chơi xổ số keno trực tuyến

{"appState":{"pageLoadApiCallsStatus":true},"categoryState":{"relatedCategories":{"headers":{"timestamp":"2025-01-31T04:01:08+00:00"},"categoryId":33712,"data":{"title":"Law","slug":"law","image":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Academics & The Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"Law","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33712"},"slug":"law","categoryId":33712}],"parentCategory":{"categoryId":33662,"title":"Academics & The Arts","slug":"academics-the-arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"}},"childCategories":[{"categoryId":33713,"title":"Constitutional Law","slug":"constitutional-law","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33713"},"image":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"hasArticle":true,"hasBook":true,"articleCount":6,"bookCount":1},{"categoryId":33714,"title":"Contract Law","slug":"contract-law","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33714"},"image":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"hasArticle":true,"hasBook":true,"articleCount":14,"bookCount":1},{"categoryId":33715,"title":"Copyright:chơi xổ số keno trực tuyếnMọi quyền được bảo lưu cho trang web chính thứcs, Trademarks, & Patents","slug":"copyrights-trademarks-patents","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33715"},"image":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"hasArticle":true,"hasBook":true,"articleCount":8,"bookCount":1},{"categoryId":33717,"title":"Small Business Law","slug":"small-business-law","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33717"},"image":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"hasArticle":true,"hasBook":true,"articleCount":11,"bookCount":1},{"categoryId":33719,"title":"General Law","slug":"general-law","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33719"},"image":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"hasArticle":true,"hasBook":true,"articleCount":11,"bookCount":3}],"description":"Get the lowdown on law, whether it's contracts, copyrights, or the U.S. Constitution. We've got the basics to help you navigate law school, small business, and beyond.","relatedArticles":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles?category=33712&offset=0&size=5"},"hasArticle":true,"hasBook":true,"articleCount":50,"bookCount":8},"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33712"}},"relatedCategoriesLoadedStatus":"success"},"listState":{"list":{"count":10,"total":50,"items":[{"headers":{"creationTime":"2017-03-26T07:13:28+00:00","modifiedTime":"2024-04-27T19:07:09+00:00","timestamp":"2024-04-27T21:01:03+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Academics & The Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"Law","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33712"},"slug":"law","categoryId":33712},{"name":"Small Business Law","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33717"},"slug":"small-business-law","categoryId":33717}],"title":"10 Ways To Deal with Tough Guys in Business","strippedTitle":"10 ways to deal with tough guys in business","slug":"10-ways-of-dealing-with-tough-guys-in-your-small-business","canonicalUrl":"","检引索擎改善":{"metaDescription":"The business world is full of \"tough guys,\" and it's likely the day will come when you need to know how to recognize the tell-tale bullying behavior, and how to","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"The business world is full of \"tough guys,\" and it's likely the day will come when you need to know how to recognize the tell-tale bullying behavior, and how to handle it. So here's your guide to dealing with these bullies — a skill that's sure to help you achieve your goal of becoming a successful entrepreneur.\r\n\r\nYou can come across tough-guy trading partners in your contractual negotiations and tough guys in disputes, as well as tough-guy investors and tough-guy lawyers. Tough-guy behavior can consist of threats, hostility, complaints, unreasonable deadlines, and many other forms of pressure. Most such behavior is done on purpose, as a manipulative approach designed to make you feel bad and put pressure on you.\r\n<p class=\"Remember\">The best approach is to <i>make their behavior the issue</i>. Stop the discussion and don't continue until the bad behavior has been raised and addressed. After you make it clear that you know what's going on, they're likely to drop the tactic.</p>\r\nSome people find this advice puzzling and feel that they ought to be 'professional' and ignore the bad behavior, perhaps sending an \"I'm not going to stoop to that level\" message. But if you allow tough guys to get away with their bad behavior, they just keep doing it, making it harder and harder for you to get what you need from the situation.\r\n\r\nAlso, watch out for tough guys who claim that they're being \"very fair\" or \"totally reasonable.\" Usually, it's a smoke screen to mask their extreme positions. Ask them what they mean by \"fair\" — that stumps them. Or walk through the issue: \"It's not a question of who's being reasonable, I need \"x.\" What can you do for me?\" Game, set, and match.<u></u>\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" >Dealing with threats<u></u></h2>\r\nIf someone is threatening you, you don't have to sit there and put up with it. You normally have a choice as to how you make the person's behaviour the issue. You can say, \"We don't do business on the basis of threats, shall we start again?\" If that sounds too confrontational, try, \"How would it be if neither of us threatens the other in this discussion?\" or \"Correct me if I'm wrong, but isn't the atmosphere rather hostile?\" Much gentler.\r\n\r\nNormally, threat-makers back off when you draw specific attention to their behaviour. Responding in this way may sound a bit frightening, but you have to do it only once — and it's almost certainly better than having to deal with the prospect of their ongoing and repeated threatening behaviour.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab2\" >Handling aggression</h2>\r\nYou don't have to take aggressive behaviour. If someone is shouting at you or being hostile while you're negotiating a deal, you can handle it.\r\n\r\nYou can say, \"Why is the atmosphere so hostile\" — that often does the trick. Too blunt for you? How about, \"Can I just check we're all agreed that neither of us is going to be hostile to the other?\" Or you can ask them what they'd do if they were in your shoes and feeling very uncomfortable with the ferocity of the climate. That might lead them to change their behaviour.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab3\" >Parrying personal attacks</h2>\r\nSometimes so-called tough guys make personal attacks on you to undermine your state of mind and make you feel anxious. They may comment on your competence, seek to undermine your status, deliberately choose to misunderstand you to try and trip you up, keep you waiting, or choose an uncomfortable seating arrangement or a venue where you feel at a disadvantage.\r\n\r\nThe answer is to make their behaviour the issue. Any of these responses can put them off their stroke, I promise:\r\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">\"Is there any particular reason why I've been seated in the least comfortable chair and you're sitting above me?\"</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">\"What would be your response if you'd been kept waiting 45 minutes for a meeting?\"</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">\"Let me check that we agree that we're going to be tough on the issues and not on each other . . . am I wrong about that?\"</p>\r\n</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<h2 id=\"tab4\" >Calling bluff on complaints<u></u></h2>\r\nSometimes people put forward complaints opportunistically. They do so to try and gain the moral high ground in the negotiation, regardless of whether the complaint is bogus. If you encounter this approach, confront the person like this: \"I propose that you stop asserting this fanciful claim, because the negotiation will go a lot better if it's grounded in reality.\"\r\n\r\nAlternatively (whether you think the complaint is real or not), get the person to repeat it. People often invest their complaints with a lot less energy the second time around, and so this takes the volume down. You can then reduce it further by summarising the complaint yourself (\"I see, so what you're saying is . . .\"). By then, the complaint is assuming manageable proportions.\r\n\r\nYou then can cut through it entirely by asking the other side to state its remedy. Doing so often takes the wind out of complainers' sails completely, because if the complaint is bogus, they've been thinking only about how to put you off by moaning, and not about a remedy if the complaint was legitimate.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab5\" >Meeting good cop/bad cop<u></u></h2>\r\nA lot of people use this tactic, thinking that they're being cunning, but in fact it's just an annoying cliché and can quickly be countered. The \"bad cop\" tries to beat you up in the negotiation while the \"good cop\" is reassuring and even disapproving of the bad cop.\r\n\r\nThe good cop then tries to soft-talk you into concessions, the seductive promise being that if you go along with them, the bad cop will leave you alone. Guess what? You can puncture this tactic by making their behavior the issue by saying: \"I'm very confused here. One of you is being very pleasant, and the other is acting all tough. Why don't we stop for five minutes so you two can agree on a common approach. Then we can start again.\"\r\n\r\nThat should sort it out. No point in them continuing with the tactic after you've made a statement like that.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab6\" >Swatting away the salami slicers<u></u></h2>\r\nThe subtle tactic of the tough-guy salami slicer is to keep coming back to you asking for more in a discussion or negotiation — but in such small amounts that you're tempted to agree with them each time, because the person doesn't seem to be asking for much. Salami slicers keep taking slice after slice until you suddenly realise that virtually the whole salami has gone.\r\n\r\nThe way to overcome this behaviour is to say, \"Is that it?\" when salami slicers come back for more. If they say \"yes,\" hold them to that agreement. If they say \"no,\" you know they'll be back for more even if you agree to this latest round of concessions. Therefore, you can negotiate strongly on those points without feeling as though you're preventing the deal from closing.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab7\" >Coping with deadline pressure<u></u></h2>\r\nPressure-merchants try to hurry up your decision, pressurising you into making a mistake or a concession that you wouldn't otherwise make by creating the fear that if you don't decide quickly the opportunity is lost. \"Buy while stocks last\" is the mantra of these tough guys. To bring it close to home they may say, \"If you don't agree now, then I won't invest,\" or \"If you don't concede by 5 p.m., we'll issue legal proceedings.\" Sometimes, they intensify this sense of panic by ignoring you for a while before and just after they set the deadline, to increase your anxiety that you may not get the deal done.\r\n\r\nThe best way to deal with deadline pressure is to probe the deadline they gave you. If they tell you the deal must be done by Tuesday, say to them \"so does that mean that if you get more of what you want but the deal is done by Wednesday, there won't be a deal?\" If they hesitate or give you any kind of conditional response, you know that the deadline isn't real, because if they meant it the only response to that question ought to be an immediate \"yes.\" When you know they don't mean it, their credibility disappears and you can safely ignore the deadline and any other pressure tactics they try to exert. Doing so can end up being a turning point in the discussion.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab8\" >Facing 'take it or leave it'<u></u></h2>\r\n\"That's my final offer, take it or leave it\" is meant to panic you into giving in, worrying that if you \"leave it\" the deal will vanish. As so often with tough guys, a good response is to probe the ultimatum to see whether the person means it. For example, you can say, \"So, are you saying that if there was 1 pound of difference between your current position and the final outcome, you wouldn't want to do the deal?\" or \"Are you saying that even if we could expand the pie for both of us, you wouldn't be interested?\"\r\n\r\nIf the threat is real, the answer ought to be \"yes.\" Unsurprisingly, however, often if you pose such an extreme question you get back a hesitant or conditional answer: \"Well, I'm not saying that, I'm just saying that we need the main terms agreed in our favor\" (or some such variation). As soon as you receive that signal, you know that room for negotiation remains and the ultimatum isn't as real as it sounds.\r\n\r\nAt times like this, having worked-out alternatives to reaching an agreement is helpful. What would be the best alternative to not working with this partner? What would be your Plan B? If the \"take it or leave it\" offer is worse than your Plan B, you ought to be implementing Plan B instead. Having that alternative helps you feel stronger about resisting any \"take it or leave it\" ultimatum.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab9\" >Answering 'what's your bottom line?'<u></u></h2>\r\nThis tactic is a favorite of pressure-salespeople. They try to short-circuit a negotiation by getting you to reveal your bottom line, with the intention that the negotiation travels straight to that point. Unscrupulous dealers ask you this question with a view to finding out the most that you'll spend and give you options at or just above that price rather than cheaper alternatives within your bottom line.\r\n\r\nA good tactic is to walk through the question: \"It's not a question of what my bottom line is; just tell me what purchase options you have.\" That parks their tactic in a safe place and gets the discussion onto something you want to discuss.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab10\" >Responding to 'improve your offer'<u></u></h2>\r\nSometimes you can make an offer and instead of replying with a proposal of its own, the other side simply asks you to improve your offer: \"That's not good enough . . . we need a better price than that.\" But they don't tell you what they actually want.\r\n\r\nYou may feel obliged to respond to this with an improved offer, but in fact they're just trying to make you improve your proposal still further, without needing to make any concessions of their own. This is a sneaky way to win cheap points off you, because if you make further improvements in your proposal you have no idea whether or not they're going to prove acceptable. Nothing necessarily stops them insisting again that you need to improve your offer. At that point you've completely wasted any further concessions you made.\r\n\r\nIf somebody makes a vague, general demand that you improve a proposal, the best response is to make them be specific. A good answer is \"What would it take to reach agreement, then?\" Don't make any further proposals until they answer that question. When they've told you, at least you have some benchmark against which to evaluate what you want to do next. Maybe you want to improve your offer, propose movement on both sides or stand firm. But at least you know where you are. In telling you what you need to do in order to reach agreement, they may even make some extra concessions, taking them further towards your initial suggestion.<u></u>","description":"The business world is full of \"tough guys,\" and it's likely the day will come when you need to know how to recognize the tell-tale bullying behavior, and how to handle it. So here's your guide to dealing with these bullies — a skill that's sure to help you achieve your goal of becoming a successful entrepreneur.\r\n\r\nYou can come across tough-guy trading partners in your contractual negotiations and tough guys in disputes, as well as tough-guy investors and tough-guy lawyers. Tough-guy behavior can consist of threats, hostility, complaints, unreasonable deadlines, and many other forms of pressure. Most such behavior is done on purpose, as a manipulative approach designed to make you feel bad and put pressure on you.\r\n<p class=\"Remember\">The best approach is to <i>make their behavior the issue</i>. Stop the discussion and don't continue until the bad behavior has been raised and addressed. After you make it clear that you know what's going on, they're likely to drop the tactic.</p>\r\nSome people find this advice puzzling and feel that they ought to be 'professional' and ignore the bad behavior, perhaps sending an \"I'm not going to stoop to that level\" message. But if you allow tough guys to get away with their bad behavior, they just keep doing it, making it harder and harder for you to get what you need from the situation.\r\n\r\nAlso, watch out for tough guys who claim that they're being \"very fair\" or \"totally reasonable.\" Usually, it's a smoke screen to mask their extreme positions. Ask them what they mean by \"fair\" — that stumps them. Or walk through the issue: \"It's not a question of who's being reasonable, I need \"x.\" What can you do for me?\" Game, set, and match.<u></u>\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" >Dealing with threats<u></u></h2>\r\nIf someone is threatening you, you don't have to sit there and put up with it. You normally have a choice as to how you make the person's behaviour the issue. You can say, \"We don't do business on the basis of threats, shall we start again?\" If that sounds too confrontational, try, \"How would it be if neither of us threatens the other in this discussion?\" or \"Correct me if I'm wrong, but isn't the atmosphere rather hostile?\" Much gentler.\r\n\r\nNormally, threat-makers back off when you draw specific attention to their behaviour. Responding in this way may sound a bit frightening, but you have to do it only once — and it's almost certainly better than having to deal with the prospect of their ongoing and repeated threatening behaviour.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab2\" >Handling aggression</h2>\r\nYou don't have to take aggressive behaviour. If someone is shouting at you or being hostile while you're negotiating a deal, you can handle it.\r\n\r\nYou can say, \"Why is the atmosphere so hostile\" — that often does the trick. Too blunt for you? How about, \"Can I just check we're all agreed that neither of us is going to be hostile to the other?\" Or you can ask them what they'd do if they were in your shoes and feeling very uncomfortable with the ferocity of the climate. That might lead them to change their behaviour.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab3\" >Parrying personal attacks</h2>\r\nSometimes so-called tough guys make personal attacks on you to undermine your state of mind and make you feel anxious. They may comment on your competence, seek to undermine your status, deliberately choose to misunderstand you to try and trip you up, keep you waiting, or choose an uncomfortable seating arrangement or a venue where you feel at a disadvantage.\r\n\r\nThe answer is to make their behaviour the issue. Any of these responses can put them off their stroke, I promise:\r\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">\"Is there any particular reason why I've been seated in the least comfortable chair and you're sitting above me?\"</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">\"What would be your response if you'd been kept waiting 45 minutes for a meeting?\"</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">\"Let me check that we agree that we're going to be tough on the issues and not on each other . . . am I wrong about that?\"</p>\r\n</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<h2 id=\"tab4\" >Calling bluff on complaints<u></u></h2>\r\nSometimes people put forward complaints opportunistically. They do so to try and gain the moral high ground in the negotiation, regardless of whether the complaint is bogus. If you encounter this approach, confront the person like this: \"I propose that you stop asserting this fanciful claim, because the negotiation will go a lot better if it's grounded in reality.\"\r\n\r\nAlternatively (whether you think the complaint is real or not), get the person to repeat it. People often invest their complaints with a lot less energy the second time around, and so this takes the volume down. You can then reduce it further by summarising the complaint yourself (\"I see, so what you're saying is . . .\"). By then, the complaint is assuming manageable proportions.\r\n\r\nYou then can cut through it entirely by asking the other side to state its remedy. Doing so often takes the wind out of complainers' sails completely, because if the complaint is bogus, they've been thinking only about how to put you off by moaning, and not about a remedy if the complaint was legitimate.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab5\" >Meeting good cop/bad cop<u></u></h2>\r\nA lot of people use this tactic, thinking that they're being cunning, but in fact it's just an annoying cliché and can quickly be countered. The \"bad cop\" tries to beat you up in the negotiation while the \"good cop\" is reassuring and even disapproving of the bad cop.\r\n\r\nThe good cop then tries to soft-talk you into concessions, the seductive promise being that if you go along with them, the bad cop will leave you alone. Guess what? You can puncture this tactic by making their behavior the issue by saying: \"I'm very confused here. One of you is being very pleasant, and the other is acting all tough. Why don't we stop for five minutes so you two can agree on a common approach. Then we can start again.\"\r\n\r\nThat should sort it out. No point in them continuing with the tactic after you've made a statement like that.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab6\" >Swatting away the salami slicers<u></u></h2>\r\nThe subtle tactic of the tough-guy salami slicer is to keep coming back to you asking for more in a discussion or negotiation — but in such small amounts that you're tempted to agree with them each time, because the person doesn't seem to be asking for much. Salami slicers keep taking slice after slice until you suddenly realise that virtually the whole salami has gone.\r\n\r\nThe way to overcome this behaviour is to say, \"Is that it?\" when salami slicers come back for more. If they say \"yes,\" hold them to that agreement. If they say \"no,\" you know they'll be back for more even if you agree to this latest round of concessions. Therefore, you can negotiate strongly on those points without feeling as though you're preventing the deal from closing.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab7\" >Coping with deadline pressure<u></u></h2>\r\nPressure-merchants try to hurry up your decision, pressurising you into making a mistake or a concession that you wouldn't otherwise make by creating the fear that if you don't decide quickly the opportunity is lost. \"Buy while stocks last\" is the mantra of these tough guys. To bring it close to home they may say, \"If you don't agree now, then I won't invest,\" or \"If you don't concede by 5 p.m., we'll issue legal proceedings.\" Sometimes, they intensify this sense of panic by ignoring you for a while before and just after they set the deadline, to increase your anxiety that you may not get the deal done.\r\n\r\nThe best way to deal with deadline pressure is to probe the deadline they gave you. If they tell you the deal must be done by Tuesday, say to them \"so does that mean that if you get more of what you want but the deal is done by Wednesday, there won't be a deal?\" If they hesitate or give you any kind of conditional response, you know that the deadline isn't real, because if they meant it the only response to that question ought to be an immediate \"yes.\" When you know they don't mean it, their credibility disappears and you can safely ignore the deadline and any other pressure tactics they try to exert. Doing so can end up being a turning point in the discussion.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab8\" >Facing 'take it or leave it'<u></u></h2>\r\n\"That's my final offer, take it or leave it\" is meant to panic you into giving in, worrying that if you \"leave it\" the deal will vanish. As so often with tough guys, a good response is to probe the ultimatum to see whether the person means it. For example, you can say, \"So, are you saying that if there was 1 pound of difference between your current position and the final outcome, you wouldn't want to do the deal?\" or \"Are you saying that even if we could expand the pie for both of us, you wouldn't be interested?\"\r\n\r\nIf the threat is real, the answer ought to be \"yes.\" Unsurprisingly, however, often if you pose such an extreme question you get back a hesitant or conditional answer: \"Well, I'm not saying that, I'm just saying that we need the main terms agreed in our favor\" (or some such variation). As soon as you receive that signal, you know that room for negotiation remains and the ultimatum isn't as real as it sounds.\r\n\r\nAt times like this, having worked-out alternatives to reaching an agreement is helpful. What would be the best alternative to not working with this partner? What would be your Plan B? If the \"take it or leave it\" offer is worse than your Plan B, you ought to be implementing Plan B instead. Having that alternative helps you feel stronger about resisting any \"take it or leave it\" ultimatum.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab9\" >Answering 'what's your bottom line?'<u></u></h2>\r\nThis tactic is a favorite of pressure-salespeople. They try to short-circuit a negotiation by getting you to reveal your bottom line, with the intention that the negotiation travels straight to that point. Unscrupulous dealers ask you this question with a view to finding out the most that you'll spend and give you options at or just above that price rather than cheaper alternatives within your bottom line.\r\n\r\nA good tactic is to walk through the question: \"It's not a question of what my bottom line is; just tell me what purchase options you have.\" That parks their tactic in a safe place and gets the discussion onto something you want to discuss.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab10\" >Responding to 'improve your offer'<u></u></h2>\r\nSometimes you can make an offer and instead of replying with a proposal of its own, the other side simply asks you to improve your offer: \"That's not good enough . . . we need a better price than that.\" But they don't tell you what they actually want.\r\n\r\nYou may feel obliged to respond to this with an improved offer, but in fact they're just trying to make you improve your proposal still further, without needing to make any concessions of their own. This is a sneaky way to win cheap points off you, because if you make further improvements in your proposal you have no idea whether or not they're going to prove acceptable. Nothing necessarily stops them insisting again that you need to improve your offer. At that point you've completely wasted any further concessions you made.\r\n\r\nIf somebody makes a vague, general demand that you improve a proposal, the best response is to make them be specific. A good answer is \"What would it take to reach agreement, then?\" Don't make any further proposals until they answer that question. When they've told you, at least you have some benchmark against which to evaluate what you want to do next. Maybe you want to improve your offer, propose movement on both sides or stand firm. But at least you know where you are. In telling you what you need to do in order to reach agreement, they may even make some extra concessions, taking them further towards your initial suggestion.<u></u>","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":9011,"name":"Clive Rich","slug":"clive-rich","description":" <p><b>Clive Rich</b> is a lawyer, mediator, arbitrator and negotiator. He is Chairman of LawBite, an online legal service providing &#39;Simple Law for Small Companies&#39; &#40;www.lawbite.co.uk&#41;. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9011"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33717,"title":"Small Business Law","slug":"small-business-law","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33717"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[{"label":"Dealing with threats","target":"#tab1"},{"label":"Handling aggression","target":"#tab2"},{"label":"Parrying personal attacks","target":"#tab3"},{"label":"Calling bluff on complaints","target":"#tab4"},{"label":"Meeting good cop/bad cop","target":"#tab5"},{"label":"Swatting away the salami slicers","target":"#tab6"},{"label":"Coping with deadline pressure","target":"#tab7"},{"label":"Facing 'take it or leave it'","target":"#tab8"},{"label":"Answering 'what's your bottom line?'","target":"#tab9"},{"label":"Responding to 'improve your offer'","target":"#tab10"}],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[{"articleId":207412,"title":"Law for Small Business For Dummies UK Cheat Sheet","slug":"law-for-small-business-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","law","small-business-law"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/207412"}},{"articleId":139185,"title":"Testing Your Intellectual Property Know-How","slug":"testing-your-intellectual-property-know-how","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","law","small-business-law"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/139185"}},{"articleId":139186,"title":"Take Care of Legal Priorities When Launching Your Small Business","slug":"take-care-of-legal-priorities-when-launching-your-small-business","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","law","small-business-law"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/139186"}},{"articleId":139187,"title":"Spotting and Stopping Risks to Your Small Business","slug":"spotting-and-stopping-risks-to-your-small-business","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","law","small-business-law"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/139187"}},{"articleId":139188,"title":"Consider Legal Issues Before You Start Your Small Business","slug":"consider-legal-issues-before-you-start-your-small-business","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","law","small-business-law"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/139188"}}],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":207412,"title":"Law for Small Business For Dummies UK Cheat Sheet","slug":"law-for-small-business-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","law","small-business-law"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/207412"}},{"articleId":139185,"title":"Testing Your Intellectual Property Know-How","slug":"testing-your-intellectual-property-know-how","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","law","small-business-law"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/139185"}},{"articleId":139186,"title":"Take Care of Legal Priorities When Launching Your Small Business","slug":"take-care-of-legal-priorities-when-launching-your-small-business","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","law","small-business-law"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/139186"}},{"articleId":139187,"title":"Spotting and Stopping Risks to Your Small Business","slug":"spotting-and-stopping-risks-to-your-small-business","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","law","small-business-law"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/139187"}},{"articleId":139188,"title":"Consider Legal Issues Before You Start Your Small Business","slug":"consider-legal-issues-before-you-start-your-small-business","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","law","small-business-law"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/139188"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":281582,"slug":"law-for-small-business-for-dummies-uk-uk-edition","isbn":"9781118970461","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","law","small-business-law"],"amazon":{"default":"//www.amazon.com/gp/product/1118970462/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","ca":"//www.amazon.ca/gp/product/1118970462/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","indigo_ca":"//www.tkqlhce.com/click-9208661-13710633?url=//www.chapters.indigo.ca/en-ca/books/product/1118970462-item.html&cjsku=978111945484","gb":"//www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/1118970462/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","de":"//www.amazon.de/gp/product/1118970462/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20"},"image":{"src":"//www.coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/law-for-small-business-for-dummies-uk-edition-cover-9781118970454-203x255.jpg","width":203,"height":255},"title":"Law for Small Business For Dummies - UK","testBankPinActivationLink":"","bookOutOfPrint":false,"authorsInfo":"<p><b data-author-id=\"9011\">Clive Rich</b> is a lawyer, mediator, arbitrator and negotiator. 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","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9011"}}],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/books/"}},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;law&quot;,&quot;small-business-law&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781118970461&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-644ae28f42c7d\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;law&quot;,&quot;small-business-law&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781118970461&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-644ae28f4335d\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Articles","articleList":null,"content":null,"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Advance","lifeExpectancy":"Two years","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2022-12-17T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":139163},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2017-03-26T07:13:28+00:00","modifiedTime":"2024-04-18T21:10:12+00:00","timestamp":"2024-04-19T00:01:03+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Academics & The Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"Law","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33712"},"slug":"law","categoryId":33712},{"name":"Small Business Law","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33717"},"slug":"small-business-law","categoryId":33717}],"title":"Legal Considerations for Selling Your Business","strippedTitle":"legal considerations for selling your business","slug":"know-the-legal-requirements-to-exit-your-small-business","canonicalUrl":"","检引索擎改善":{"metaDescription":"When you're exiting (that is, selling) your small business, you need to know what's required legally. At last — the finishing line is in sight. Like an over-hea","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"When you're exiting (that is, selling) your small business, you need to know what's required legally. At last — the finishing line is in sight. Like an over-heated decathlete you can't stop extra disciplines being added to your list of events, including:\r\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">Raising lots more money for significant growth</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">Creating exponential growth through partnerships and joint ventures</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">Buying or merging with other firms</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">Repeating previous stages of the business with other products (diversifying)</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">Preparing the business for expansion or sale</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">Selling shares or assets</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">Exiting the business</p>\r\n</li>\r\n</ul>\r\nWhen plotting your path to blazing success, take note of this checklist of legal issues to consider:\r\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">Implementing significant \"A\" or \"B\" funding rounds</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">Entering joint venture agreements with other partners</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">Constructing acquisition or merger agreements with target companies</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">Implementing legal steps from previous stages of your business's growth for new diversified products</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">Dealing with terms sheets and any buyer's due diligence</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">Contracting to sell all or part of the business as shares or assets</p>\r\n</li>\r\n</ul>","description":"When you're exiting (that is, selling) your small business, you need to know what's required legally. At last — the finishing line is in sight. Like an over-heated decathlete you can't stop extra disciplines being added to your list of events, including:\r\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">Raising lots more money for significant growth</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">Creating exponential growth through partnerships and joint ventures</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">Buying or merging with other firms</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">Repeating previous stages of the business with other products (diversifying)</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">Preparing the business for expansion or sale</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">Selling shares or assets</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">Exiting the business</p>\r\n</li>\r\n</ul>\r\nWhen plotting your path to blazing success, take note of this checklist of legal issues to consider:\r\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">Implementing significant \"A\" or \"B\" funding rounds</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">Entering joint venture agreements with other partners</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">Constructing acquisition or merger agreements with target companies</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">Implementing legal steps from previous stages of your business's growth for new diversified products</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">Dealing with terms sheets and any buyer's due diligence</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">Contracting to sell all or part of the business as shares or assets</p>\r\n</li>\r\n</ul>","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":9011,"name":"Clive Rich","slug":"clive-rich","description":" <p><b>Clive Rich</b> is a lawyer, mediator, arbitrator and negotiator. He is Chairman of LawBite, an online legal service providing &#39;Simple Law for Small Companies&#39; &#40;www.lawbite.co.uk&#41;. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9011"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33717,"title":"Small Business Law","slug":"small-business-law","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33717"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[{"articleId":207412,"title":"Law for Small Business For Dummies UK Cheat Sheet","slug":"law-for-small-business-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","law","small-business-law"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/207412"}},{"articleId":139185,"title":"Testing Your Intellectual Property Know-How","slug":"testing-your-intellectual-property-know-how","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","law","small-business-law"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/139185"}},{"articleId":139186,"title":"Take Care of Legal Priorities When Launching Your Small Business","slug":"take-care-of-legal-priorities-when-launching-your-small-business","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","law","small-business-law"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/139186"}},{"articleId":139187,"title":"Spotting and Stopping Risks to Your Small Business","slug":"spotting-and-stopping-risks-to-your-small-business","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","law","small-business-law"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/139187"}},{"articleId":139188,"title":"Consider Legal Issues Before You Start Your Small Business","slug":"consider-legal-issues-before-you-start-your-small-business","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","law","small-business-law"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/139188"}}],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":207412,"title":"Law for Small Business For Dummies UK Cheat Sheet","slug":"law-for-small-business-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","law","small-business-law"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/207412"}},{"articleId":139185,"title":"Testing Your Intellectual Property Know-How","slug":"testing-your-intellectual-property-know-how","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","law","small-business-law"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/139185"}},{"articleId":139186,"title":"Take Care of Legal Priorities When Launching Your Small Business","slug":"take-care-of-legal-priorities-when-launching-your-small-business","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","law","small-business-law"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/139186"}},{"articleId":139187,"title":"Spotting and Stopping Risks to Your Small Business","slug":"spotting-and-stopping-risks-to-your-small-business","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","law","small-business-law"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/139187"}},{"articleId":139188,"title":"Consider Legal Issues Before You Start Your Small Business","slug":"consider-legal-issues-before-you-start-your-small-business","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","law","small-business-law"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/139188"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":281582,"slug":"law-for-small-business-for-dummies-uk-uk-edition","isbn":"9781118970461","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","law","small-business-law"],"amazon":{"default":"//www.amazon.com/gp/product/1118970462/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","ca":"//www.amazon.ca/gp/product/1118970462/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","indigo_ca":"//www.tkqlhce.com/click-9208661-13710633?url=//www.chapters.indigo.ca/en-ca/books/product/1118970462-item.html&cjsku=978111945484","gb":"//www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/1118970462/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","de":"//www.amazon.de/gp/product/1118970462/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20"},"image":{"src":"//www.coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/law-for-small-business-for-dummies-uk-edition-cover-9781118970454-203x255.jpg","width":203,"height":255},"title":"Law for Small Business For Dummies - UK","testBankPinActivationLink":"","bookOutOfPrint":false,"authorsInfo":"<p><b data-author-id=\"9011\">Clive Rich</b> is a lawyer, mediator, arbitrator and negotiator. He is Chairman of LawBite, an online legal service providing 'Simple Law for Small Companies' (www.lawbite.co.uk). </p>","authors":[{"authorId":9011,"name":"Clive Rich","slug":"clive-rich","description":" <p><b>Clive Rich</b> is a lawyer, mediator, arbitrator and negotiator. He is Chairman of LawBite, an online legal service providing &#39;Simple Law for Small Companies&#39; &#40;www.lawbite.co.uk&#41;. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9011"}}],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/books/"}},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;law&quot;,&quot;small-business-law&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781118970461&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-643f2f3f51070\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;law&quot;,&quot;small-business-law&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781118970461&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-643f2f3f521d5\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Articles","articleList":null,"content":null,"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Advance","lifeExpectancy":"Six months","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2022-12-17T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":139161},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2017-03-26T19:11:54+00:00","modifiedTime":"2023-07-01T13:31:40+00:00","timestamp":"2023-09-14T18:19:45+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Academics & The Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"Law","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33712"},"slug":"law","categoryId":33712},{"name":"Constitutional Law","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33713"},"slug":"constitutional-law","categoryId":33713}],"title":"The U.S. Supreme Court Justices","strippedTitle":"the u.s. supreme court justices","slug":"identifying-current-u-s-supreme-court-justices","canonicalUrl":"","检引索擎改善":{"metaDescription":"The justices on the Supreme Court interpret the Constitution, which affects everyone in this country. As you study constitutional law, knowing the justices and ","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"The justices on the Supreme Court interpret the Constitution, which affects everyone in this country. As you study constitutional law, knowing the justices and their interpretive styles helps you make sense of big decisions and predict future outcomes.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" ><strong>Chief Justice:</strong></h2>\r\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><strong>John G. Roberts</strong>: Born 1955, seated on the Supreme Court 2005 (appointed by President George W. Bush)</p>\r\n</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<h2 id=\"tab2\" ><strong>Associate Justices:</strong></h2>\r\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><strong>Clarence Thomas</strong>: Born 1948, seated on the Supreme Court 1991 (appointed by President George H. W. Bush)</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><strong>Samuel Anthony Alito, Jr.</strong>: Born 1950, seated on the Supreme Court 2006 (appointed by President George W. Bush)</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><strong>Sonia Sotomayor:</strong> Born 1954, seated on the Supreme Court 2009 (appointed by President Barack Obama)</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><strong>Elena Kagan:</strong> Born 1960, seated on the Supreme Court 2010 (appointed by President Barack Obama)</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><strong>Neil M. Gorsuch:</strong> Born 1967, seated on the Supreme Court 2017 (appointed by President Donald Trump)</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><strong>Brett M. Kavanaugh:</strong> Born 1965, seated on the Supreme Court 2018 (appointed by President Donald Trump)</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Amy Coney Barrett:</strong> Born 1972, seated on the Supreme Court 2020 (appointed by President Donald Trump)</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Ketanji Brown Jackson</strong>: Born 1970, seated on the Supreme Court 2022 (appointed by President Joe Biden)</li>\r\n</ul>","description":"The justices on the Supreme Court interpret the Constitution, which affects everyone in this country. As you study constitutional law, knowing the justices and their interpretive styles helps you make sense of big decisions and predict future outcomes.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" ><strong>Chief Justice:</strong></h2>\r\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><strong>John G. Roberts</strong>: Born 1955, seated on the Supreme Court 2005 (appointed by President George W. Bush)</p>\r\n</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<h2 id=\"tab2\" ><strong>Associate Justices:</strong></h2>\r\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><strong>Clarence Thomas</strong>: Born 1948, seated on the Supreme Court 1991 (appointed by President George H. W. Bush)</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><strong>Samuel Anthony Alito, Jr.</strong>: Born 1950, seated on the Supreme Court 2006 (appointed by President George W. Bush)</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><strong>Sonia Sotomayor:</strong> Born 1954, seated on the Supreme Court 2009 (appointed by President Barack Obama)</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><strong>Elena Kagan:</strong> Born 1960, seated on the Supreme Court 2010 (appointed by President Barack Obama)</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><strong>Neil M. Gorsuch:</strong> Born 1967, seated on the Supreme Court 2017 (appointed by President Donald Trump)</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><strong>Brett M. Kavanaugh:</strong> Born 1965, seated on the Supreme Court 2018 (appointed by President Donald Trump)</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Amy Coney Barrett:</strong> Born 1972, seated on the Supreme Court 2020 (appointed by President Donald Trump)</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Ketanji Brown Jackson</strong>: Born 1970, seated on the Supreme Court 2022 (appointed by President Joe Biden)</li>\r\n</ul>","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":10065,"name":"Glenn Smith","slug":"glenn-smith","description":" <b>Glenn C. 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The nine U.S. Supreme Court Justices are the ultimate interpreters of the Constitution. Finding out about the Supreme Court and the decisions it has made in constitutional cases over the years helps you understand the United States a little bit better.","description":"The Constitution (and constitutional law) affords people many rights, establishes the United States government, and defines and limits the government’s powers. The nine U.S. Supreme Court Justices are the ultimate interpreters of the Constitution. Finding out about the Supreme Court and the decisions it has made in constitutional cases over the years helps you understand the United States a little bit better.","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":10065,"name":"Glenn Smith","slug":"glenn-smith","description":" <b>Glenn C. 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As you study constitutional law, knowing the justices and their interpretive styles helps you make sense of big decisions and predict future outcomes.</p>\n<p><strong>Chief Justice:</strong></p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><strong>John G. Roberts</strong>: Born 1955, seated on the Supreme Court 2005 (appointed by President George W. Bush)</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n<p><strong>Associate Justices:</strong></p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><strong>Clarence Thomas</strong>: Born 1948, seated on the Supreme Court 1991 (appointed by President George H. W. Bush)</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><strong>Stephen G. Breyer</strong>: Born 1938, seated on the Supreme Court 1994 (appointed by President Bill Clinton)</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><strong>Samuel Anthony Alito, Jr.</strong>: Born 1950, seated on the Supreme Court 2006 (appointed by President George W. Bush)</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><strong>Sonia Sotomayor:</strong> Born 1954, seated on the Supreme Court 2009 (appointed by President Barack Obama)</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><strong>Elena Kagan:</strong> Born 1960, seated on the Supreme Court 2010 (appointed by President Barack Obama)</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><strong>Neil M. Gorsuch:</strong> Born 1967, seated on the Supreme Court 2017 (appointed by President Donald Trump)</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><strong>Brett M. Kavanaugh:</strong> Born 1965, seated on the Supreme Court 2018 (appointed by President Donald Trump)</p>\n</li>\n<li><strong>Amy Coney Barrett:</strong> Born 1972, seated on the Supreme Court 2020 (appointed by President Donald Trump)</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"Analyzing a procedural due-process claim","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p><i>Procedural due process</i> involves the way the government goes about infringing on Americans’ rights. Procedural due-process cases assume that the government is constitutionally allowed to take away a right. (<i>Substantive</i> due process questions whether the government has that right in the first place.)</p>\n<p>In these cases, the courts consider two questions that determine constitutionality: (1) Was adequate notice given? and (2) Did the person have an opportunity to be heard?</p>\n<p>A two-part analysis determines whether the government has afforded adequate procedural due process under the Constitution:</p>\n<ol class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Is any process due?</p>\n<p class=\"child-para\">That is, have the people making the challenge established that they were even deprived of a legitimate property or liberty?</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">If process is due, how much?</p>\n<p class=\"child-para\">This balancing test weighs how important the person’s right is and how important the government’s interest is, as well as what the risk is of depriving someone wrongfully with the present procedures as opposed to having additional or different procedures.</p>\n</li>\n</ol>\n"},{"title":"Analyzing a substantive due-process claim","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p><i>Substantive due process</i><b> </b>involves whether the government has a legitimate basis for taking away a person’s right to life, liberty, or property. The basic question is, “Wait — does the government have a right to do this <i>at all</i><i>?</i>”</p>\n<p>In substantive due-process cases, the courts use a baseline rationality test that considers: (1) Is the government’s interest legitimate? and (2) Is the government’s action a means to a legitimate end?</p>\n"},{"title":"Important rights listed in the constitution","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>The Constitution is chock-full of guarantees of individual rights and rules about what the government can and can’t do. Some provisions affect people’s lives more than others, but they are all important in their own right. Here are just some of the important, often-discussed provisions and where you can find them in the Constitution:</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Freedom of speech, press, and religion: </b>First Amendment</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Right to bear arms: </b>Second Amendment</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Right to be free from unreasonable searches and seizures:</b> Fourth Amendment</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Right against self-incrimination and double jeopardy: </b>Fifth Amendment</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Due process: </b>Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Right against taking without just compensation: </b>Fifth Amendment</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Right to a speedy and public trial:</b> Sixth Amendment</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Right to counsel:</b> Sixth Amendment (also read into the Fifth-Amendment right against self-incrimination)</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Prohibition against cruel and unusual punishment:</b> Eighth Amendment</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Slavery abolishment:</b> Thirteenth Amendment</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Equal protection: </b>Fourteenth Amendment</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Women’s right to vote: </b>Nineteenth Amendment</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Commerce clause: </b>Article I, Section 8</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>“Necessary and proper” clause: </b>Article I, Section 8</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Contracts clause: </b>Article I, Section 10</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Full faith and credit: </b>Article IV, Section 1</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n"}],"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Advance","lifeExpectancy":"One year","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2023-04-18T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":208432},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2017-03-27T16:58:29+00:00","modifiedTime":"2023-04-06T18:25:17+00:00","timestamp":"2023-09-14T18:19:34+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Academics & The Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"Law","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33712"},"slug":"law","categoryId":33712},{"name":"General Law","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33719"},"slug":"general-law","categoryId":33719}],"title":"Law For Dummies Cheat Sheet","strippedTitle":"law for dummies cheat sheet","slug":"law-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","canonicalUrl":"","检引索擎改善":{"metaDescription":"You don't have to decipher the law alone! Discover where to go for help understanding laws around debt, fraud, and discrimination.","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"Deciphering the law can be a tricky thing, but you're not alone! Legal help (some free of charge) and information for understanding the law with things like debt, fraud, and discrimination are available through a wide variety of legal groups and government agencies.","description":"Deciphering the law can be a tricky thing, but you're not alone! Legal help (some free of charge) and information for understanding the law with things like debt, fraud, and discrimination are available through a wide variety of legal groups and government agencies.","blurb":"","authors":[],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33719,"title":"General Law","slug":"general-law","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33719"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":209440,"title":"Law School For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"law-school-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","law","general-law"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/209440"}},{"articleId":208840,"title":"UK Law and Your Rights For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"uk-law-and-your-rights-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","law","general-law"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/208840"}},{"articleId":195803,"title":"How to Make the Most of Your Second and Third Years of Law School","slug":"how-to-make-the-most-of-your-second-and-third-years-of-law-school","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","law","general-law"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/195803"}},{"articleId":195797,"title":"How to Survive Law School Exams","slug":"how-to-survive-law-school-exams","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","law","general-law"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/195797"}},{"articleId":195796,"title":"Qualifications of the Ideal Law School Applicant","slug":"qualifications-of-the-ideal-law-school-applicant","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","law","general-law"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/195796"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":282347,"slug":"law-for-dummies-2nd-edition","isbn":"9780764558306","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","law","general-law"],"amazon":{"default":"//www.amazon.com/gp/product/0764558307/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","ca":"//www.amazon.ca/gp/product/0764558307/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","indigo_ca":"//www.tkqlhce.com/click-9208661-13710633?url=//www.chapters.indigo.ca/en-ca/books/product/0764558307-item.html&cjsku=978111945484","gb":"//www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/0764558307/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","de":"//www.amazon.de/gp/product/0764558307/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20"},"image":{"src":"//www.coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/law-for-dummies-2nd-edition-cover-9780764558306-203x255.jpg","width":203,"height":255},"title":"Law For Dummies","testBankPinActivationLink":"","bookOutOfPrint":false,"authorsInfo":"<p><b data-author-id=\"9148\">John Ventura, JD,</b> was a board-certified bankruptcy attorney and an authority on consumer and small business legal issues. His books include <i>The Credit Repair Kit</i> and <i>The Bankruptcy Kit</i>. </p>","authors":[{"authorId":9148,"name":"John Ventura","slug":"john-ventura","description":" <b>John Ventura:</b> John is a best-selling author and a nationally boardcertified bankruptcy attorney. He is also an adjunct professor at the University of Houston Law School and the director of the Texas Consumer Complaint Center at the Law School.<br /> As a young boy, John dreamed of becoming a Catholic priest so he could help everyday people, and he spent his high school years in a Catholic seminary. After graduating, however, John decided to achieve his dream by combining journalism with the law. Therefore, he earned an undergraduate degree in journalism and a law degree from the University of Houston Law School. Later, he and a partner established a law firm in Texas, building it into one of the most successful consumer bankruptcy firms in the state. He subsequently began a successful consumer law firm in South Texas.<br /> Today, as Director of the Texas Consumer Complaint Center, he supervises law students as they help consumers with their legal problems. He is also a regular speaker at law conferences around the country and serves on the Bankruptcy Council for the Texas Bar Association.<br /> John is the author of 13 books on consumer and small business legal matters, including <i>Law For Dummies,</i> 2nd edition; <i>The Everyday Law Kit For Dummies; Divorce For Dummies,</i> 2nd edition; and <i>Good Advice for a Bad Economy</i> (Berkeley Books). John has been interviewed about consumer money matters by numerous national media including CNN, NBC, NPR, Bloomberg Television &amp; Radio, <i>The Wall Street Journal, USA Today, Newsweek, Kiplinger&#8217;s Personal Finance, Money, Inc. Martha Stewart&#8217;s Living, Bottomline, Entrepreneur,</i> Bankrate.com, CBSMarketWatch.com, and MSNMoney.com. In addition, his comments and advice have appeared in major newspapers around the country, and he has been a frequent guest on local radio programs. <p><b>Mary Reed:</b> Mary Reed is a personal finance writer who has coauthored or ghostwritten numerous books on topics related to consumer money matters and legal rights. The books she has coauthored with John Ventura include <i>The Everyday Law Kit for Dummies, Divorce For Dummies,</i> and <i>Good Advice for a Bad Economy</i> (Berkeley Books). Mary has also written for the magazines <i>Good Housekeeping, Home Office Computing,</i> and <i>Small Business Computing,</i> and she has ghostwritten numerous articles that have appeared in national and local publications.<br /> Mary is also the owner of Mary Reed Public Relations (MR&#8226;PR), an Austin, Texas-based firm that provides public relations services to a wide variety of clients, including authors, publishers, attorneys, financial planners, healthcare professionals, retailers, hotels, restaurants, and nonprofits.<br /> Prior to starting her public relations business and writing career 20 years ago, she was vice president of marketing for a national market research firm, marketing director for a women&#8217;s healthcare organization, and public relations manager for <i>Texas Monthly,</i> a national award-winning magazine. She received her MBA from Boston University and her BA from Trinity University in Washington, DC.<br /> In her free time, Mary serves on the board of a community development corporation in her neighborhood. She also enjoys long morning bike rides, road trips with her husband, gardening, working her way through the stack of books by her bed, taking care of her six cats, and spending time with her family and many friends.</p>","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9148"}}],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/books/"}},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;law&quot;,&quot;general-law&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9780764558306&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-63221b36e46d4\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;law&quot;,&quot;general-law&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9780764558306&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-63221b36e5155\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Cheat Sheet","articleList":[{"articleId":195900,"title":"Helpful Legal Organizations and Government Agencies","slug":"helpful-legal-organizations-and-government-agencies","categoryList":[],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/195900"}},{"articleId":195892,"title":"Sources of Free (or Almost Free) Legal Information","slug":"sources-of-free-or-almost-free-legal-information","categoryList":[],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/195892"}}],"content":[{"title":"Helpful legal organizations and government agencies","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>If paying your bills is becoming difficult and you want help negotiating lower monthly debt payments, contact a nonprofit credit counseling office (most are known as Consumer Credit Counseling Service) affiliated with the nonprofit National Foundation for Credit Counseling (NFCC). To find a NFCC-affiliated office, go to <a href=\"//www.nfcc.org\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\">www.nfcc.org</a> or call 1-800-388-2227.</p>\n<p>If information in your credit record causes a denial of credit, housing, employment, or insurance, request a free copy of your credit report from whichever national credit reporting agency caused the denial. The three national credit reporting agencies are:</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><a href=\"//www.equifax.com\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\">Equifax</a> (Disclosure Department, P.O. Box 740241, Atlanta, GA 30374)</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><a href=\"//www.experian.com/\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\">Experian</a> (National Consumer Assistance Center, P.O. Box 2002, Allen, TX 75013-2104)</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><a href=\"//www.transunion.com\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\">TransUnion</a> (Consumer Disclosure Center, P.O. Box 1000, Chester, PA 19022<br />\n800-888-4213)</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n<p>If a mortgage lender denies you a loan or a seller refuses to sell you a home and you believe that you’re being discriminated against, file a complaint with the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD by going to the department’s Web site, <a href=\"//www.hud.gov/complaints/housediscrim.cfm\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\">//www.hud.gov/complaints/housediscrim.cfm</a> or by calling 800-669-9777. File your complaint within one year of the incident.</p>\n<p>Is there an unsafe or unhealthy situation at your workplace? Bring it to the attention of your employer or contact the federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) at 1-800-321-6742.</p>\n<p>When you want to apply for Social Security benefits — retirement, survivor, or disability benefits — call 800-772-1213 or go to the Web site of the Social Security Administration at <a href=\"//www.ssa.gov\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\">www.ssa.gov</a>.</p>\n<p>If a telemarketer contacts you with an offer that sounds too good to be true, or if you receive such an offer via the Internet, check out the offer by contacting the National Fraud Information Center/International Internet Watch Center at 1-800-876-7060. You can file a complaint if you are a fraud victim at the Center’s Web site, <a href=\"//www.fraud.org\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\">www.fraud.org</a>.</p>\n<p>The Auto Safety Hotline maintained by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration provides information about auto safety and new and used vehicle recalls. Call the hotline at 1-888-327-4236 or visit <a href=\"//www.nhtsa.gov/\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\">www.nhtsa.gov</a> to find out about safety recalls, to file a defect report, and much more.</p>\n<p>For a fill-in-the-blanks living will that is legally-valid in your state, contact Partnership for Caring at: <a href=\"//www.partnershipforcaring.org\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\">www.partnershipforcaring.org</a></p>\n<p>If you are a small business owner, take advantage of the Small Business Advisor Web site, <a href=\"//www.business.gov\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\">www.business.gov</a>, a collaborative effort among various federal agencies and managed by the Small Business Administration. The site provides information to help you start and grow a business and to make it easier to weave your way through the maze of federal rules and regulations.</p>\n<p>The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) Consumer Response Center offers a wide variety of informative publications and fact sheets about the laws that the FTC administers. Read them online, or order hard copies at <a href=\"//www.ftc.gov\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\">www.ftc.gov</a> or call 1-877-382-4357.</p>\n"},{"title":"Sources of free (or almost free) legal information","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>If you need legal advice but have financial concerns and cannot afford an attorney, look to these resources for free, or almost free, legal advice:</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><strong>An attorney who practices in the area of law that you need information about: </strong>Find an attorney who will give you a free initial consultation (most do). Come to that meeting well prepared and learn all you need to know to resolve your legal problem yourself, assuming it’s relatively simple and straightforward.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><strong>Bankrate.com:</strong> Give yourself a financial education by spending time at <a href=\"//www.bankrate.com\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\">Bank Rate</a>. You’ll find information about a variety of topics, including credit cards, debt consolidation, mortgage and home equity loans, and much more.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><strong>The Federal Citizen Information Center: </strong>Click on <a href=\"//www.pueblo.gsa.gov\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\">www.pueblo.gsa.gov</a> to access information, on such topics as housing, autos, money, health, employment, small business, scams, and federal government programs. You can also connect to more than 26 million state and local government Web sites and get your questions about a federal government program or service answered by the federal National Contact Center.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><strong>The Consumers Action Handbook: </strong>Every home in America needs a copy of this publication, which provides practical information for being a smart consumer. It includes reviews of important consumer laws, suggestions for handling your own legal problems and a sample complaint letter, the addresses and phone numbers of offices to contact for help resolving consumer problems, including national consumer organizations, corporate consumer contacts, trade associations; government agencies and dispute resolution programs. To order a copy, write to Handbook, Federal Citizen Information Center, Pueblo, CO 81009 or call 1-888-878-3256.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><strong>Your Federal Elected Officials: </strong>Contact the offices of your U.S. senator and representative for help dealing with a problem you are having with a government agency or program, updates on pending legislation, and more. Hey, they are your public servants! To connect with your U.S. elected officials, call 202-225-3121 or e-mail them. For their e-mail and street addresses, go to THOMAS, the Web site of the Library of Congress, <a href=\"//thomas.loc.gov/\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\">Thomas.loc.gov</a>.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><strong>Business Veteran:</strong> If you’re an entrepreneur or aspiring entrepreneur, check out what SCORE (Service Corps of Retired Executives) has to offer. A national nonprofit organization that is a “resource partner” with the federal Small Business Administration, SCORE harnesses the know-how and experience of retired business owners to help you establish a business or grow an existing one. Get online advice and counseling from SCORE volunteers by going to <a href=\"//www.score.org\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\">www.score.org</a>, or visit the SCORE office closest to you. To locate that office, go to the SCORE Web site or call 1-800-634-0245.</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n"}],"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Solve","lifeExpectancy":"One year","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2023-04-06T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":209452},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2017-03-27T16:58:25+00:00","modifiedTime":"2023-03-14T18:18:02+00:00","timestamp":"2023-09-14T18:19:25+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Academics & The Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"Law","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33712"},"slug":"law","categoryId":33712},{"name":"General Law","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33719"},"slug":"general-law","categoryId":33719}],"title":"Law School For Dummies Cheat Sheet","strippedTitle":"law school for dummies cheat sheet","slug":"law-school-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","canonicalUrl":"","检引索擎改善":{"metaDescription":"Handy guide to applying, studying for and successfully graduating from law school as well as viable alternatives for prospective students.","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"Law school is a major challenge — especially the first year — and a major opportunity. Knowing how to make yourself a standout applicant gets you into the classroom, where you can make use of techniques to get the most out of all three years of law school. You'll also need to look for appropriate jobs during the summers. Then, you may find that the lawyerly life isn’t for you and look for alternatives to a career in law.","description":"Law school is a major challenge — especially the first year — and a major opportunity. Knowing how to make yourself a standout applicant gets you into the classroom, where you can make use of techniques to get the most out of all three years of law school. You'll also need to look for appropriate jobs during the summers. Then, you may find that the lawyerly life isn’t for you and look for alternatives to a career in law.","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":10578,"name":"Rebecca Fae Greene","slug":"rebecca-fae-greene","description":" <p><b>Rebecca Greene, JD,</b> is a May 2003 graduate of Indiana University School of Law&#8211;Bloomington. 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For a law school admissions committee, the ideal applicant has the following credentials:</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Has taken a variety of challenging courses in college and scored well in them</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Has a well-thought-out reason for wanting to go to law school</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Has excelled in extracurricular, service-oriented, or work-related activities</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Writes a dynamic personal statement that reveals an intriguing personality to admissions committees</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"Elements of a great law school application","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>The application process for law school can be nerve-wracking. You have to present yourself in your law school application in a positive, engaging fashion without straining the admission committee’s credulity or interest. An effective application does the following:</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Contains a sparkling personal statement</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Is submitted on time and free of all typos</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Shows off your personality</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Enumerates all extracurricular activities clearly and succinctly</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"How to survive your first year of law school","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>The first year of law school, or 1L as it’s called, is the most brutal. To make it through your first law school classes, you need grim determination and a sense of proportion.</p>\n<p>Successful survival tactics include:</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Attending and absorbing everything during orientation</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Making sure to balance study and leisure time</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Finding upperclassmen to befriend for advice and outlines</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Not letting your reading load pile up</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"How to survive law school exams","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Law school is hard — everyone knows that. And, possibly the hardest part of law school are the exams. You need to know what to expect and be able to adjust when the exam covers something you didn’t prepare for. Some tips for getting through law exams include:</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Make sure your outline is up to speed</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Give yourself plenty of time to study</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Understand the types of questions you may encounter</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Practice hypotheticals to increase understanding</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Snag a dedicated study group</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Take and review many practice exams</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"Tips for finding summer jobs during law school","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>It seems that every aspect of law school is fraught with competition and consequence — including the summer jobs you work. Summer job-search strategies that work for law students include:</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Always tailor your cover letters and resumes to the potential employer — avoid mass mailings.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Try to find work in an area of interest, at least during the summer, between your second and third year.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">If you can’t find paid work in your preferred area of practice, consider doing an externship for course credit at a nonprofit, governmental organization, or court.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Research your interviewers before your initial and call-back interviews.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Don’t search for a particular job just because that job is the “in thing to do.”</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"How to make the most of your second and third years of law school","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>After you survive 1L — the first year of law school — you don’t get to relax exactly, but you do get to catch your breath and glance up from your books to consider the world around you and your place in it. Some options available to you in your second and third years of law school include the ability to</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Choose electives based on personal interest, bar courses, and graduation requirements.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Pursue extracurricular activities that help narrow down your area of practice options.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Maintain a network of contacts on whom you can call for advice.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Investigate areas of practice that interest you by informational interviewing and joining local and state bar associations.</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"How to choose the right extracurriculars during law school","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Law school offers more than just studying books and briefs. You can choose extracurricular activities while in law school to enhance your studies and to help you prepare for the type of law you want to practice. Options for extracurriculars include</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Considering whether you have time to devote to a law journal/law review.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Deciding whether you want to hone your advocacy and public speaking skills in a moot court competition.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Gaining legal research skills (and a valuable contact) as a research assistant for a professor.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Joining a club to discover more about areas of practice and get involved in leadership.</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"Choosing an alternative career path with a law degree","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>You put in the time, money, blood, sweat, and tears necessary to make it through law school, but find that you don’t really want to be a lawyer. Rest assured that you’re not alone. Many law school graduates find fulfilling careers far away from courtrooms and law offices.</p>\n<p>Points to ponder as you decide your next job move include the following:</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Decide whether you want to find a job that’s related or completely unrelated to the legal field.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Figure out why you don’t like law (if you don’t) and use that knowledge to avoid future job mistakes.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Do self-assessment exercises to figure out where your strengths and talents lie.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Reach an understanding that not wanting to practice law is okay.</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n"}],"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Advance","lifeExpectancy":"Two years","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2023-03-14T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":209440},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2017-03-27T16:58:06+00:00","modifiedTime":"2023-03-01T19:11:09+00:00","timestamp":"2023-09-14T18:19:19+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Academics & The Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"Law","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33712"},"slug":"law","categoryId":33712},{"name":"Copyright:chơi xổ số keno trực tuyếnMọi quyền được bảo lưu cho trang web chính thứcs, Trademarks, & Patents","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33715"},"slug":"copyrights-trademarks-patents","categoryId":33715}],"title":"Patents, Copyright:chơi xổ số keno trực tuyếnMọi quyền được bảo lưu cho trang web chính thứcs, and Trademarks For Dummies Cheat Sheet","strippedTitle":"patents, copyrights, and trademarks for dummies cheat sheet","slug":"patents-copyrights-trademarks-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","canonicalUrl":"","检引索擎改善":{"metaDescription":"Lock down your intellectual property with a patent, copyright, or trademark by learning how to legally protect your creative work.","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"You protect physical property with security systems and watchdogs, you protect your intellectual property with a patent, copyright, or trademark. To use these safeguards, you need to know the steps involved in the patent process, the basics of copyright protection, and how to identify your design, idea, or other creative work legally. You can use trade secrets to protect yourself and your work as well, and to speak the lingo, you need to become familiar with a new set of acronyms.","description":"You protect physical property with security systems and watchdogs, you protect your intellectual property with a patent, copyright, or trademark. To use these safeguards, you need to know the steps involved in the patent process, the basics of copyright protection, and how to identify your design, idea, or other creative work legally. You can use trade secrets to protect yourself and your work as well, and to speak the lingo, you need to become familiar with a new set of acronyms.","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":10545,"name":"Henri J. A. Charmasson","slug":"henri-j-a-charmasson","description":" <b>Henri Charmasson</b> is an attorney with a 35-year career in the field of intellectual property (IP) law. He has been a naming adviser to major corporations. Henri is also an inventor with his name on 15 U.S. patents and an entrepreneur who sits on the board of several small business corporations. In his early engineering career, Henri designed computer hardware. Henri has authored several articles and delivered lectures on patent, copyright, trademark and trade secret topics, and written an authoritative treatise about the art of naming companies and branding new products. Born, raised, and educated in sunny Provence, France, he&#8217;s found in California the ideal place to exert his enterprising spirit. <p><b>John Buchaca,</b> also an Intellectual Property law attorney, is a former software engineer and occasional inventor, and has worked with Henri for more than 15 years. Indeed, when Henri wrote the first edition of this book, John regarded himself as the &#8220;first dummy.&#8221; Before becoming a lawyer, he worked in ocean acoustics analysis and modeling and computer programming. His undergraduate degree is in applied mathematics. But his highest claim to fame (according to Henri) is to be married to Henri&#8217;s daughter and to be the father of two of Henri&#8217;s grandchildren. He lives in San Diego, California where he is a partner at Charmasson, Buchaca &amp; Leach, LLP, an IP law firm.</p>","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/10545"}},{"authorId":10546,"name":"John Buchaca","slug":"john-buchaca","description":" <b>Henri Charmasson</b> is an attorney with a 35-year career in the field of intellectual property (IP) law. He has been a naming adviser to major corporations. Henri is also an inventor with his name on 15 U.S. patents and an entrepreneur who sits on the board of several small business corporations. In his early engineering career, Henri designed computer hardware. Henri has authored several articles and delivered lectures on patent, copyright, trademark and trade secret topics, and written an authoritative treatise about the art of naming companies and branding new products. Born, raised, and educated in sunny Provence, France, he&#8217;s found in California the ideal place to exert his enterprising spirit. <p><b>John Buchaca,</b> also an Intellectual Property law attorney, is a former software engineer and occasional inventor, and has worked with Henri for more than 15 years. Indeed, when Henri wrote the first edition of this book, John regarded himself as the &#8220;first dummy.&#8221; Before becoming a lawyer, he worked in ocean acoustics analysis and modeling and computer programming. His undergraduate degree is in applied mathematics. But his highest claim to fame (according to Henri) is to be married to Henri&#8217;s daughter and to be the father of two of Henri&#8217;s grandchildren. He lives in San Diego, California where he is a partner at Charmasson, Buchaca &amp; Leach, LLP, an IP law firm.</p>","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/10546"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33715,"title":"Copyright:chơi xổ số keno trực tuyếnMọi quyền được bảo lưu cho trang web chính thứcs, Trademarks, & Patents","slug":"copyrights-trademarks-patents","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33715"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[{"articleId":195033,"title":"The Patent Process","slug":"the-patent-process","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","law","copyrights-trademarks-patents"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/195033"}},{"articleId":195030,"title":"Useful Acronyms for Patents, Copyright:chơi xổ số keno trực tuyếnMọi quyền được bảo lưu cho trang web chính thứcs, and Trademarks","slug":"useful-acronyms-for-patents-copyrights-and-trademarks","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","law","copyrights-trademarks-patents"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/195030"}},{"articleId":195031,"title":"How to Identify Your Commercial Identifiers","slug":"how-to-identify-your-commercial-identifiers","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","law","copyrights-trademarks-patents"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/195031"}},{"articleId":195032,"title":"The Basics of Copyright:chơi xổ số keno trực tuyếnMọi quyền được bảo lưu cho trang web chính thứcs","slug":"the-basics-of-copyrights","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","law","copyrights-trademarks-patents"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/195032"}},{"articleId":195029,"title":"How to Keep Trade Secrets","slug":"how-to-keep-trade-secrets","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","law","copyrights-trademarks-patents"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/195029"}}],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":208829,"title":"Patents, Registered Designs, Trade Marks and Copyright:chơi xổ số keno trực tuyếnMọi quyền được bảo lưu cho trang web chính thức For Dummies Cheat Sheet (UK Edition)","slug":"patents-registered-designs-trade-marks-and-copyright-for-dummies-cheat-sheet-uk-edition","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","law","copyrights-trademarks-patents"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/208829"}},{"articleId":198910,"title":"Understanding the Different Kinds of Intellectual Property","slug":"understanding-the-different-kinds-of-intellectual-property","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","law","copyrights-trademarks-patents"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/198910"}},{"articleId":195033,"title":"The Patent Process","slug":"the-patent-process","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","law","copyrights-trademarks-patents"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/195033"}},{"articleId":195030,"title":"Useful Acronyms for Patents, Copyright:chơi xổ số keno trực tuyếnMọi quyền được bảo lưu cho trang web chính thứcs, and Trademarks","slug":"useful-acronyms-for-patents-copyrights-and-trademarks","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","law","copyrights-trademarks-patents"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/195030"}},{"articleId":195031,"title":"How to Identify Your Commercial Identifiers","slug":"how-to-identify-your-commercial-identifiers","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","law","copyrights-trademarks-patents"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/195031"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":282449,"slug":"patents-copyrights-and-trademarks-for-dummies-2nd-edition","isbn":"9780470339459","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","law","copyrights-trademarks-patents"],"amazon":{"default":"//www.amazon.com/gp/product/0470339454/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","ca":"//www.amazon.ca/gp/product/0470339454/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","indigo_ca":"//www.tkqlhce.com/click-9208661-13710633?url=//www.chapters.indigo.ca/en-ca/books/product/0470339454-item.html&cjsku=978111945484","gb":"//www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/0470339454/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","de":"//www.amazon.de/gp/product/0470339454/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20"},"image":{"src":"//www.coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/patents-copyrights-and-trademarks-for-dummies-2nd-edition-cover-9780470339459-203x255.jpg","width":203,"height":255},"title":"Patents, Copyright:chơi xổ số keno trực tuyếnMọi quyền được bảo lưu cho trang web chính thứcs and Trademarks For Dummies","testBankPinActivationLink":"","bookOutOfPrint":false,"authorsInfo":"<b data-author-id=\"10545\">Henri Charmasson</b> is an attorney with a 35-year career in the field of intellectual property (IP) law. He has been a naming adviser to major corporations. Henri is also an inventor with his name on 15 U.S. patents and an entrepreneur who sits on the board of several small business corporations. In his early engineering career, Henri designed computer hardware. Henri has authored several articles and delivered lectures on patent, copyright, trademark and trade secret topics, and written an authoritative treatise about the art of naming companies and branding new products. Born, raised, and educated in sunny Provence, France, he’s found in California the ideal place to exert his enterprising spirit. <p><b data-author-id=\"10546\">John Buchaca,</b> also an Intellectual Property law attorney, is a former software engineer and occasional inventor, and has worked with Henri for more than 15 years. Indeed, when Henri wrote the first edition of this book, John regarded himself as the “first dummy.” Before becoming a lawyer, he worked in ocean acoustics analysis and modeling and computer programming. His undergraduate degree is in applied mathematics. But his highest claim to fame (according to Henri) is to be married to Henri’s daughter and to be the father of two of Henri’s grandchildren. He lives in San Diego, California where he is a partner at Charmasson, Buchaca &amp; Leach, LLP, an IP law firm.</p>","authors":[{"authorId":10545,"name":"Henri J. A. Charmasson","slug":"henri-j-a-charmasson","description":" <b>Henri Charmasson</b> is an attorney with a 35-year career in the field of intellectual property (IP) law. He has been a naming adviser to major corporations. Henri is also an inventor with his name on 15 U.S. patents and an entrepreneur who sits on the board of several small business corporations. In his early engineering career, Henri designed computer hardware. Henri has authored several articles and delivered lectures on patent, copyright, trademark and trade secret topics, and written an authoritative treatise about the art of naming companies and branding new products. Born, raised, and educated in sunny Provence, France, he&#8217;s found in California the ideal place to exert his enterprising spirit. <p><b>John Buchaca,</b> also an Intellectual Property law attorney, is a former software engineer and occasional inventor, and has worked with Henri for more than 15 years. Indeed, when Henri wrote the first edition of this book, John regarded himself as the &#8220;first dummy.&#8221; Before becoming a lawyer, he worked in ocean acoustics analysis and modeling and computer programming. His undergraduate degree is in applied mathematics. But his highest claim to fame (according to Henri) is to be married to Henri&#8217;s daughter and to be the father of two of Henri&#8217;s grandchildren. He lives in San Diego, California where he is a partner at Charmasson, Buchaca &amp; Leach, LLP, an IP law firm.</p>","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/10545"}},{"authorId":10546,"name":"John Buchaca","slug":"john-buchaca","description":" <b>Henri Charmasson</b> is an attorney with a 35-year career in the field of intellectual property (IP) law. He has been a naming adviser to major corporations. Henri is also an inventor with his name on 15 U.S. patents and an entrepreneur who sits on the board of several small business corporations. In his early engineering career, Henri designed computer hardware. Henri has authored several articles and delivered lectures on patent, copyright, trademark and trade secret topics, and written an authoritative treatise about the art of naming companies and branding new products. Born, raised, and educated in sunny Provence, France, he&#8217;s found in California the ideal place to exert his enterprising spirit. <p><b>John Buchaca,</b> also an Intellectual Property law attorney, is a former software engineer and occasional inventor, and has worked with Henri for more than 15 years. Indeed, when Henri wrote the first edition of this book, John regarded himself as the &#8220;first dummy.&#8221; Before becoming a lawyer, he worked in ocean acoustics analysis and modeling and computer programming. His undergraduate degree is in applied mathematics. But his highest claim to fame (according to Henri) is to be married to Henri&#8217;s daughter and to be the father of two of Henri&#8217;s grandchildren. He lives in San Diego, California where he is a partner at Charmasson, Buchaca &amp; Leach, LLP, an IP law firm.</p>","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/10546"}}],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/books/"}},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;law&quot;,&quot;copyrights-trademarks-patents&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9780470339459&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-63221b270d1c8\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;law&quot;,&quot;copyrights-trademarks-patents&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9780470339459&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-63221b270dc46\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Cheat Sheet","articleList":[{"articleId":195033,"title":"The Patent Process","slug":"the-patent-process","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","law","copyrights-trademarks-patents"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/195033"}},{"articleId":195032,"title":"The Basics of Copyright:chơi xổ số keno trực tuyếnMọi quyền được bảo lưu cho trang web chính thứcs","slug":"the-basics-of-copyrights","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","law","copyrights-trademarks-patents"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/195032"}},{"articleId":195031,"title":"How to Identify Your Commercial Identifiers","slug":"how-to-identify-your-commercial-identifiers","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","law","copyrights-trademarks-patents"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/195031"}},{"articleId":195029,"title":"How to Keep Trade Secrets","slug":"how-to-keep-trade-secrets","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","law","copyrights-trademarks-patents"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/195029"}},{"articleId":195030,"title":"Useful Acronyms for Patents, Copyright:chơi xổ số keno trực tuyếnMọi quyền được bảo lưu cho trang web chính thứcs, and Trademarks","slug":"useful-acronyms-for-patents-copyrights-and-trademarks","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","law","copyrights-trademarks-patents"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/195030"}}],"content":[{"title":"The patent process","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p class=\"SortTitle\">A patent is the most expensive and complex type of IP (intellectual property) right. Decide whether you can protect your IP with a copyright, trademark, or service mark, or by keeping it under wraps as a trade secret before you go through the patent process.</p>\n<p>If you and your IP professional decide that a patent is the way to go, and you have the time and money to see the process through to the conclusion, here’s the patent process in a nutshell:</p>\n<ol class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Make sure the invention is really yours and doesn’t belong to your boss, your spouse, or your business partner.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Do a patent search to make sure that no one else has already come up with your formula, process, or invention.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Check that your invention passes the three-part test: It’s new, useful, and wouldn’t be obvious to someone knowledgeable in the field.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Prepare a patent application, including:</p>\n<ul class=\"level-two\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">A short abstract of the invention</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">References to any prior applications</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">A brief discussion of the general field, background, and circumstances of the invention</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">A summary of the invention</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">A description of the best implementation of the invention, including a drawing, if applicable</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">The claims (the legal <i>metes</i> <i>and bounds</i> — dimensions and limits — of the invention)</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">File your patent application, paying special attention to filing deadlines.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Pursue and prosecute your application through the Patent Office.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Appeal adverse decisions.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Get the patent (if you still want it).</p>\n</li>\n</ol>\n"},{"title":"The basics of copyrights","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p class=\"SortTitle\">A <i>copyright</i> protects an <em>original work of authorship</em> (OWA) — think short story, computer program, or song lyrics, for example — which must have tangible form, be a result of significant mental activity, have no inherent technical function, and be the author’s original creation. Here’s the skinny on copyrights:</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">As soon as you create an OWA, you automatically have a copyright, which prevents others from copying, publishing, or performing your work.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Make sure that you own the OWA. In other words, you didn’t produce it as an employee, or as a work made for hire.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">You can register your copyright, which makes prosecuting copycats easier.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">When you register your copyright, mark your work as a copyrighted work to discourage infringers and give yourself legal advantages.</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"How to identify your commercial identifiers","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p class=\"SortTitle\">If you’re developing work or a product that you want to get a patent on, register as the copyright holder of, or trademark, you need to be able to distinguish the fruit of your labors from the work of other people. The three types of commercial identifiers that distinguish your product, service, or company from others are:</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Product identifiers, commonly known as brands, or trademarks, which distinguish your product from others</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Service identifiers, comprised of service marks, certification marks, and membership or association marks</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Company identifiers, called trade names, which are typically business names and logos</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n<p>A good commercial identifier has the following characteristics:</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Unique (do a search first)</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Distinctive rather than generic</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Recognizable</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Memorable</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Pleasant associations</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"How to keep trade secrets","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p class=\"SortTitle\">The world of patents, copyrights, and trademarks includes trade secrets. Trade secrets can take many forms, such as your customer and supplier list, your next marketing campaign, a particular process or formula, or your finances. How can you protect them? By using the tips in the following list:</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Have all employees, contractors, consultants, advisors, and suppliers sign a confidentiality agreement.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Restrict access to areas of your office or plant.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Mark documents with a confidential legend.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Limit circulation of confidential documents.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Lock away sensitive material.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Include warnings and directives in your employee manual.</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"Useful acronyms for patents, copyrights, and trademarks","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p class=\"SortTitle\">The world of patents, copyrights, and trademarks has its share of acronyms, just like any other field. Although when you see <i>IP,</i> you may think “internet protocol,” in the intellectual property realm, IP stands for, well, intellectual property. The following table lists some of the more commonly used acronyms in the IP world:</p>\n<table>\n<tbody>\n<tr>\n<td>ARIPO</td>\n<td>Western Africa Patent Office</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>EAPO</td>\n<td>Eurasian Patent Office</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>EFS</td>\n<td>Electronic Patent Filing System</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>EPO</td>\n<td>European Patent Office</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>EU</td>\n<td>European Union</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>IP</td>\n<td>Intellectual property</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>MPEP</td>\n<td><i>Manual of Patent Examining Procedure</i></td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>OA</td>\n<td>Office action (by a patent or trademark examiner)</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>OAIP</td>\n<td>Southeastern African Patent Office</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>OHIM</td>\n<td>Office for Harmonization in the International Market (European<br />\nTrademark Office)</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>OWA</td>\n<td>Original work of authorship (protected by copyright)</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>PCT</td>\n<td>Patent Cooperation Treaty</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>PVPA</td>\n<td>Plant Variety Protection Act</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>PVPO</td>\n<td>Plant Variety Protection Office</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>TMEP</td>\n<td><i>Trademark Manual of Examining Procedure</i></td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>UPOV</td>\n<td>Convention for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>USC</td>\n<td>United States Codes</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>USPTO</td>\n<td>United States Patent and Trademark Office</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>TEAS</td>\n<td>Trademark Electronic Application System</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>WIPO</td>\n<td>World Industrial Property Organization</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>WMFH</td>\n<td>Work made for hire</td>\n</tr>\n</tbody>\n</table>\n"}],"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Solve","lifeExpectancy":"Two years","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2022-07-22T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":209384},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2017-03-27T16:53:20+00:00","modifiedTime":"2023-02-23T15:26:51+00:00","timestamp":"2023-09-14T18:19:11+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Academics & The Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"Law","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33712"},"slug":"law","categoryId":33712},{"name":"Contract Law","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33714"},"slug":"contract-law","categoryId":33714}],"title":"Contract Law For Dummies Cheat Sheet","strippedTitle":"contract law for dummies cheat sheet","slug":"contract-law-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","canonicalUrl":"","检引索擎改善":{"metaDescription":"Overview of the most important concepts in contract law, including enforceable obligations and extrinsic evidence.","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"To be successful in contract law, you need to know the rules and be able to analyze fact situations in the light of those rules. This Cheat Sheet introduces some of the most important concepts in contract law — such as contract formation, promises enforceable because of reliance and restitution, the statute of frauds, the parol evidence rule, and damages for breach of contract — and boils them down for easy reference.","description":"To be successful in contract law, you need to know the rules and be able to analyze fact situations in the light of those rules. This Cheat Sheet introduces some of the most important concepts in contract law — such as contract formation, promises enforceable because of reliance and restitution, the statute of frauds, the parol evidence rule, and damages for breach of contract — and boils them down for easy reference.","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":10127,"name":"Scott J. Burnham","slug":"scott-j-burnham","description":"Scott J. Burnham is the Curley Professor of Commercial Law at Gonzaga University School of Law. For 30 years, he has taught contracts at law schools internationally and throughout the US. He is also a prolific writer on legal topics and a consultant on contract drafting for numerous businesses.","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/10127"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33714,"title":"Contract Law","slug":"contract-law","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33714"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[{"articleId":186838,"title":"Checking for Contract Conditions","slug":"checking-for-contract-conditions","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","law","contract-law"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/186838"}},{"articleId":186836,"title":"Essential Elements of Contract Formation","slug":"essential-elements-of-contract-formation","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","law","contract-law"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/186836"}},{"articleId":186835,"title":"Finding an Enforceable Obligation","slug":"finding-an-enforceable-obligation","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","law","contract-law"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/186835"}},{"articleId":186837,"title":"Determining Whether a Transaction Is within the Statute of Frauds","slug":"determining-whether-a-transaction-is-within-the-statute-of-frauds","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","law","contract-law"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/186837"}},{"articleId":186833,"title":"Extrinsic Evidence: Grasping the Parol Evidence Rule","slug":"extrinsic-evidence-grasping-the-parol-evidence-rule","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","law","contract-law"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/186833"}}],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":186838,"title":"Checking for Contract Conditions","slug":"checking-for-contract-conditions","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","law","contract-law"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/186838"}},{"articleId":186836,"title":"Essential Elements of Contract Formation","slug":"essential-elements-of-contract-formation","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","law","contract-law"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/186836"}},{"articleId":186835,"title":"Finding an Enforceable Obligation","slug":"finding-an-enforceable-obligation","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","law","contract-law"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/186835"}},{"articleId":186837,"title":"Determining Whether a Transaction Is within the Statute of Frauds","slug":"determining-whether-a-transaction-is-within-the-statute-of-frauds","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","law","contract-law"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/186837"}},{"articleId":186833,"title":"Extrinsic Evidence: Grasping the Parol Evidence Rule","slug":"extrinsic-evidence-grasping-the-parol-evidence-rule","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","law","contract-law"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/186833"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":282107,"slug":"contract-law-for-dummies","isbn":"9781118092736","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","law","contract-law"],"amazon":{"default":"//www.amazon.com/gp/product/1118092732/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","ca":"//www.amazon.ca/gp/product/1118092732/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","indigo_ca":"//www.tkqlhce.com/click-9208661-13710633?url=//www.chapters.indigo.ca/en-ca/books/product/1118092732-item.html&cjsku=978111945484","gb":"//www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/1118092732/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","de":"//www.amazon.de/gp/product/1118092732/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20"},"image":{"src":"//www.coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/contract-law-for-dummies-cover-9781118092736-203x255.jpg","width":203,"height":255},"title":"Contract Law For Dummies","testBankPinActivationLink":"","bookOutOfPrint":false,"authorsInfo":"<p><b data-author-id=\"10127\">Scott J. Burnham</b> is the Curley Professor of Commercial Law at Gonzaga University School of Law. For 30 years he has taught Contracts at law schools internationally and throughout the U.S. He is also a prolific writer on legal topics and a consultant on contract drafting for numerous businesses. </p>","authors":[{"authorId":10127,"name":"Scott J. Burnham","slug":"scott-j-burnham","description":"Scott J. Burnham is the Curley Professor of Commercial Law at Gonzaga University School of Law. For 30 years, he has taught contracts at law schools internationally and throughout the US. He is also a prolific writer on legal topics and a consultant on contract drafting for numerous businesses.","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/10127"}}],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/books/"}},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;law&quot;,&quot;contract-law&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781118092736&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-63221b1feafea\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;law&quot;,&quot;contract-law&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781118092736&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-63221b1feba30\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Cheat Sheet","articleList":[{"articleId":186836,"title":"Essential Elements of Contract Formation","slug":"essential-elements-of-contract-formation","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","law","contract-law"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/186836"}},{"articleId":186835,"title":"Finding an Enforceable Obligation","slug":"finding-an-enforceable-obligation","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","law","contract-law"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/186835"}},{"articleId":186837,"title":"Determining Whether a Transaction Is within the Statute of Frauds","slug":"determining-whether-a-transaction-is-within-the-statute-of-frauds","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","law","contract-law"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/186837"}},{"articleId":186833,"title":"Extrinsic Evidence: Grasping the Parol Evidence Rule","slug":"extrinsic-evidence-grasping-the-parol-evidence-rule","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","law","contract-law"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/186833"}},{"articleId":186834,"title":"Limitations to Damages from Breach of Contract","slug":"limitations-to-damages-from-breach-of-contract","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","law","contract-law"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/186834"}},{"articleId":186838,"title":"Checking for Contract Conditions","slug":"checking-for-contract-conditions","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","law","contract-law"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/186838"}}],"content":[{"title":"Essential elements of contract formation","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>A <i>contract</i> is a legally enforceable exchange of promises. Contract formation requires the following three essential ingredients:</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Offer:</b> The offeror promises the offeree something in exchange for the offeree’s promise to do or not to do something.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Acceptance:</b> The offeree gives the offeror whatever was requested, such as a promise to do or not to do something.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Consideration:</b> The consideration is whatever each party brings to the table in the bargained-for exchange.</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"Finding an enforceable obligation","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>If you’re faced with the question of contract formation in your legal dealings, take the following three steps to find the obligation in the parties’ interaction:</p>\n<ol class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Look for a bargained-for contract — an exchange that has the three essential elements of offer, acceptance, and consideration.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Look for a claim based on reliance (also known as <i>promissory estoppel</i>), meaning that one party reasonably changed his position due to the other party’s promise and lost something as a result.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Look for a claim based on restitution, meaning that one party conferred a benefit on another without intending it as a gift or forcing it on the other party.</p>\n</li>\n</ol>\n<p>If you find at least one of these elements, you’re looking at an enforceable obligation.</p>\n"},{"title":"Determining whether a transaction is within the statute of frauds","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>To determine whether a transaction is within the statute of frauds and therefore must be evidenced by a writing, check whether the transaction is <i>any</i> of the following:</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">An agreement concerning real estate</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">An agreement to rent real property for longer than a year</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">An agreement that by its terms can’t be performed within a year from the making</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">An agreement to answer for the duty of another</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">An agreement for the sale of goods for $500 or more</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n<p>If an agreement is within the statute, look for evidence of a writing signed by the person against whom enforcement is sought. If you don’t find a sufficient writing, look for an exception to the statute.</p>\n"},{"title":"Extrinsic evidence: Grasping the parol evidence rule","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p><i>Parol evidence</i> is evidence of terms or understandings extrinsic to (not included in) a written contract. Courts follow the <i>parol evidence rule</i> to determine whether the evidence is admissible. Here’s the rule itself:</p>\n<blockquote><p>Once the parties have reduced their agreement to a writing that they intend to contain the final and complete statement of their agreement, then evidence of terms that would supplement or contradict it are not admissible.</p></blockquote>\n<p>And here’s how to apply the rule:</p>\n<ol class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Determine whether the parties intended the writing to be final.</p>\n<p class=\"child-para\">If yes, evidence may be offered to supplement the writing but not to contradict it. If no, evidence may be offered to supplement or contradict the writing.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Determine whether the parties intended the writing to be complete as well as final.</p>\n<p class=\"child-para\">If yes, evidence may not be offered to contradict or supplement the writing. If no, evidence may be offered to supplement the writing but not to contradict it.</p>\n</li>\n</ol>\n"},{"title":"Limitations to damages from breach of contract","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>The plaintiff in a breach of contract case faces an uphill battle in proving the case. Any damages the court awards are limited by the following considerations:</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Causation:</b> The plaintiff must prove that the breach caused the loss.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Certainty:</b> The plaintiff must prove the amount of damages to a reasonable certainty.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Foreseeability (the Hadley rule):</b> The plaintiff can recover only the losses that the defendant, at the time the parties made the contract, would reasonably have known would result from the breach.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Mitigation:</b> The plaintiff must make reasonable efforts to minimize the cost of the breach.</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"Checking for contract conditions","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>In contract law, a <i>condition </i>is an event that must occur before some performance is due. Parties may claim that they aren’t in breach of contract because the condition that had to occur before they had to perform hasn’t occurred. A condition can be express or implied:</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Express:</b> An express condition, which usually uses words like <i>if,</i> is stated in the contract.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Implied:</b> An implied condition is found by the court. The most common implied condition is the performance of a party. Thus, a party may claim that it doesn’t have to perform because the other party didn’t perform.</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n"}],"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Advance","lifeExpectancy":"Two years","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2023-02-23T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":208522},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2017-03-27T16:46:45+00:00","modifiedTime":"2022-12-21T18:59:52+00:00","timestamp":"2023-09-14T18:18:56+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Academics & The Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"Law","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33712"},"slug":"law","categoryId":33712},{"name":"Small Business Law","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33717"},"slug":"small-business-law","categoryId":33717}],"title":"Law for Small Business For Dummies UK Cheat Sheet","strippedTitle":"law for small business for dummies uk cheat sheet","slug":"law-for-small-business-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","canonicalUrl":"","检引索擎改善":{"metaDescription":"Entrepreneurs in the United Kingdome don't normally think about planning their legal journey alongside planning other aspects of the business. Here are five typ","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"Entrepreneurs in the United Kingdome don't normally think about planning their <i>legal</i> journey alongside planning other aspects of the business. Here are five typical life stages of a small or medium-size enterprise and their associated legal issues that you need to address.\r\n\r\nThey form a map that may just stop you from losing your way in the middle of nowhere and driving your business into a legal muddy field — with a bored cow staring at your crying children in the backseat and a stony-faced spouse Googling \"quick divorces\" on your smart phone.","description":"Entrepreneurs in the United Kingdome don't normally think about planning their <i>legal</i> journey alongside planning other aspects of the business. Here are five typical life stages of a small or medium-size enterprise and their associated legal issues that you need to address.\r\n\r\nThey form a map that may just stop you from losing your way in the middle of nowhere and driving your business into a legal muddy field — with a bored cow staring at your crying children in the backseat and a stony-faced spouse Googling \"quick divorces\" on your smart phone.","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":9011,"name":"Clive Rich","slug":"clive-rich","description":" <p><b>Clive Rich</b> is a lawyer, mediator, arbitrator and negotiator. He is Chairman of LawBite, an online legal service providing &#39;Simple Law for Small Companies&#39; &#40;www.lawbite.co.uk&#41;. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9011"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33717,"title":"Small Business Law","slug":"small-business-law","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33717"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[{"articleId":139185,"title":"Testing Your Intellectual Property Know-How","slug":"testing-your-intellectual-property-know-how","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","law","small-business-law"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/139185"}},{"articleId":139186,"title":"Take Care of Legal Priorities When Launching Your Small Business","slug":"take-care-of-legal-priorities-when-launching-your-small-business","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","law","small-business-law"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/139186"}},{"articleId":139187,"title":"Spotting and Stopping Risks to Your Small Business","slug":"spotting-and-stopping-risks-to-your-small-business","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","law","small-business-law"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/139187"}},{"articleId":139188,"title":"Consider Legal Issues Before You Start Your Small Business","slug":"consider-legal-issues-before-you-start-your-small-business","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","law","small-business-law"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/139188"}},{"articleId":139189,"title":"Are You Raising Finance or Problems for Your Small Business?","slug":"are-you-raising-finance-or-problems-for-your-small-business","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","law","small-business-law"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/139189"}}],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":139185,"title":"Testing Your Intellectual Property Know-How","slug":"testing-your-intellectual-property-know-how","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","law","small-business-law"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/139185"}},{"articleId":139186,"title":"Take Care of Legal Priorities When Launching Your Small Business","slug":"take-care-of-legal-priorities-when-launching-your-small-business","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","law","small-business-law"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/139186"}},{"articleId":139187,"title":"Spotting and Stopping Risks to Your Small Business","slug":"spotting-and-stopping-risks-to-your-small-business","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","law","small-business-law"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/139187"}},{"articleId":139188,"title":"Consider Legal Issues Before You Start Your Small Business","slug":"consider-legal-issues-before-you-start-your-small-business","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","law","small-business-law"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/139188"}},{"articleId":139189,"title":"Are You Raising Finance or Problems for Your Small Business?","slug":"are-you-raising-finance-or-problems-for-your-small-business","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","law","small-business-law"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/139189"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":281582,"slug":"law-for-small-business-for-dummies-uk-uk-edition","isbn":"9781118970461","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","law","small-business-law"],"amazon":{"default":"//www.amazon.com/gp/product/1118970462/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","ca":"//www.amazon.ca/gp/product/1118970462/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","indigo_ca":"//www.tkqlhce.com/click-9208661-13710633?url=//www.chapters.indigo.ca/en-ca/books/product/1118970462-item.html&cjsku=978111945484","gb":"//www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/1118970462/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","de":"//www.amazon.de/gp/product/1118970462/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20"},"image":{"src":"//www.coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/law-for-small-business-for-dummies-uk-edition-cover-9781118970454-203x255.jpg","width":203,"height":255},"title":"Law for Small Business For Dummies - UK","testBankPinActivationLink":"","bookOutOfPrint":false,"authorsInfo":"<p><b data-author-id=\"9011\">Clive Rich</b> is a lawyer, mediator, arbitrator and negotiator. He is Chairman of LawBite, an online legal service providing 'Simple Law for Small Companies' (www.lawbite.co.uk). </p>","authors":[{"authorId":9011,"name":"Clive Rich","slug":"clive-rich","description":" <p><b>Clive Rich</b> is a lawyer, mediator, arbitrator and negotiator. He is Chairman of LawBite, an online legal service providing &#39;Simple Law for Small Companies&#39; &#40;www.lawbite.co.uk&#41;. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9011"}}],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/books/"}},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;law&quot;,&quot;small-business-law&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781118970461&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-63221b1003fc5\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;law&quot;,&quot;small-business-law&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781118970461&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-63221b100499d\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Cheat Sheet","articleList":[{"articleId":139188,"title":"Consider Legal Issues Before You Start Your Small Business","slug":"consider-legal-issues-before-you-start-your-small-business","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","law","small-business-law"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/139188"}},{"articleId":139186,"title":"Take Care of Legal Priorities When Launching Your Small Business","slug":"take-care-of-legal-priorities-when-launching-your-small-business","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","law","small-business-law"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/139186"}},{"articleId":139154,"title":"Essential Legal Steps When Growing Your Small Business","slug":"essential-legal-steps-when-growing-your-small-business","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","law","small-business-law"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/139154"}},{"articleId":139160,"title":"Stay in Business with These Legal Tips","slug":"stay-in-business-with-these-legal-tips","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","law","small-business-law"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/139160"}},{"articleId":139161,"title":"Know the Legal Requirements to Exit Your Small Business","slug":"know-the-legal-requirements-to-exit-your-small-business","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","law","small-business-law"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/139161"}}],"content":[{"title":"Consider legal issues before you start your small business","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>When you start on a long journey to somewhere new in your small or medium-size enterprise (SME), you need a map to follow. You need to consider some of the legal issues before you embark on that journey. At the initial stage of your small business, you have the following aspects in place:</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">An idea for a potentially scalable product/service idea with a big enough target market.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Some initial revenue models for how it can make money.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">A business plan with milestones.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">An idea of how much funding you need.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Initial core management (maybe only one or two people).</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n<p>If you feel that don&#8217;t have the head space to think about legal issues at this early stage, you may need to grow a bigger head! Here&#8217;s what you need to consider:</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Reviewing your potential legal structure:</b> Do you want to be a sole trader, a general partnership, a limited company or a limited liability partnership?</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Checking <a href=\"//companieshouse.blog.gov.uk/2019/02/12/choosing-a-company-name-trading-name-or-trade-mark/\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\">Companies House</a>, trademark and domain name registers:</b> Search for competing trading names that may stop you using the name that you want.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Setting up your business structure:</b> You need to implement your decision as a sole trader/limited company/partnership structure. You also need to comply with formalities, such as registering your new enterprise with Companies House, filing resolutions and appointing directors.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Drawing up and entering into agreements:</b> These are shareholder and/or partnership agreements.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Deciding what kind of external funding you require:</b> Will it be loans, equity funding from angels, crowd funding?</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Raising funding:</b> You need to raise funds, and close the funding agreement(s) for your seed-funding round.</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"Take care of legal priorities when launching your small business","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>During the launch stage of your small or medium-size enterprise, you need to consider a bunch of legal issues. A whole host of issues are going on at this stage in your small business, including:</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Hiring additional members of the team, whether as contractors or employees (make sure that you know the legal difference)</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Acquiring or creating key assets (software, content and so on)</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Creating a marketing plan</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Adding non-execs to give you more perspective and wider contacts</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Developing software, whether for your website, apps or programs</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Developing and launching a minimum viable product to get you into the marketplace</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n<p>You have plenty to do just juggling these priorities. But don&#8217;t forget your legal priorities at this stage, otherwise all of those plates you&#8217;re spinning risk crashing to the ground. Here&#8217;s your legal to-do list during this stage of your business development:</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Create contracts for your contractors and consultants.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Create contracts for your employees.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Implement share option schemes for employees or anyone else you need to incentivize.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Add non-exec agreements.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Hire temporary staff.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Set out your online trading terms/privacy terms.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Comply with trading laws, such as the Electronic Commerce Directive, 2002.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Comply with employment legislation (for example, Health and Safety at Work, 1974, Pensions Act, 2008, Data Protection Act, 1998).</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Contract for premises for your business.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Review and protect your intellectual property, such as the potential for trademarks, patents, design rights, database rights and copyrights.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Enter into software-development contracts.</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"Essential legal steps when growing your small business","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>It&#8217;s important that you remember to take important legal steps when you&#8217;re growing your small business. When your business is really flying, you&#8217;re rushing round excitedly doing the following simultaneously:</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Securing your next round of funding for sales and marketing</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Consolidating your supply chain</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Developing user growth and/or revenue</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Obtaining market validation</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Developing sales and distribution channels</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Expanding into new markets and territories</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n<p>In your quieter moments, here are the legal priorities you have to contemplate as your business takes off:</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Agreeing terms for &#8216;series A&#8217; funding and signing agreement(s)</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Negotiating and agreeing trading agreements for manufacture, distribution and licensing, wholesaling, and retailing</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Negotiating and agreeing service agreements for sales agents, sales affiliates and using software as a service (SaaS)</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Contracting with consumers</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Applying consumer law properly (for example, the Consumer Rights Act, 2015)</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Putting a proper process in place for dealing with consumer complaints</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Contracting abroad — exporting, franchising, licensing and setting up subsidiaries</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"Stay in business with these legal tips","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>As your business expands, you can&#8217;t neglect the legal aspects. Your expanding enterprise is a bit like a teenager experiencing growing pains — getting bigger at a startling rate but experiencing unexpected aches and strains that slow it down, or just make you want to have a lie down. These problems include:</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Trading risks from customers and suppliers who don&#8217;t pay on time or at all</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Disputes with trading partners, contractors or employees</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Pressures on cash as expansion costs outstrip your ability to pay your way</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n<p>While mopping your fevered brow as you sweat about these threats, here are the legal to-dos to add to your list of concerns at this stage of your business&#8217;s growth:</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Create a credit control policy in place to make sure that people don&#8217;t owe you too much.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Implement terms and conditions to deal with payment defaults by customers and suppliers.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Defray risk by using invoice discounting or invoice factoring agreements to collect cash early.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Set up insurance policies to mitigate risk (for example, insurance for employers&#8217; liability and professional indemnity).</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Learn how to handle financial threats, such as statutory demands or attempts by bullying creditors to wind up your business.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Manage disputes effectively — whether through the courts or other channels, such as mediation, arbitration or simply smart negotiation.</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"Know the legal requirements to exit your small business","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>When you&#8217;re exiting (that is, selling) your small business, you need to know what&#8217;s required legally. At last — the finishing line is in sight. Like an over-heated decathlete you can&#8217;t stop extra disciplines being added to your list of events, including:</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Raising lots more money for significant growth</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Creating exponential growth through partnerships and joint ventures</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Buying or merging with other firms</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Repeating previous stages of the business with other products (diversifying)</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Preparing the business for expansion or sale</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Selling shares or assets</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Exiting the business</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n<p>When plotting your path to blazing success, take note of this checklist of legal issues to consider:</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Implement significant &#8216;A&#8217; or &#8216;B&#8217; funding rounds.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Enter joint venture agreements with other partners.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Construct acquisition or merger agreements with target companies.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Implement legal steps from previous stages of your business&#8217; growth for new diversified products.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Deal with terms sheets and any buyer&#8217;s due diligence.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Contract to sell all or part of the business as shares or assets.</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n"}],"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Advance","lifeExpectancy":"Two years","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2022-12-21T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":207412},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2017-03-26T07:13:36+00:00","modifiedTime":"2022-12-21T18:50:52+00:00","timestamp":"2023-09-14T18:18:55+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Academics & The Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"Law","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33712"},"slug":"law","categoryId":33712},{"name":"Small Business Law","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33717"},"slug":"small-business-law","categoryId":33717}],"title":"Are You Raising Finance or Problems for Your Small Business?","strippedTitle":"are you raising finance or problems for your small business?","slug":"are-you-raising-finance-or-problems-for-your-small-business","canonicalUrl":"","检引索擎改善":{"metaDescription":"Sometimes activities involved in raising finance can actually create problems for your small business. Take a look at this simple quiz and see whether you're a ","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"Sometimes activities involved in raising finance can actually create problems for your small business. Take a look at this simple quiz and see whether you're a smooth operator or a proper Charlie as regards raising finance.\r\n\r\nIn this fictitious scenario, London-based Ever Hopeful Limited, has two directors, Roger Branston (the chief executive officer, or CEO) and Donald Trumpton (the chief financial officer, or CFO). Each holds 40 percent of the existing share capital and angel investors hold the rest. The company has decided to take on 1 million pounds of funding from a venture capitalist to further develop its social-gaming platform.\r\n\r\nEver Hopeful has problems, though. A dispute is simmering with a rival software business that claims infringement of its software copyrights, and it's also the subject of an ongoing investigation by the Data Regulator for alleged mishandling of customers' personal data. It's hoping to keep these matters quiet in case they put investors off.\r\n\r\nRuthless Ventures, a renowned venture capitalist with a reputation for backing early-stage businesses, wants to invest and take a 40 percent stake in the equity of the company. This offer values the company at 2.5 million pounds post-funding.\r\n\r\nRuthless presents the two Ever Hopeful directors with a term sheet, which it says is in its standard form and always gets signed containing this wording. The term sheet says that Ruthless will take its shares \"with the usual anti-dilution ratchets.\" Going forward, the directors' shares will be subject to \"standard leaver provisions,\" as will the directors to \"standard non-compete provisions.\"\r\n\r\nIn addition, the term sheet grants the venture capitalist an exclusivity period of four months following the date of the term sheet so that it has time to do its due diligence. The term sheet is subject to due diligence and \"standard warranties.\"\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" >Issues with the proposal</h2>\r\nDid you spot issues with the proposal? Here are several:\r\n<ol class=\"level-one\">\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">If the venture capitalist takes a 40 percent shareholding, it can block special resolutions that Ever Hopeful may want to pass, which gives the venture capitalist a lot of control.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">When the new shares have been issued to the venture capitalist, Roger and Donald are going to be diluted to below 50 percent ownership of the company overall, and so other shareholders can gang up and out-vote them.</p>\r\n<p class=\"child-para\">They'll also be powerless to stop special resolutions being passed unless they combine their votes, because they'll each own only 24 percent of the new company. The reason for this: As a result of the new investor coming onboard with 40 percent of the overall shares, Roger and Donald between them now only own 80 percent of the remaining 60 percent of the shares, which comes to 24 percent each. You need more than 25 percent to block a special resolution.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">Four months of exclusivity for the venture capitalist is a long time — during that period, Ever Hopeful is kept out of the market and can't talk to other investors.</p>\r\n<p class=\"child-para\">Has it got enough cash of its own to keep going without further investment for that period, and for any longer period that may be required if this deal doesn't get completed?</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">\"Anti-dilution ratchets\" mean that on a subsequent investment round Roger and Donald will be further diluted by new investment, but not the venture capitalist.</p>\r\n<p class=\"child-para\">This puts Ruthless in an even stronger position and may discourage other future investors from coming onboard.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">Roger and Donald need to be very careful about agreeing to \"standard leaver provisions,\" which mean that if either of them leave the company they may have to sell their shares back at a price below market rate.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">The two directors also need to be careful about signing up to \"standard warranties\" because these have no cap on their potential liability if one of their warranty promises to Ruthless proves to be untrue.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">Given that the deal is subject to due diligence, Rog and Don need to disclose the issues in relation to the potential lawsuit for copyright infringement and the alleged mishandling of personal data.</p>\r\n<p class=\"child-para\">They should disclose them in a disclosure letter. The two directors are only protected from a warranty claim in relation to these issues if they're disclosed upfront.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n</ol>","description":"Sometimes activities involved in raising finance can actually create problems for your small business. Take a look at this simple quiz and see whether you're a smooth operator or a proper Charlie as regards raising finance.\r\n\r\nIn this fictitious scenario, London-based Ever Hopeful Limited, has two directors, Roger Branston (the chief executive officer, or CEO) and Donald Trumpton (the chief financial officer, or CFO). Each holds 40 percent of the existing share capital and angel investors hold the rest. The company has decided to take on 1 million pounds of funding from a venture capitalist to further develop its social-gaming platform.\r\n\r\nEver Hopeful has problems, though. A dispute is simmering with a rival software business that claims infringement of its software copyrights, and it's also the subject of an ongoing investigation by the Data Regulator for alleged mishandling of customers' personal data. It's hoping to keep these matters quiet in case they put investors off.\r\n\r\nRuthless Ventures, a renowned venture capitalist with a reputation for backing early-stage businesses, wants to invest and take a 40 percent stake in the equity of the company. This offer values the company at 2.5 million pounds post-funding.\r\n\r\nRuthless presents the two Ever Hopeful directors with a term sheet, which it says is in its standard form and always gets signed containing this wording. The term sheet says that Ruthless will take its shares \"with the usual anti-dilution ratchets.\" Going forward, the directors' shares will be subject to \"standard leaver provisions,\" as will the directors to \"standard non-compete provisions.\"\r\n\r\nIn addition, the term sheet grants the venture capitalist an exclusivity period of four months following the date of the term sheet so that it has time to do its due diligence. The term sheet is subject to due diligence and \"standard warranties.\"\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" >Issues with the proposal</h2>\r\nDid you spot issues with the proposal? Here are several:\r\n<ol class=\"level-one\">\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">If the venture capitalist takes a 40 percent shareholding, it can block special resolutions that Ever Hopeful may want to pass, which gives the venture capitalist a lot of control.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">When the new shares have been issued to the venture capitalist, Roger and Donald are going to be diluted to below 50 percent ownership of the company overall, and so other shareholders can gang up and out-vote them.</p>\r\n<p class=\"child-para\">They'll also be powerless to stop special resolutions being passed unless they combine their votes, because they'll each own only 24 percent of the new company. The reason for this: As a result of the new investor coming onboard with 40 percent of the overall shares, Roger and Donald between them now only own 80 percent of the remaining 60 percent of the shares, which comes to 24 percent each. You need more than 25 percent to block a special resolution.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">Four months of exclusivity for the venture capitalist is a long time — during that period, Ever Hopeful is kept out of the market and can't talk to other investors.</p>\r\n<p class=\"child-para\">Has it got enough cash of its own to keep going without further investment for that period, and for any longer period that may be required if this deal doesn't get completed?</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">\"Anti-dilution ratchets\" mean that on a subsequent investment round Roger and Donald will be further diluted by new investment, but not the venture capitalist.</p>\r\n<p class=\"child-para\">This puts Ruthless in an even stronger position and may discourage other future investors from coming onboard.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">Roger and Donald need to be very careful about agreeing to \"standard leaver provisions,\" which mean that if either of them leave the company they may have to sell their shares back at a price below market rate.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">The two directors also need to be careful about signing up to \"standard warranties\" because these have no cap on their potential liability if one of their warranty promises to Ruthless proves to be untrue.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">Given that the deal is subject to due diligence, Rog and Don need to disclose the issues in relation to the potential lawsuit for copyright infringement and the alleged mishandling of personal data.</p>\r\n<p class=\"child-para\">They should disclose them in a disclosure letter. The two directors are only protected from a warranty claim in relation to these issues if they're disclosed upfront.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n</ol>","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":9011,"name":"Clive Rich","slug":"clive-rich","description":" <p><b>Clive Rich</b> is a lawyer, mediator, arbitrator and negotiator. He is Chairman of LawBite, an online legal service providing &#39;Simple Law for Small Companies&#39; &#40;www.lawbite.co.uk&#41;. 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