour promoting his many bestselling books, including Macs?? For Dummies??, 5th Edition, Opera For Dummies??, and Classical Music For Dummies??. Contributor Mark Levy, magic consultant, has levitated and read spectators' minds for nearly 30 years. His writings have appeared in some of magic's most revered literary sources, including Richard Kaufman's CardMagic, Apocalypse magazine, and Magic. <p><b><b data-author-id=\"9104\">Scott Speck</b></b> has conducted hundreds of ballet performances throughout the United States and Europe. He is Music Director of the Joffrey Ballet, Artistic Director of the Chicago Philharmonic Orchestra, and former Conductor of the San Francisco Ballet. <b>Evelyn Cisneros</b> danced for the San Francisco Ballet for 23 years and is the Artistic Director of the National Dance Institute of New Mexico in Albuquerque.</p>","authors":[{"authorId":9103,"name":"David Pogue","slug":"david-pogue","description":" About David Pogue David Pogue is a member of the International Brotherhood of Magicians and has performed magic at parties, special events, on TV, and even over the radio for 25 years. He created and taught the beginning magic programs at the New School for Social Research and the Learning Annex. He has been known to mesmerize audiences with his magic tricks while on tour promoting his many bestselling books, including Macs?? For Dummies??, 5th Edition, Opera For Dummies??, and Classical Music For Dummies??. Contributor Mark Levy, magic consultant, has levitated and read spectators' minds for nearly 30 years. His writings have appeared in some of magic's most revered literary sources, including Richard Kaufman's CardMagic, Apocalypse magazine, and Magic.","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9103"}},{"authorId":9104,"name":"Scott Speck","slug":"scott-speck","description":" <p><b>Scott Speck</b> has conducted hundreds of ballet performances throughout the United States and Europe. He is Music Director of the Joffrey Ballet, Artistic Director of the Chicago Philharmonic Orchestra, and former Conductor of the San Francisco Ballet. <b>Evelyn Cisneros</b> danced for the San Francisco Ballet for 23 years and is the Artistic Director of the National Dance Institute of New Mexico in Albuquerque. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9104"}}],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/books/"}},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;music&quot;,&quot;general-music&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781119847748&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-6515e98f18021\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;music&quot;,&quot;general-music&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781119847748&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-6515e98f18797\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Articles","articleList":null,"content":null,"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Explore","lifeExpectancy":"Five years","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2024-09-28T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":143021},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2017-03-26T07:42:44+00:00","modifiedTime":"2024-09-28T18:54:30+00:00","timestamp":"2024-09-28T21:01:02+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Academics & The Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"Music","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33730"},"slug":"music","categoryId":33730},{"name":"General Music","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33746"},"slug":"general-music","categoryId":33746}],"title":"Exploring the Classical Music of the 21st Century","strippedTitle":"exploring the classical music of the 21st century","slug":"exploring-the-classical-music-of-the-21st-century","canonicalUrl":"","检目录擎系统提升系统":{"metaDescription":"Learn how the classical music composers of the 21st century differ in their overall approach than those of the 20th century.","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"Despite stereotypes of old, long-haired, dead composers (and an even older audience), the art of creating classical music is still very much alive. Composers continue to write for soloists, chamber ensembles, and orchestras, and their works continue to carve new paths in the cultural landscape.\r\n\r\nBut classical music in the 21st century differs from classical music of the 20th century in one important respect: It sounds <i>less modern</i> than the older music did. Here you can discover how composers lost their harmonic bearings a century ago — and recently found their way back again.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" >Abandoning harmony</h2>\r\nIn the 20th century, nearly all composers who wanted to be taken seriously experimented with new harsh discords and unsteady rhythms. On the assumption that all the possibilities of harmony had already been exhausted in the Romantic era, they decided to try something different. Composers threw themselves into the pursuit of <i>atonality</i><i>, </i>or dissonance<i>,</i> even going so far as to embrace <i>serialism</i><i> </i>— the idea that every single note had to be used with equal frequency.\r\n\r\nA few great masterpieces came out of this 20th-century ban on tonality — but really, only a few. It’s impossible to overstate the peer pressure that composers felt to abandon traditional harmony. Many extremely talented classical composers with traditional harmonic or melodic tendencies were absolutely stymied by this temporary mass hysteria. Nobody knows what works of genius could have resulted had these composers been able express themselves fully.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab2\" >Returning to sanity</h2>\r\nThe fact is, traditional harmony is based on the series of natural overtones, and that’s why it sounds beautiful to many people’s ears. In the 21st century, classical composers are once again turning to the tried-and-true harmonies that made the music of earlier centuries so successful. (Of course, popular music never abandoned these harmonies; that’s one reason why it’s called popular.)\r\n\r\nToday’s groundbreaking classical composers are more likely than not to use tonality — and it’s no surprise that they are finding a wider audience than before.\r\n\r\nClassical composers are also incorporating today’s dance forms into their music — just as Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart used the minuet, Johann Strauss used the waltz, Gustav Mahler used the Ländler, and Leonard Bernstein used the mambo.\r\n\r\nThe contemporary composer Mason Bates worked as a DJ for years before creating compositions that juxtapose the orchestra with groovy synthesized dance jams. Composers as different as Aaron Jay Kernis, Jennifer Higdon, Kenji Bunch, Osvaldo Golijov, and Michael Abels have been known to incorporate strains of jazz or rock into their work.\r\n\r\nJust as interesting, in the 21st century, is the interface between concert music and music for movies, TV, and video games. John Williams, Oscar-winning composer of countless world-renowned film scores, has also lent his signature style to several beautiful concert works — most notably concertos for harp, bassoon, tuba, and cello, each with orchestra. And the Grammy-nominated video game composer Austin Wintory is making his mark in the concert hall, as well.\r\n\r\nThese new developments are welcome. Once upon a time there was no difference between classical and popular music. There was only <i>music </i>—<i> </i>the music of the people. The craziness of the 20th-century music intensified charges of elitism that sent people flying from concert halls in droves.\r\n\r\nToday’s audiences are much more likely to stay. The public is becoming more interested in what the composers are doing. Composers are relating to their listeners, and vice versa. Slowly, classical music is starting to become the music of the people once again.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab3\" >Listening to the music of the 21st century</h2>\r\nTalented young composers are whipping up delicious new creations all the time. Check out the offerings of your local orchestra, or tune in to any classical radio station, for a few gorgeous examples. But you can’t go wrong with these beautiful pieces, all written since the turn of the millennium:\r\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">Michael Abels: Delights and Dances for string quartet with orchestra</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">Mason Bates: <i>The B Sides</i></p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">Kenji Bunch: Symphony no. 1 (<i>Lichtenstein Triptych</i>)</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">Anna Clyne: <i>Night Ferry</i></p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">Osvaldo Golijov: <i>Mariel</i></p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">Jennifer Higdon: <i>b</i><i>lue </i><i>c</i><i>athedral</i></p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">Aaron Jay Kernis: <i>Color Wheel</i></p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">Kevin Puts: Piano Concerto (<i>Night</i>)</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">Christopher Theofanidis: <i>Rainbow Body</i></p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">John Williams: Harp Concerto (<i>On Willows and Birches</i>)</p>\r\n</li>\r\n</ul>","description":"Despite stereotypes of old, long-haired, dead composers (and an even older audience), the art of creating classical music is still very much alive. Composers continue to write for soloists, chamber ensembles, and orchestras, and their works continue to carve new paths in the cultural landscape.\r\n\r\nBut classical music in the 21st century differs from classical music of the 20th century in one important respect: It sounds <i>less modern</i> than the older music did. Here you can discover how composers lost their harmonic bearings a century ago — and recently found their way back again.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" >Abandoning harmony</h2>\r\nIn the 20th century, nearly all composers who wanted to be taken seriously experimented with new harsh discords and unsteady rhythms. On the assumption that all the possibilities of harmony had already been exhausted in the Romantic era, they decided to try something different. Composers threw themselves into the pursuit of <i>atonality</i><i>, </i>or dissonance<i>,</i> even going so far as to embrace <i>serialism</i><i> </i>— the idea that every single note had to be used with equal frequency.\r\n\r\nA few great masterpieces came out of this 20th-century ban on tonality — but really, only a few. It’s impossible to overstate the peer pressure that composers felt to abandon traditional harmony. Many extremely talented classical composers with traditional harmonic or melodic tendencies were absolutely stymied by this temporary mass hysteria. Nobody knows what works of genius could have resulted had these composers been able express themselves fully.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab2\" >Returning to sanity</h2>\r\nThe fact is, traditional harmony is based on the series of natural overtones, and that’s why it sounds beautiful to many people’s ears. In the 21st century, classical composers are once again turning to the tried-and-true harmonies that made the music of earlier centuries so successful. (Of course, popular music never abandoned these harmonies; that’s one reason why it’s called popular.)\r\n\r\nToday’s groundbreaking classical composers are more likely than not to use tonality — and it’s no surprise that they are finding a wider audience than before.\r\n\r\nClassical composers are also incorporating today’s dance forms into their music — just as Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart used the minuet, Johann Strauss used the waltz, Gustav Mahler used the Ländler, and Leonard Bernstein used the mambo.\r\n\r\nThe contemporary composer Mason Bates worked as a DJ for years before creating compositions that juxtapose the orchestra with groovy synthesized dance jams. Composers as different as Aaron Jay Kernis, Jennifer Higdon, Kenji Bunch, Osvaldo Golijov, and Michael Abels have been known to incorporate strains of jazz or rock into their work.\r\n\r\nJust as interesting, in the 21st century, is the interface between concert music and music for movies, TV, and video games. John Williams, Oscar-winning composer of countless world-renowned film scores, has also lent his signature style to several beautiful concert works — most notably concertos for harp, bassoon, tuba, and cello, each with orchestra. And the Grammy-nominated video game composer Austin Wintory is making his mark in the concert hall, as well.\r\n\r\nThese new developments are welcome. Once upon a time there was no difference between classical and popular music. There was only <i>music </i>—<i> </i>the music of the people. The craziness of the 20th-century music intensified charges of elitism that sent people flying from concert halls in droves.\r\n\r\nToday’s audiences are much more likely to stay. The public is becoming more interested in what the composers are doing. Composers are relating to their listeners, and vice versa. Slowly, classical music is starting to become the music of the people once again.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab3\" >Listening to the music of the 21st century</h2>\r\nTalented young composers are whipping up delicious new creations all the time. Check out the offerings of your local orchestra, or tune in to any classical radio station, for a few gorgeous examples. But you can’t go wrong with these beautiful pieces, all written since the turn of the millennium:\r\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">Michael Abels: Delights and Dances for string quartet with orchestra</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">Mason Bates: <i>The B Sides</i></p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">Kenji Bunch: Symphony no. 1 (<i>Lichtenstein Triptych</i>)</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">Anna Clyne: <i>Night Ferry</i></p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">Osvaldo Golijov: <i>Mariel</i></p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">Jennifer Higdon: <i>b</i><i>lue </i><i>c</i><i>athedral</i></p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">Aaron Jay Kernis: <i>Color Wheel</i></p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">Kevin Puts: Piano Concerto (<i>Night</i>)</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">Christopher Theofanidis: <i>Rainbow Body</i></p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">John Williams: Harp Concerto (<i>On Willows and Birches</i>)</p>\r\n</li>\r\n</ul>","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":9103,"name":"David Pogue","slug":"david-pogue","description":" About David Pogue David Pogue is a member of the International Brotherhood of Magicians and has performed magic at parties, special events, on TV, and even over the radio for 25 years. He created and taught the beginning magic programs at the New School for Social Research and the Learning Annex. He has been known to mesmerize audiences with his magic tricks while on tour promoting his many bestselling books, including Macs?? For Dummies??, 5th Edition, Opera For Dummies??, and Classical Music For Dummies??. Contributor Mark Levy, magic consultant, has levitated and read spectators' minds for nearly 30 years. His writings have appeared in some of magic's most revered literary sources, including Richard Kaufman's CardMagic, Apocalypse magazine, and Magic.","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9103"}},{"authorId":9104,"name":"Scott Speck","slug":"scott-speck","description":" <p><b>Scott Speck</b> has conducted hundreds of ballet performances throughout the United States and Europe. He is Music Director of the Joffrey Ballet, Artistic Director of the Chicago Philharmonic Orchestra, and former Conductor of the San Francisco Ballet. <b>Evelyn Cisneros</b> danced for the San Francisco Ballet for 23 years and is the Artistic Director of the National Dance Institute of New Mexico in Albuquerque. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9104"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33746,"title":"General Music","slug":"general-music","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33746"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[{"label":"Abandoning harmony","target":"#tab1"},{"label":"Returning to sanity","target":"#tab2"},{"label":"Listening to the music of the 21st century","target":"#tab3"}],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[{"articleId":207495,"title":"Classical Music For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"classical-music-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","music","general-music"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/207495"}},{"articleId":143026,"title":"10 Great Chamber Music Pieces","slug":"10-great-chamber-music-pieces","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","music","general-music"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/143026"}},{"articleId":143025,"title":"Classical Music Notation: It’s Only an Approximation","slug":"classical-music-notation-its-only-an-approximation","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","music","general-music"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/143025"}},{"articleId":143023,"title":"How the Classical Concert Experience Has Changed","slug":"how-the-classical-concert-experience-is-changing-and-how-you-can-expect-it-to-change-still-further","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","music","general-music"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/143023"}},{"articleId":143021,"title":"Meet the Classical Orchestra","slug":"meet-the-classical-orchestra","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","music","general-music"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/143021"}}],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":207498,"title":"Music Business For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"music-business-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","music","general-music"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/207498"}},{"articleId":207495,"title":"Classical Music For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"classical-music-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","music","general-music"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/207495"}},{"articleId":200516,"title":"Defining Jazz: The Swingin' Thing","slug":"defining-jazz-the-swingin-thing","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","music","general-music"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/200516"}},{"articleId":200475,"title":"Discovering Jazz History","slug":"discovering-jazz-history","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","music","general-music"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/200475"}},{"articleId":200403,"title":"Examining Rap's Origins","slug":"examining-raps-origins","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","music","general-music"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/200403"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":282084,"slug":"classical-music-for-dummies","isbn":"9781119847748","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","music","general-music"],"amazon":{"default":"//www.amazon.com/gp/product/1119847745/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","ca":"//www.amazon.ca/gp/product/1119847745/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","indigo_ca":"//www.tkqlhce.com/click-9208661-13710633?url=//www.chapters.indigo.ca/en-ca/books/product/1119847745-item.html&cjsku=978111945484","gb":"//www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/1119847745/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","de":"//www.amazon.de/gp/product/1119847745/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20"},"image":{"src":"//www.coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/9781119847748-203x255.jpg","width":203,"height":255},"title":"Classical Music For Dummies, 3rd Edition","testBankPinActivationLink":"","bookOutOfPrint":true,"authorsInfo":"<p>About <b data-author-id=\"9103\">David Pogue</b> <b data-author-id=\"9103\">David Pogue</b> is a member of the International Brotherhood of Magicians and has performed magic at parties, special events, on TV, and even over the radio for 25 years. He created and taught the beginning magic programs at the New School for Social Research and the Learning Annex. He has been known to mesmerize audiences with his magic tricks while on tour promoting his many bestselling books, including Macs?? For Dummies??, 5th Edition, Opera For Dummies??, and Classical Music For Dummies??. Contributor Mark Levy, magic consultant, has levitated and read spectators' minds for nearly 30 years. His writings have appeared in some of magic's most revered literary sources, including Richard Kaufman's CardMagic, Apocalypse magazine, and Magic. <p><b><b data-author-id=\"9104\">Scott Speck</b></b> has conducted hundreds of ballet performances throughout the United States and Europe. He is Music Director of the Joffrey Ballet, Artistic Director of the Chicago Philharmonic Orchestra, and former Conductor of the San Francisco Ballet. <b>Evelyn Cisneros</b> danced for the San Francisco Ballet for 23 years and is the Artistic Director of the National Dance Institute of New Mexico in Albuquerque.</p>","authors":[{"authorId":9103,"name":"David Pogue","slug":"david-pogue","description":" About David Pogue David Pogue is a member of the International Brotherhood of Magicians and has performed magic at parties, special events, on TV, and even over the radio for 25 years. He created and taught the beginning magic programs at the New School for Social Research and the Learning Annex. He has been known to mesmerize audiences with his magic tricks while on tour promoting his many bestselling books, including Macs?? For Dummies??, 5th Edition, Opera For Dummies??, and Classical Music For Dummies??. Contributor Mark Levy, magic consultant, has levitated and read spectators' minds for nearly 30 years. His writings have appeared in some of magic's most revered literary sources, including Richard Kaufman's CardMagic, Apocalypse magazine, and Magic.","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9103"}},{"authorId":9104,"name":"Scott Speck","slug":"scott-speck","description":" <p><b>Scott Speck</b> has conducted hundreds of ballet performances throughout the United States and Europe. He is Music Director of the Joffrey Ballet, Artistic Director of the Chicago Philharmonic Orchestra, and former Conductor of the San Francisco Ballet. <b>Evelyn Cisneros</b> danced for the San Francisco Ballet for 23 years and is the Artistic Director of the National Dance Institute of New Mexico in Albuquerque. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9104"}}],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/books/"}},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;music&quot;,&quot;general-music&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781119847748&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-6515e98ec6a10\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;music&quot;,&quot;general-music&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781119847748&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-6515e98ec7131\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Articles","articleList":null,"content":null,"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Explore","lifeExpectancy":"Five years","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2024-09-28T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":143024},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2017-03-26T07:42:44+00:00","modifiedTime":"2024-09-28T18:34:46+00:00","timestamp":"2024-09-28T21:01:02+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Academics & The Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"Music","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33730"},"slug":"music","categoryId":33730},{"name":"General Music","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33746"},"slug":"general-music","categoryId":33746}],"title":"Classical Music Notation: It’s Only an Approximation","strippedTitle":"classical music notation: it’s only an approximation","slug":"classical-music-notation-its-only-an-approximation","canonicalUrl":"","检目录擎系统提升系统":{"metaDescription":"All written music must be interpreted to some extent by the player because musical notation cannot convey the composer's exact intentions.","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"Classical music notation be confusing. If you sit down at the piano and plunk out one of Ludwig van Beethoven’s incredible sonatas, you have only his written score to work from. The notes are all there, along with the rhythms and dynamics. However, it’s impossible to say how closely this written music mirrors the brilliant ideas in the composer’s head.\r\n\r\nWhen musicians play <i>any</i><i> </i>old music, in fact, all they have to go on is the composer’s notation. The written notes consist almost exclusively of exact subdivisions of a beat, such as eighth notes — or of exact multiples of a beat, such as whole notes. But in theory, a note can last any length of time.\r\n\r\nThere was no way in Beethoven’s time to write a note that lasted <i>about</i><i> </i><i>two</i><i>-seventh</i><i>s</i> of a beat. What would Beethoven have done if he wanted such a note? He could only write an approximation.\r\n<p class=\"Remember\">The fact is that any written musical notation can only scratch the surface of the composer’s intentions. The duration of a written note may be ever so slightly longer or shorter than the composer was actually feeling.</p>\r\n<p class=\"Remember\">The composer’s specified tempo (speed) might sound good only in rooms with certain acoustics. Even the addition of dynamics — markings to play loudly or softly, or to grow or diminish in volume — only give the vaguest idea of what the composer wanted.</p>\r\nThe earliest composers wrote nothing but the notes themselves — no indication of duration, speed, rhythm, or volume. A Gregorian chant from the Middle Ages looks like an unending sequence of pitches on a musical staff, a bunch of black dots going up and down. How should that be performed?\r\n\r\nBecause chants were sung in a monastery, most people think they should be performed slowly, reverently, without any particular rhythm, and with a gentle ebb and flow of volume — much as you might modulate your voice in a simple prayer. But who’s to say? Maybe they were meant to be screeched and wailed, at the top of your lungs, like a Van Halen guitar solo. No one will ever know.\r\n\r\nIn the Baroque era, when composers such as Johann Sebastian Bach notated the speed of the music at all, their markings were rudimentary: <i>allegr</i><i>o</i> (cheerful) or <i>adagio</i> (at ease), for example. But how fast is “cheerful,” and how slow is “at ease”? Furthermore, Baroque dynamic markings usually consisted of <i>piano </i>(softly) and<i> forte</i> (strongly) — and nothing in between.\r\n\r\nTo this day, musicians have no idea whether most Baroque composers ever wanted to hear a gradual <i>crescendo</i> (growing) or <i>diminuendo </i>(diminishing) in volume. As a result, sometimes Baroque music is performed with ever-changing dynamics, and sometimes it isn’t.\r\n\r\nComposers in the Classical era added more dynamic markings, and Ludwig van Beethoven was one of the first to use the metronome to specify a certain number of beats per minute. But even then, the dynamic and tempo notations remained inexact.\r\n\r\nA crescendo performed by a group of 24 musicians sounds very different from a crescendo made by a big orchestra of 100. And a superfast metronome marking might work comfortably for a small group of consummate virtuosos in a small room with clear acoustics — yet it might sound ridiculously frantic in the hands of a big group of amateurs in a boomy cathedral.\r\n\r\nSome composers, especially in the Romantic era and beyond, have tried to overcome this lack of precision by adding extra words. For example, rather than just writing <i>crescendo</i> (growing), a composer might write <i>molto crescendo </i>(growing a lot), or even <i>moltissimo crescendo </i>(growing a heck of a lot). But even then — how much is a lot?\r\n\r\nThe composer Gustav Mahler, himself a great conductor and interpreter of other people’s works, went to extremes to be understood. He was known to write such things as “from here until the end, make a gradual yet constant increase in volume.” But how gradual is gradual? How loud is the music to begin with? And how loud should it be at the end? Even today, there is no foolproof way to communicate musical intentions in notated form.\r\n<p class=\"Remember\">The fact is that all written music needs to be interpreted. And that’s where the fun begins. No matter how meticulously the composer has tried to capture his or her ideas on paper, it takes a person (or a group) with imagination and interesting musical ideas to attempt to embody what the composer intended. Music is nothing without living, breathing musicians to bring it to life. Thank goodness for that!</p>","description":"Classical music notation be confusing. If you sit down at the piano and plunk out one of Ludwig van Beethoven’s incredible sonatas, you have only his written score to work from. The notes are all there, along with the rhythms and dynamics. However, it’s impossible to say how closely this written music mirrors the brilliant ideas in the composer’s head.\r\n\r\nWhen musicians play <i>any</i><i> </i>old music, in fact, all they have to go on is the composer’s notation. The written notes consist almost exclusively of exact subdivisions of a beat, such as eighth notes — or of exact multiples of a beat, such as whole notes. But in theory, a note can last any length of time.\r\n\r\nThere was no way in Beethoven’s time to write a note that lasted <i>about</i><i> </i><i>two</i><i>-seventh</i><i>s</i> of a beat. What would Beethoven have done if he wanted such a note? He could only write an approximation.\r\n<p class=\"Remember\">The fact is that any written musical notation can only scratch the surface of the composer’s intentions. The duration of a written note may be ever so slightly longer or shorter than the composer was actually feeling.</p>\r\n<p class=\"Remember\">The composer’s specified tempo (speed) might sound good only in rooms with certain acoustics. Even the addition of dynamics — markings to play loudly or softly, or to grow or diminish in volume — only give the vaguest idea of what the composer wanted.</p>\r\nThe earliest composers wrote nothing but the notes themselves — no indication of duration, speed, rhythm, or volume. A Gregorian chant from the Middle Ages looks like an unending sequence of pitches on a musical staff, a bunch of black dots going up and down. How should that be performed?\r\n\r\nBecause chants were sung in a monastery, most people think they should be performed slowly, reverently, without any particular rhythm, and with a gentle ebb and flow of volume — much as you might modulate your voice in a simple prayer. But who’s to say? Maybe they were meant to be screeched and wailed, at the top of your lungs, like a Van Halen guitar solo. No one will ever know.\r\n\r\nIn the Baroque era, when composers such as Johann Sebastian Bach notated the speed of the music at all, their markings were rudimentary: <i>allegr</i><i>o</i> (cheerful) or <i>adagio</i> (at ease), for example. But how fast is “cheerful,” and how slow is “at ease”? Furthermore, Baroque dynamic markings usually consisted of <i>piano </i>(softly) and<i> forte</i> (strongly) — and nothing in between.\r\n\r\nTo this day, musicians have no idea whether most Baroque composers ever wanted to hear a gradual <i>crescendo</i> (growing) or <i>diminuendo </i>(diminishing) in volume. As a result, sometimes Baroque music is performed with ever-changing dynamics, and sometimes it isn’t.\r\n\r\nComposers in the Classical era added more dynamic markings, and Ludwig van Beethoven was one of the first to use the metronome to specify a certain number of beats per minute. But even then, the dynamic and tempo notations remained inexact.\r\n\r\nA crescendo performed by a group of 24 musicians sounds very different from a crescendo made by a big orchestra of 100. And a superfast metronome marking might work comfortably for a small group of consummate virtuosos in a small room with clear acoustics — yet it might sound ridiculously frantic in the hands of a big group of amateurs in a boomy cathedral.\r\n\r\nSome composers, especially in the Romantic era and beyond, have tried to overcome this lack of precision by adding extra words. For example, rather than just writing <i>crescendo</i> (growing), a composer might write <i>molto crescendo </i>(growing a lot), or even <i>moltissimo crescendo </i>(growing a heck of a lot). But even then — how much is a lot?\r\n\r\nThe composer Gustav Mahler, himself a great conductor and interpreter of other people’s works, went to extremes to be understood. He was known to write such things as “from here until the end, make a gradual yet constant increase in volume.” But how gradual is gradual? How loud is the music to begin with? And how loud should it be at the end? Even today, there is no foolproof way to communicate musical intentions in notated form.\r\n<p class=\"Remember\">The fact is that all written music needs to be interpreted. And that’s where the fun begins. No matter how meticulously the composer has tried to capture his or her ideas on paper, it takes a person (or a group) with imagination and interesting musical ideas to attempt to embody what the composer intended. Music is nothing without living, breathing musicians to bring it to life. Thank goodness for that!</p>","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":9103,"name":"David Pogue","slug":"david-pogue","description":" About David Pogue David Pogue is a member of the International Brotherhood of Magicians and has performed magic at parties, special events, on TV, and even over the radio for 25 years. He created and taught the beginning magic programs at the New School for Social Research and the Learning Annex. He has been known to mesmerize audiences with his magic tricks while on tour promoting his many bestselling books, including Macs?? For Dummies??, 5th Edition, Opera For Dummies??, and Classical Music For Dummies??. Contributor Mark Levy, magic consultant, has levitated and read spectators' minds for nearly 30 years. His writings have appeared in some of magic's most revered literary sources, including Richard Kaufman's CardMagic, Apocalypse magazine, and Magic.","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9103"}},{"authorId":9104,"name":"Scott Speck","slug":"scott-speck","description":" <p><b>Scott Speck</b> has conducted hundreds of ballet performances throughout the United States and Europe. He is Music Director of the Joffrey Ballet, Artistic Director of the Chicago Philharmonic Orchestra, and former Conductor of the San Francisco Ballet. <b>Evelyn Cisneros</b> danced for the San Francisco Ballet for 23 years and is the Artistic Director of the National Dance Institute of New Mexico in Albuquerque. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9104"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33746,"title":"General Music","slug":"general-music","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33746"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[{"articleId":207495,"title":"Classical Music For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"classical-music-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","music","general-music"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/207495"}},{"articleId":143026,"title":"10 Great Chamber Music Pieces","slug":"10-great-chamber-music-pieces","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","music","general-music"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/143026"}},{"articleId":143024,"title":"Exploring the Classical Music of the 21st Century","slug":"exploring-the-classical-music-of-the-21st-century","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","music","general-music"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/143024"}},{"articleId":143023,"title":"How the Classical Concert Experience Has Changed","slug":"how-the-classical-concert-experience-is-changing-and-how-you-can-expect-it-to-change-still-further","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","music","general-music"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/143023"}},{"articleId":143021,"title":"Meet the Classical Orchestra","slug":"meet-the-classical-orchestra","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","music","general-music"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/143021"}}],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":207498,"title":"Music Business For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"music-business-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","music","general-music"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/207498"}},{"articleId":207495,"title":"Classical Music For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"classical-music-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","music","general-music"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/207495"}},{"articleId":200516,"title":"Defining Jazz: The Swingin' Thing","slug":"defining-jazz-the-swingin-thing","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","music","general-music"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/200516"}},{"articleId":200475,"title":"Discovering Jazz History","slug":"discovering-jazz-history","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","music","general-music"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/200475"}},{"articleId":200403,"title":"Examining Rap's Origins","slug":"examining-raps-origins","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","music","general-music"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/200403"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":282084,"slug":"classical-music-for-dummies","isbn":"9781119847748","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","music","general-music"],"amazon":{"default":"//www.amazon.com/gp/product/1119847745/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","ca":"//www.amazon.ca/gp/product/1119847745/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","indigo_ca":"//www.tkqlhce.com/click-9208661-13710633?url=//www.chapters.indigo.ca/en-ca/books/product/1119847745-item.html&cjsku=978111945484","gb":"//www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/1119847745/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","de":"//www.amazon.de/gp/product/1119847745/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20"},"image":{"src":"//www.coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/9781119847748-203x255.jpg","width":203,"height":255},"title":"Classical Music For Dummies, 3rd Edition","testBankPinActivationLink":"","bookOutOfPrint":true,"authorsInfo":"<p>About <b data-author-id=\"9103\">David Pogue</b> <b data-author-id=\"9103\">David Pogue</b> is a member of the International Brotherhood of Magicians and has performed magic at parties, special events, on TV, and even over the radio for 25 years. He created and taught the beginning magic programs at the New School for Social Research and the Learning Annex. He has been known to mesmerize audiences with his magic tricks while on tour promoting his many bestselling books, including Macs?? For Dummies??, 5th Edition, Opera For Dummies??, and Classical Music For Dummies??. Contributor Mark Levy, magic consultant, has levitated and read spectators' minds for nearly 30 years. His writings have appeared in some of magic's most revered literary sources, including Richard Kaufman's CardMagic, Apocalypse magazine, and Magic. <p><b><b data-author-id=\"9104\">Scott Speck</b></b> has conducted hundreds of ballet performances throughout the United States and Europe. He is Music Director of the Joffrey Ballet, Artistic Director of the Chicago Philharmonic Orchestra, and former Conductor of the San Francisco Ballet. <b>Evelyn Cisneros</b> danced for the San Francisco Ballet for 23 years and is the Artistic Director of the National Dance Institute of New Mexico in Albuquerque.</p>","authors":[{"authorId":9103,"name":"David Pogue","slug":"david-pogue","description":" About David Pogue David Pogue is a member of the International Brotherhood of Magicians and has performed magic at parties, special events, on TV, and even over the radio for 25 years. He created and taught the beginning magic programs at the New School for Social Research and the Learning Annex. He has been known to mesmerize audiences with his magic tricks while on tour promoting his many bestselling books, including Macs?? For Dummies??, 5th Edition, Opera For Dummies??, and Classical Music For Dummies??. Contributor Mark Levy, magic consultant, has levitated and read spectators' minds for nearly 30 years. His writings have appeared in some of magic's most revered literary sources, including Richard Kaufman's CardMagic, Apocalypse magazine, and Magic.","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9103"}},{"authorId":9104,"name":"Scott Speck","slug":"scott-speck","description":" <p><b>Scott Speck</b> has conducted hundreds of ballet performances throughout the United States and Europe. He is Music Director of the Joffrey Ballet, Artistic Director of the Chicago Philharmonic Orchestra, and former Conductor of the San Francisco Ballet. <b>Evelyn Cisneros</b> danced for the San Francisco Ballet for 23 years and is the Artistic Director of the National Dance Institute of New Mexico in Albuquerque. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9104"}}],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/books/"}},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;music&quot;,&quot;general-music&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781119847748&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-6515e98ebe510\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;music&quot;,&quot;general-music&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781119847748&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-6515e98ebf2cc\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Articles","articleList":null,"content":null,"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Explore","lifeExpectancy":"Five years","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2024-09-28T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":143025},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2017-03-26T07:42:43+00:00","modifiedTime":"2023-10-06T15:15:52+00:00","timestamp":"2023-10-06T18:01:03+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Academics & The Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"Music","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33730"},"slug":"music","categoryId":33730},{"name":"General Music","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33746"},"slug":"general-music","categoryId":33746}],"title":"How the Classical Concert Experience Has Changed","strippedTitle":"how the classical concert experience has changed","slug":"how-the-classical-concert-experience-is-changing-and-how-you-can-expect-it-to-change-still-further","canonicalUrl":"","检目录擎系统提升系统":{"metaDescription":"The classical music concert world has seen some new developments during the last couple of decades. Learn what has changed.","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"The orchestra world is a slowly evolving beast. At its heart, a classical concert is the same animal that your grandparents may recognize. However, the past two decades have seen developments that have brought the audience closer to the music. Here’s a look at what’s changed — and what’s not.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" >Identifying what’s new</h2>\r\nFirst, much more new music is being performed, which is due primarily to one factor: new music is gorgeous again. Rather than exploring ever more alien and atonal styles, composers are reverting to tried-and-true ideas like melody, harmony, and beauty. The sound of a symphony written yesterday is all the more beautiful for exceeding expectations; the sight of a living composer onstage does wonders to remind the audience that music is a living thing.\r\n\r\nSecond, in recent years the prospect of a female or minority conductor or soloist (or President of the United States) has gone from strangely curious to practically normal — and the audition screen (a physical barrier between auditioning musicians and the jury, so that nobody knows what the auditioner looks like) has further leveled the playing field for female and minority musicians in major orchestras. Orchestras are finally beginning to look more and more like the rest of the world.\r\n\r\nThird, many orchestras have begun programming thematically — grouping the works on a program, or the programs in a series, according to a common theme (and naming the concert or series after that theme). Once the purview of smaller, more nimble orchestras, this practice has spread to many more, creating instant associations for the audience among the pieces on the program. It’s not unusual to see a whole program devoted to music about the ocean, for example — or a whole season devoted to the music of proudly nationalist composers. Of course, thematic programming is a marketer’s dream because it can easily spur the imagination — and it really helps pack the hall. But this kind of programming isn’t yet universally accepted, especially in the larger orchestras.\r\n\r\nFourth, small chamber groups and even whole orchestras have taken to performing in unorthodox venues, such as bars and coffeehouses. Audiences get a kick out of seeing their favorite guest artists up close, feeling like part of a special fan club — and maybe sharing a beer with them later.\r\n\r\nFinally, conductors, soloists, and chamber groups have begun talking to the audience from the stage. Even the most engaged listeners don’t always read the program book. Some conductors welcome the audience and comment on the history and structure of a complex work, sometimes having the orchestra demonstrate with examples. Even for the most musically knowledgeable audiences, a few words from the podium don’t hurt a bit.\r\n<p class=\"Remember\">These are all wonderful trends, providing a point of departure for new and old listeners alike. Unfortunately, with the exception of a few groundbreaking orchestras, just about everything else about the classical concert experience in the United States has remained the same over the past decade. For that matter, it’s remained the same over the past <i>century.</i></p>\r\nThe concert as picture in a gilded frame, painted on a canvas of silence, can be a stunningly beautiful thing. But even 90 years ago, the presentation of classical music, with its excessive reverence for the frame rather than the picture, appeared hopelessly antiquated to many. As far back as the 1920s, composers dreamed of shattering the barriers that had grown up around classical music organizations, whose conventional concerts they derided as “orgies of inbreeding.”\r\n\r\nClassical music, in fact, is the <i>only</i> art form that is still presented in essentially the same way as it was 100 years ago. Musical organizations often say that they don’t want the symphonic world to end up as a museum. Actually, they should be so lucky; with their stunning new exhibits and interactive displays, many of today’s museums are far more innovative than most orchestras. Opera and theater companies mount imaginative new productions of old masterworks; ballet companies commission tons of new choreography and new music. No doubt about it — compared to the producers of opera, dance, theater, and visual art, the typical classical music group still lags far behind.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab2\" >Looking to the future</h2>\r\nA great performance is vital and moving. But how should the presentation of art evolve over the next century? In most parts of the Western world, classical performances still attract an overwhelmingly Caucasian, Eurocentric, upper-middle-class, elderly audience. Surely that wouldn’t have satisfied the great composers, who poured out their hearts for all humanity.\r\n\r\nMusicians could go a long way toward refuting the cry of elitism by changing their uniforms. Seriously, what’s with the black and white? Tuxedos or black suits are fine for certain occasions, such as funerals — but must they be the norm in concert? They smack of exclusivity. They create a distance that the composer never intended. Surely someone can come up with a uniform that’s classy, elegant, modern, welcoming, and chic. If the Beatles could do it more than half a century ago, it can be done now.\r\n\r\nClassical music will attract some people more than others — and it’s a harder sell to teenage audiences. But look at the enormous success of Video Games Live — a sampling of video game images set to lush and dramatic (and overly amplified) orchestral music — which has filled classical concert halls to the brim throughout the world, with hardly a gray hair in sight. The same goes for the <i>Lord of the Rings</i> Symphony, complete with full orchestra and 200-voice chorus, which sold out multiple performances in prominent classical venues.\r\n\r\nHave you listened to this music? Seldom have the soundtracks of movies or video games so closely resembled the German Late Romantics. And young people love it. The visuals get them in the door, but it’s the music that makes their pulses race. Could it be that those who have fallen for <i>The Return of the King</i> or World of Warcraft could come to crave Brünnhilde’s immolation scene from <i>Götterdämmerung </i>— with appropriate visuals?\r\n\r\nIn the last century, venerable conductors such as Leopold Stokowski and Herbert von Karajan experimented with every medium, using technology to enhance the art form. Today’s classical musicians should follow their example. Society is increasingly visual; there’s no question that the next few decades will bring more video into the concert hall.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab3\" >Finding the truest solution</h2>\r\nOf course, visuals can go only so far; this is a medium of sound. Orchestras evolve at different rates, and there will always be room for the concert of the past. How do musical organizations give audiences a thorough understanding of why sounds matter? One way or another, the key is education.\r\n\r\nYoung children eagerly embrace classical music. Their minds are fully open; they immediately grasp the playful spirit of the great composers. It’s rare to meet a child who doesn’t love classical music.\r\n<p class=\"Tip\">Early exposure to classical music can ignite a lifelong passion. This is the truest solution, the kind that will ensure that future generations can share in the riches of classical music. The fact that you’re discovering these riches is a wonderful start. The best thing you can do now is share them with someone even younger.</p>","description":"The orchestra world is a slowly evolving beast. At its heart, a classical concert is the same animal that your grandparents may recognize. However, the past two decades have seen developments that have brought the audience closer to the music. Here’s a look at what’s changed — and what’s not.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" >Identifying what’s new</h2>\r\nFirst, much more new music is being performed, which is due primarily to one factor: new music is gorgeous again. Rather than exploring ever more alien and atonal styles, composers are reverting to tried-and-true ideas like melody, harmony, and beauty. The sound of a symphony written yesterday is all the more beautiful for exceeding expectations; the sight of a living composer onstage does wonders to remind the audience that music is a living thing.\r\n\r\nSecond, in recent years the prospect of a female or minority conductor or soloist (or President of the United States) has gone from strangely curious to practically normal — and the audition screen (a physical barrier between auditioning musicians and the jury, so that nobody knows what the auditioner looks like) has further leveled the playing field for female and minority musicians in major orchestras. Orchestras are finally beginning to look more and more like the rest of the world.\r\n\r\nThird, many orchestras have begun programming thematically — grouping the works on a program, or the programs in a series, according to a common theme (and naming the concert or series after that theme). Once the purview of smaller, more nimble orchestras, this practice has spread to many more, creating instant associations for the audience among the pieces on the program. It’s not unusual to see a whole program devoted to music about the ocean, for example — or a whole season devoted to the music of proudly nationalist composers. Of course, thematic programming is a marketer’s dream because it can easily spur the imagination — and it really helps pack the hall. But this kind of programming isn’t yet universally accepted, especially in the larger orchestras.\r\n\r\nFourth, small chamber groups and even whole orchestras have taken to performing in unorthodox venues, such as bars and coffeehouses. Audiences get a kick out of seeing their favorite guest artists up close, feeling like part of a special fan club — and maybe sharing a beer with them later.\r\n\r\nFinally, conductors, soloists, and chamber groups have begun talking to the audience from the stage. Even the most engaged listeners don’t always read the program book. Some conductors welcome the audience and comment on the history and structure of a complex work, sometimes having the orchestra demonstrate with examples. Even for the most musically knowledgeable audiences, a few words from the podium don’t hurt a bit.\r\n<p class=\"Remember\">These are all wonderful trends, providing a point of departure for new and old listeners alike. Unfortunately, with the exception of a few groundbreaking orchestras, just about everything else about the classical concert experience in the United States has remained the same over the past decade. For that matter, it’s remained the same over the past <i>century.</i></p>\r\nThe concert as picture in a gilded frame, painted on a canvas of silence, can be a stunningly beautiful thing. But even 90 years ago, the presentation of classical music, with its excessive reverence for the frame rather than the picture, appeared hopelessly antiquated to many. As far back as the 1920s, composers dreamed of shattering the barriers that had grown up around classical music organizations, whose conventional concerts they derided as “orgies of inbreeding.”\r\n\r\nClassical music, in fact, is the <i>only</i> art form that is still presented in essentially the same way as it was 100 years ago. Musical organizations often say that they don’t want the symphonic world to end up as a museum. Actually, they should be so lucky; with their stunning new exhibits and interactive displays, many of today’s museums are far more innovative than most orchestras. Opera and theater companies mount imaginative new productions of old masterworks; ballet companies commission tons of new choreography and new music. No doubt about it — compared to the producers of opera, dance, theater, and visual art, the typical classical music group still lags far behind.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab2\" >Looking to the future</h2>\r\nA great performance is vital and moving. But how should the presentation of art evolve over the next century? In most parts of the Western world, classical performances still attract an overwhelmingly Caucasian, Eurocentric, upper-middle-class, elderly audience. Surely that wouldn’t have satisfied the great composers, who poured out their hearts for all humanity.\r\n\r\nMusicians could go a long way toward refuting the cry of elitism by changing their uniforms. Seriously, what’s with the black and white? Tuxedos or black suits are fine for certain occasions, such as funerals — but must they be the norm in concert? They smack of exclusivity. They create a distance that the composer never intended. Surely someone can come up with a uniform that’s classy, elegant, modern, welcoming, and chic. If the Beatles could do it more than half a century ago, it can be done now.\r\n\r\nClassical music will attract some people more than others — and it’s a harder sell to teenage audiences. But look at the enormous success of Video Games Live — a sampling of video game images set to lush and dramatic (and overly amplified) orchestral music — which has filled classical concert halls to the brim throughout the world, with hardly a gray hair in sight. The same goes for the <i>Lord of the Rings</i> Symphony, complete with full orchestra and 200-voice chorus, which sold out multiple performances in prominent classical venues.\r\n\r\nHave you listened to this music? Seldom have the soundtracks of movies or video games so closely resembled the German Late Romantics. And young people love it. The visuals get them in the door, but it’s the music that makes their pulses race. Could it be that those who have fallen for <i>The Return of the King</i> or World of Warcraft could come to crave Brünnhilde’s immolation scene from <i>Götterdämmerung </i>— with appropriate visuals?\r\n\r\nIn the last century, venerable conductors such as Leopold Stokowski and Herbert von Karajan experimented with every medium, using technology to enhance the art form. Today’s classical musicians should follow their example. Society is increasingly visual; there’s no question that the next few decades will bring more video into the concert hall.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab3\" >Finding the truest solution</h2>\r\nOf course, visuals can go only so far; this is a medium of sound. Orchestras evolve at different rates, and there will always be room for the concert of the past. How do musical organizations give audiences a thorough understanding of why sounds matter? One way or another, the key is education.\r\n\r\nYoung children eagerly embrace classical music. Their minds are fully open; they immediately grasp the playful spirit of the great composers. It’s rare to meet a child who doesn’t love classical music.\r\n<p class=\"Tip\">Early exposure to classical music can ignite a lifelong passion. This is the truest solution, the kind that will ensure that future generations can share in the riches of classical music. The fact that you’re discovering these riches is a wonderful start. The best thing you can do now is share them with someone even younger.</p>","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":9103,"name":"David Pogue","slug":"david-pogue","description":" About David Pogue David Pogue is a member of the International Brotherhood of Magicians and has performed magic at parties, special events, on TV, and even over the radio for 25 years. He created and taught the beginning magic programs at the New School for Social Research and the Learning Annex. He has been known to mesmerize audiences with his magic tricks while on tour promoting his many bestselling books, including Macs?? For Dummies??, 5th Edition, Opera For Dummies??, and Classical Music For Dummies??. Contributor Mark Levy, magic consultant, has levitated and read spectators' minds for nearly 30 years. His writings have appeared in some of magic's most revered literary sources, including Richard Kaufman's CardMagic, Apocalypse magazine, and Magic.","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9103"}},{"authorId":9104,"name":"Scott Speck","slug":"scott-speck","description":" <p><b>Scott Speck</b> has conducted hundreds of ballet performances throughout the United States and Europe. He is Music Director of the Joffrey Ballet, Artistic Director of the Chicago Philharmonic Orchestra, and former Conductor of the San Francisco Ballet. <b>Evelyn Cisneros</b> danced for the San Francisco Ballet for 23 years and is the Artistic Director of the National Dance Institute of New Mexico in Albuquerque. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9104"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33746,"title":"General Music","slug":"general-music","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33746"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[{"label":"Identifying what’s new","target":"#tab1"},{"label":"Looking to the future","target":"#tab2"},{"label":"Finding the truest solution","target":"#tab3"}],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[{"articleId":207495,"title":"Classical Music For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"classical-music-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","music","general-music"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/207495"}},{"articleId":143024,"title":"Exploring the Classical Music of the 21st Century","slug":"exploring-the-classical-music-of-the-21st-century","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","music","general-music"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/143024"}},{"articleId":143025,"title":"Classical Music Notation: It’s Only an Approximation","slug":"classical-music-notation-its-only-an-approximation","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","music","general-music"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/143025"}},{"articleId":143026,"title":"10 Great Chamber Music Pieces","slug":"10-great-chamber-music-pieces","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","music","general-music"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/143026"}},{"articleId":143021,"title":"Meet the Classical Orchestra","slug":"meet-the-classical-orchestra","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","music","general-music"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/143021"}}],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":207498,"title":"Music Business For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"music-business-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","music","general-music"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/207498"}},{"articleId":207495,"title":"Classical Music For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"classical-music-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","music","general-music"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/207495"}},{"articleId":200516,"title":"Defining Jazz: The Swingin' Thing","slug":"defining-jazz-the-swingin-thing","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","music","general-music"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/200516"}},{"articleId":200475,"title":"Discovering Jazz History","slug":"discovering-jazz-history","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","music","general-music"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/200475"}},{"articleId":200403,"title":"Examining Rap's Origins","slug":"examining-raps-origins","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","music","general-music"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/200403"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":282084,"slug":"classical-music-for-dummies","isbn":"9781119847748","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","music","general-music"],"amazon":{"default":"//www.amazon.com/gp/product/1119847745/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","ca":"//www.amazon.ca/gp/product/1119847745/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","indigo_ca":"//www.tkqlhce.com/click-9208661-13710633?url=//www.chapters.indigo.ca/en-ca/books/product/1119847745-item.html&cjsku=978111945484","gb":"//www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/1119847745/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","de":"//www.amazon.de/gp/product/1119847745/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20"},"image":{"src":"//www.coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/9781119847748-203x255.jpg","width":203,"height":255},"title":"Classical Music For Dummies, 3rd Edition","testBankPinActivationLink":"","bookOutOfPrint":true,"authorsInfo":"<p>About <b data-author-id=\"9103\">David Pogue</b> <b data-author-id=\"9103\">David Pogue</b> is a member of the International Brotherhood of Magicians and has performed magic at parties, special events, on TV, and even over the radio for 25 years. He created and taught the beginning magic programs at the New School for Social Research and the Learning Annex. He has been known to mesmerize audiences with his magic tricks while on tour promoting his many bestselling books, including Macs?? For Dummies??, 5th Edition, Opera For Dummies??, and Classical Music For Dummies??. Contributor Mark Levy, magic consultant, has levitated and read spectators' minds for nearly 30 years. His writings have appeared in some of magic's most revered literary sources, including Richard Kaufman's CardMagic, Apocalypse magazine, and Magic. <p><b><b data-author-id=\"9104\">Scott Speck</b></b> has conducted hundreds of ballet performances throughout the United States and Europe. He is Music Director of the Joffrey Ballet, Artistic Director of the Chicago Philharmonic Orchestra, and former Conductor of the San Francisco Ballet. <b>Evelyn Cisneros</b> danced for the San Francisco Ballet for 23 years and is the Artistic Director of the National Dance Institute of New Mexico in Albuquerque.</p>","authors":[{"authorId":9103,"name":"David Pogue","slug":"david-pogue","description":" About David Pogue David Pogue is a member of the International Brotherhood of Magicians and has performed magic at parties, special events, on TV, and even over the radio for 25 years. He created and taught the beginning magic programs at the New School for Social Research and the Learning Annex. He has been known to mesmerize audiences with his magic tricks while on tour promoting his many bestselling books, including Macs?? For Dummies??, 5th Edition, Opera For Dummies??, and Classical Music For Dummies??. Contributor Mark Levy, magic consultant, has levitated and read spectators' minds for nearly 30 years. His writings have appeared in some of magic's most revered literary sources, including Richard Kaufman's CardMagic, Apocalypse magazine, and Magic.","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9103"}},{"authorId":9104,"name":"Scott Speck","slug":"scott-speck","description":" <p><b>Scott Speck</b> has conducted hundreds of ballet performances throughout the United States and Europe. He is Music Director of the Joffrey Ballet, Artistic Director of the Chicago Philharmonic Orchestra, and former Conductor of the San Francisco Ballet. <b>Evelyn Cisneros</b> danced for the San Francisco Ballet for 23 years and is the Artistic Director of the National Dance Institute of New Mexico in Albuquerque. 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