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{"appState":{"pageLoadApiCallsStatus":true},"categoryState":{"relatedCategories":{"headers":{"timestamp":"2025-01-31T04:01:10+00:00"},"categoryId":33841,"data":{"title":"Wine","slug":"wine","image":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Home, Auto, & Hobbies","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33809"},"slug":"home-auto-hobbies","categoryId":33809},{"name":"Food & Drink","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33839"},"slug":"food-drink","categoryId":33839},{"name":"Beverages","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33840"},"slug":"beverages","categoryId":33840},{"name":"Wine","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33841"},"slug":"wine","categoryId":33841}],"parentCategory":{"categoryId":33840,"title":"Beverages","slug":"beverages","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33840"}},"childCategories":[],"description":"Pop the cork on the wonder of wine. Wine regions, home winemaking, professional pairings, and everything you need to become a connoisseur.","relatedArticles":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles?category=33841&offset=0&size=5"},"hasArticle":true,"hasBook":true,"articleCount":133,"bookCount":7},"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33841"}},"relatedCategoriesLoadedStatus":"success"},"listState":{"list":{"count":10,"total":130,"items":[{"headers":{"creationTime":"2020-01-30T18:06:48+00:00","modifiedTime":"2024-09-28T20:42:09+00:00","timestamp":"2024-09-28T21:01:03+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Home, Auto, & Hobbies","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33809"},"slug":"home-auto-hobbies","categoryId":33809},{"name":"Food & Drink","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33839"},"slug":"food-drink","categoryId":33839},{"name":"Beverages","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33840"},"slug":"beverages","categoryId":33840},{"name":"Wine","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33841"},"slug":"wine","categoryId":33841}],"title":"How to Judge Wine for Quality","strippedTitle":"how to judge wine for quality","slug":"wine-quality-how-to-judge-good-or-bad-wines","canonicalUrl":"","归类传奇座舱简化":{"metaDescription":"Learn how to judge whether a particular wine is good quality by considering aspects like balance, depth, complexity, and finish.","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"Instead of worrying about crisp wines, earthy wines, and medium-bodied wines, wouldn’t it just be easier to walk into a wine shop and say, “Give me a very good wine for dinner tonight”? Isn’t <em>quality</em> the ultimate issue — or at least, quality within your price range, also known as <em>value?</em>\r\n\r\nIn fact, a good deal of wine marketing revolves around the notion of quality, except in the case of the least expensive wines. Wine producers constantly brag about the quality ratings that their wines receive from critics, because a high rating — implying high quality — translates into increased sales.\r\n<p class=\"article-tips remember\">Quality wines come in all colors, all degrees of sweetness and dryness, and all flavor profiles. Just because a wine is high quality doesn’t mean that you’ll actually enjoy it, any more than a three-star rating means that you’ll love a particular restaurant. Personal taste is simply more relevant than quality in choosing a wine.</p>\r\nDegrees of quality do exist among wines. But a wine’s quality is not absolute: How great a wine is or isn’t depends on who’s doing the judging.\r\n\r\nThe instruments that measure the quality of a wine are a human being’s nose, mouth, and brain, and because everyone is different, everyone has a different opinion on how good a wine is. The combined opinion of a group of trained, experienced tasters (also known as wine experts) is usually considered a reliable judgment of a wine’s quality.\r\n\r\nIn the following sections, we explore what makes a good wine good and what makes a poor wine inferior.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" >What’s a good wine?</h2>\r\nA good wine is, above all, a wine that you like enough to drink, because the whole purpose of a wine is to give pleasure to those who drink it. After that, how good a wine is depends on how it measures up to a set of (more or less) agreed-upon standards of performance established by experienced, trained experts. These standards involve mysterious concepts like <em>balance, length, depth, complexity, finish,</em> and <em>trueness to type</em> (<em>typicity</em> in Winespeak), which we explain in the following sections. None of these concepts is objectively measurable, by the way.\r\n\r\nTaste is personal. Literally! The perception of the basic tastes on the tongue varies from one person to the next. Research has proven that some people have more taste buds than others, and are, therefore, more sensitive to characteristics such as sourness or bitterness in food and beverages. The most sensitive tasters are called, somewhat misleadingly, supertasters — not because they’re more expert, but because they perceive sensations such as bitterness more acutely. If you find diet sodas very bitter, or if you need to add a lot of sugar to your coffee to make it palatable, you might fall into this category — and you, therefore, might find many red wines unpleasant, even if other people consider them great.\r\n<h3>Balance</h3>\r\nThe three words <em>sweetness, acidity,</em> and <em>tannin</em> represent three of the major <em>components</em> (parts) of wine. The fourth is <em>alcohol.</em> Besides being one of the reasons we often want to drink a glass of wine in the first place, alcohol is an important player in wine quality.\r\n\r\n<em>Balance</em> is the relationship of these four components to one another. A wine is balanced when nothing sticks out, such as harsh tannin or too much sweetness, as you taste the wine. Most wines are balanced to most people. But if you have any pet peeves about food — if you really hate anything tart, for example, or if you never eat sweets — you might perceive some wines to be unbalanced. If you perceive them to be unbalanced, then they are unbalanced for you. (Professional tasters know their own idiosyncrasies and adjust for them when they judge wine.)\r\n<p class=\"article-tips remember\">Tannin and acidity are hardening elements in a wine (they make a wine taste firmer and less giving in the mouth), while alcohol and sugar (if any) are softening elements. The balance of a wine is the interrelationship of the hard and the soft aspects of a wine — and a key indicator of quality.</p>\r\nTo experience the principle of taste-balance firsthand, try this: Make a very strong cup of black tea and chill it. When you sip it, the cold tea will taste bitter, because it’s very tannic. Now add lemon juice; the tea will taste astringent (constricting the pores in your mouth), because the acid of the lemon and the tannin of the tea are accentuating each other. Now add a lot of sugar to the tea. The sweetness should counterbalance the acid-tannin impact, and the tea will taste softer and more agreeable than it did before.\r\n<h3>Length</h3>\r\nWhen we call wines <em>long</em> or <em>short,</em> we’re not referring to the size of the bottle or how quickly we empty it. <em>Length</em> describes a wine that gives an impression of going all the way on the palate — you can taste it across the full length of your tongue — rather than stopping short halfway through your tasting of it.\r\n\r\nMany wines today are very <em>upfront</em> on the palate — they make a big impression as soon as you taste them, but they don’t go the distance in your mouth. In other words, they’re <em>short</em>. Length is increasingly used also to describe a wine with a long aftertaste. (See the section, “Finish,” just ahead.) Length in the mouth can more precisely be called <em>palate length,</em> to avoid confusion. Long palate length is a sure sign of high quality.\r\n<h3>Depth</h3>\r\nDepth is another subjective, unmeasurable attribute of a high-quality wine. We say a wine has <em>depth</em> when it seems to have a dimension of verticality — that is, it doesn’t taste flat and one-dimensional in your mouth. A “flat” wine can never be great.\r\n<h3>Complexity</h3>\r\nNothing is wrong with a simple, straightforward wine, especially if you enjoy it. But a wine that keeps revealing different things about itself, always showing you a new flavor or impression — a wine that has <em>complexity</em> — is usually considered better quality. Generally, experts use the term <em>complexity</em> specifically to indicate that a wine has a multiplicity of aromas and flavors; some people use the term it in a more holistic (but less precise) sense, to refer to the total impression a wine gives you, but this use is becoming uncommon.\r\n<h3>Finish</h3>\r\nThe impression a wine leaves in the back of your mouth and in your throat after you swallow it is its <em>finish</em> or <em>aftertaste.</em> In a good wine, you can still perceive the wine’s flavors, such as fruitiness or spiciness, at that point. The more enduring the positive flavor perception is, the <em>longer</em> the finish is. Some wines may finish <em>hot,</em> because of high alcohol, or <em>bitter,</em> because of tannin — both shortcomings. Or a wine may have nothing much at all to say for itself after you swallow, which tells you that it is probably not a great wine.\r\n<h3>Typicity</h3>\r\nIn order to judge whether a wine is true to its type, you have to know how that type of wine is supposed to taste. So you have to know the textbook characteristics of wines made from the major grape varieties and wines of the world’s classic wine regions. (For example, the Cabernet Sauvignon grape typically has an aroma and flavor of black currants, and the French white wine called Pouilly-Fumé typically has a slight gunflint aroma.)\r\n<h2 id=\"tab2\" >What’s a bad wine?</h2>\r\nStrangely enough, the right to declare a wine good because you like it doesn’t carry with it the right to call a wine bad just because you don’t. In this game, you get to make your own rules, but you don’t get to force other people to live by them.\r\n\r\nThe fact is that very few bad wines exist in the world today. And many of the wines we could call <em>bad</em> are actually just bad <em>bottles</em> of wine — unlucky bottles that were handled badly so that the good wine inside them got ruined.\r\n\r\nHere are some characteristics that everyone agrees indicate a bad wine (or a bad bottle). We hope you never meet one.\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Vinegar:</strong> In the natural evolution of things, wine is just a passing stage between grape juice and vinegar. Most wines today remain in the wine stage because of technology or careful winemaking. If you find a wine that has crossed the line toward vinegar, it’s bad wine.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Chemical or bacterial smells:</strong> The most common are acetone (nail polish thinner) and sulfur flaws (rotten eggs, burnt rubber, bad garlic). Bad wines.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Oxidized wine:</strong> This wine smells flat, inexpressive, or maybe cooked, and it tastes the same. It might have been a good wine once, but air — oxygen — got in somehow and killed the wine. Bad bottle.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Cooked aromas and taste:</strong> When a wine has been stored or shipped in heat, it can actually taste cooked or baked as a result (wine people use the term <em>maderized</em> for such wines). Often there’s telltale leakage from the cork, or the cork has pushed up a bit inside the bottle. Bad bottle. (Unfortunately, every other bottle of that wine that experienced the same shipping or storage will also be bad.)</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Corky wine:</strong> The most common flaw, <em>corkiness</em> comes across as a smell of damp cardboard that gets worse with air, along with diminished flavor intensity. It’s caused by a defective cork, and any wine in a bottle that’s sealed with a cork is at risk for it. Bad bottle. (Fortunately, only a very small percentage of wines are corky.)</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<p class=\"article-tips remember\">Let’s not dwell too long on what can go wrong with a wine. If you find a bad wine or a bad bottle — or even a wine that’s considered a good wine, but you don’t like it — just move on to something you like better. Drinking a so-called great wine that you don’t enjoy is as time-wasting as watching a television show that bores you. Change the channel. Explore.</p>","description":"Instead of worrying about crisp wines, earthy wines, and medium-bodied wines, wouldn’t it just be easier to walk into a wine shop and say, “Give me a very good wine for dinner tonight”? Isn’t <em>quality</em> the ultimate issue — or at least, quality within your price range, also known as <em>value?</em>\r\n\r\nIn fact, a good deal of wine marketing revolves around the notion of quality, except in the case of the least expensive wines. Wine producers constantly brag about the quality ratings that their wines receive from critics, because a high rating — implying high quality — translates into increased sales.\r\n<p class=\"article-tips remember\">Quality wines come in all colors, all degrees of sweetness and dryness, and all flavor profiles. Just because a wine is high quality doesn’t mean that you’ll actually enjoy it, any more than a three-star rating means that you’ll love a particular restaurant. Personal taste is simply more relevant than quality in choosing a wine.</p>\r\nDegrees of quality do exist among wines. But a wine’s quality is not absolute: How great a wine is or isn’t depends on who’s doing the judging.\r\n\r\nThe instruments that measure the quality of a wine are a human being’s nose, mouth, and brain, and because everyone is different, everyone has a different opinion on how good a wine is. The combined opinion of a group of trained, experienced tasters (also known as wine experts) is usually considered a reliable judgment of a wine’s quality.\r\n\r\nIn the following sections, we explore what makes a good wine good and what makes a poor wine inferior.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" >What’s a good wine?</h2>\r\nA good wine is, above all, a wine that you like enough to drink, because the whole purpose of a wine is to give pleasure to those who drink it. After that, how good a wine is depends on how it measures up to a set of (more or less) agreed-upon standards of performance established by experienced, trained experts. These standards involve mysterious concepts like <em>balance, length, depth, complexity, finish,</em> and <em>trueness to type</em> (<em>typicity</em> in Winespeak), which we explain in the following sections. None of these concepts is objectively measurable, by the way.\r\n\r\nTaste is personal. Literally! The perception of the basic tastes on the tongue varies from one person to the next. Research has proven that some people have more taste buds than others, and are, therefore, more sensitive to characteristics such as sourness or bitterness in food and beverages. The most sensitive tasters are called, somewhat misleadingly, supertasters — not because they’re more expert, but because they perceive sensations such as bitterness more acutely. If you find diet sodas very bitter, or if you need to add a lot of sugar to your coffee to make it palatable, you might fall into this category — and you, therefore, might find many red wines unpleasant, even if other people consider them great.\r\n<h3>Balance</h3>\r\nThe three words <em>sweetness, acidity,</em> and <em>tannin</em> represent three of the major <em>components</em> (parts) of wine. The fourth is <em>alcohol.</em> Besides being one of the reasons we often want to drink a glass of wine in the first place, alcohol is an important player in wine quality.\r\n\r\n<em>Balance</em> is the relationship of these four components to one another. A wine is balanced when nothing sticks out, such as harsh tannin or too much sweetness, as you taste the wine. Most wines are balanced to most people. But if you have any pet peeves about food — if you really hate anything tart, for example, or if you never eat sweets — you might perceive some wines to be unbalanced. If you perceive them to be unbalanced, then they are unbalanced for you. (Professional tasters know their own idiosyncrasies and adjust for them when they judge wine.)\r\n<p class=\"article-tips remember\">Tannin and acidity are hardening elements in a wine (they make a wine taste firmer and less giving in the mouth), while alcohol and sugar (if any) are softening elements. The balance of a wine is the interrelationship of the hard and the soft aspects of a wine — and a key indicator of quality.</p>\r\nTo experience the principle of taste-balance firsthand, try this: Make a very strong cup of black tea and chill it. When you sip it, the cold tea will taste bitter, because it’s very tannic. Now add lemon juice; the tea will taste astringent (constricting the pores in your mouth), because the acid of the lemon and the tannin of the tea are accentuating each other. Now add a lot of sugar to the tea. The sweetness should counterbalance the acid-tannin impact, and the tea will taste softer and more agreeable than it did before.\r\n<h3>Length</h3>\r\nWhen we call wines <em>long</em> or <em>short,</em> we’re not referring to the size of the bottle or how quickly we empty it. <em>Length</em> describes a wine that gives an impression of going all the way on the palate — you can taste it across the full length of your tongue — rather than stopping short halfway through your tasting of it.\r\n\r\nMany wines today are very <em>upfront</em> on the palate — they make a big impression as soon as you taste them, but they don’t go the distance in your mouth. In other words, they’re <em>short</em>. Length is increasingly used also to describe a wine with a long aftertaste. (See the section, “Finish,” just ahead.) Length in the mouth can more precisely be called <em>palate length,</em> to avoid confusion. Long palate length is a sure sign of high quality.\r\n<h3>Depth</h3>\r\nDepth is another subjective, unmeasurable attribute of a high-quality wine. We say a wine has <em>depth</em> when it seems to have a dimension of verticality — that is, it doesn’t taste flat and one-dimensional in your mouth. A “flat” wine can never be great.\r\n<h3>Complexity</h3>\r\nNothing is wrong with a simple, straightforward wine, especially if you enjoy it. But a wine that keeps revealing different things about itself, always showing you a new flavor or impression — a wine that has <em>complexity</em> — is usually considered better quality. Generally, experts use the term <em>complexity</em> specifically to indicate that a wine has a multiplicity of aromas and flavors; some people use the term it in a more holistic (but less precise) sense, to refer to the total impression a wine gives you, but this use is becoming uncommon.\r\n<h3>Finish</h3>\r\nThe impression a wine leaves in the back of your mouth and in your throat after you swallow it is its <em>finish</em> or <em>aftertaste.</em> In a good wine, you can still perceive the wine’s flavors, such as fruitiness or spiciness, at that point. The more enduring the positive flavor perception is, the <em>longer</em> the finish is. Some wines may finish <em>hot,</em> because of high alcohol, or <em>bitter,</em> because of tannin — both shortcomings. Or a wine may have nothing much at all to say for itself after you swallow, which tells you that it is probably not a great wine.\r\n<h3>Typicity</h3>\r\nIn order to judge whether a wine is true to its type, you have to know how that type of wine is supposed to taste. So you have to know the textbook characteristics of wines made from the major grape varieties and wines of the world’s classic wine regions. (For example, the Cabernet Sauvignon grape typically has an aroma and flavor of black currants, and the French white wine called Pouilly-Fumé typically has a slight gunflint aroma.)\r\n<h2 id=\"tab2\" >What’s a bad wine?</h2>\r\nStrangely enough, the right to declare a wine good because you like it doesn’t carry with it the right to call a wine bad just because you don’t. In this game, you get to make your own rules, but you don’t get to force other people to live by them.\r\n\r\nThe fact is that very few bad wines exist in the world today. And many of the wines we could call <em>bad</em> are actually just bad <em>bottles</em> of wine — unlucky bottles that were handled badly so that the good wine inside them got ruined.\r\n\r\nHere are some characteristics that everyone agrees indicate a bad wine (or a bad bottle). We hope you never meet one.\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Vinegar:</strong> In the natural evolution of things, wine is just a passing stage between grape juice and vinegar. Most wines today remain in the wine stage because of technology or careful winemaking. If you find a wine that has crossed the line toward vinegar, it’s bad wine.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Chemical or bacterial smells:</strong> The most common are acetone (nail polish thinner) and sulfur flaws (rotten eggs, burnt rubber, bad garlic). Bad wines.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Oxidized wine:</strong> This wine smells flat, inexpressive, or maybe cooked, and it tastes the same. It might have been a good wine once, but air — oxygen — got in somehow and killed the wine. Bad bottle.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Cooked aromas and taste:</strong> When a wine has been stored or shipped in heat, it can actually taste cooked or baked as a result (wine people use the term <em>maderized</em> for such wines). Often there’s telltale leakage from the cork, or the cork has pushed up a bit inside the bottle. Bad bottle. (Unfortunately, every other bottle of that wine that experienced the same shipping or storage will also be bad.)</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Corky wine:</strong> The most common flaw, <em>corkiness</em> comes across as a smell of damp cardboard that gets worse with air, along with diminished flavor intensity. It’s caused by a defective cork, and any wine in a bottle that’s sealed with a cork is at risk for it. Bad bottle. (Fortunately, only a very small percentage of wines are corky.)</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<p class=\"article-tips remember\">Let’s not dwell too long on what can go wrong with a wine. If you find a bad wine or a bad bottle — or even a wine that’s considered a good wine, but you don’t like it — just move on to something you like better. Drinking a so-called great wine that you don’t enjoy is as time-wasting as watching a television show that bores you. Change the channel. Explore.</p>","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":9029,"name":"Ed McCarthy","slug":"ed-mccarthy","description":" <p><b>Ed McCarthy</b> is a wine writer, Certified Wine Educator, and wine consultant. McCarthy is considered a leading Champagne authority in the U.S. He is the Contributing Editor of <i>Beverage Media</i>. <b>Mary Ewing&#45;Mulligan</b> is the first woman in America to become a Master of Wine, and is currently one of 50 MWs in the U.S. and 380 in the world. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9029"}},{"authorId":9030,"name":"Mary Ewing-Mulligan","slug":"mary-ewing-mulligan","description":" <p><b>Ed McCarthy</b> is a wine writer, Certified Wine Educator, and wine consultant. McCarthy is considered a leading Champagne authority in the U.S. He is the Contributing Editor of <i>Beverage Media</i>. <b>Mary Ewing&#45;Mulligan</b> is the first woman in America to become a Master of Wine, and is currently one of 50 MWs in the U.S. and 380 in the world. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9030"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33841,"title":"Wine","slug":"wine","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33841"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[{"label":"What’s a good wine?","target":"#tab1"},{"label":"What’s a bad wine?","target":"#tab2"}],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[{"articleId":259776,"title":"How to Read a Wine Label","slug":"how-to-read-a-wine-label","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","beverages","wine"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/259776"}},{"articleId":259770,"title":"How to Describe a Wine's Taste","slug":"how-to-describe-a-wines-taste","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","beverages","wine"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/259770"}},{"articleId":259762,"title":"The Special Technique for Tasting Wine","slug":"the-special-technique-for-tasting-wine","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","beverages","wine"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/259762"}},{"articleId":259759,"title":"The Differences between Red and White Wines","slug":"the-differences-between-red-and-white-wines","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","beverages","wine"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/259759"}},{"articleId":259756,"title":"How is Wine Made?","slug":"how-is-wine-made","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","beverages","wine"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/259756"}}],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":259776,"title":"How to Read a Wine Label","slug":"how-to-read-a-wine-label","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","beverages","wine"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/259776"}},{"articleId":259770,"title":"How to Describe a Wine's Taste","slug":"how-to-describe-a-wines-taste","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","beverages","wine"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/259770"}},{"articleId":259762,"title":"The Special Technique for Tasting Wine","slug":"the-special-technique-for-tasting-wine","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","beverages","wine"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/259762"}},{"articleId":259759,"title":"The Differences between Red and White Wines","slug":"the-differences-between-red-and-white-wines","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","beverages","wine"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/259759"}},{"articleId":259756,"title":"How is Wine Made?","slug":"how-is-wine-made","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","beverages","wine"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/259756"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":282675,"slug":"wine-for-dummies-7th-edition","isbn":"9781119512738","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","beverages","wine"],"amazon":{"default":"//www.amazon.com/gp/product/1119512735/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","ca":"//www.amazon.ca/gp/product/1119512735/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","indigo_ca":"//www.tkqlhce.com/click-9208661-13710633?url=//www.chapters.indigo.ca/en-ca/books/product/1119512735-item.html&cjsku=978111945484","gb":"//www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/1119512735/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","de":"//www.amazon.de/gp/product/1119512735/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20"},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/wine-for-dummies-7th-edition-cover-9781119512738-203x255.jpg","width":203,"height":255},"title":"Wine For Dummies","testBankPinActivationLink":"","bookOutOfPrint":false,"authorsInfo":"<p><b data-author-id=\"9029\">Ed McCarthy</b> is a wine writer, Certified Wine Educator, and wine consultant. McCarthy is considered a leading Champagne authority in the U.S. He is the Contributing Editor of <i>Beverage Media</i>. <b data-author-id=\"9030\">Mary Ewing-Mulligan</b> is the first woman in America to become a Master of Wine, and is currently one of 50 MWs in the U.S. and 380 in the world. </p>","authors":[{"authorId":9029,"name":"Ed McCarthy","slug":"ed-mccarthy","description":" <p><b>Ed McCarthy</b> is a wine writer, Certified Wine Educator, and wine consultant. McCarthy is considered a leading Champagne authority in the U.S. He is the Contributing Editor of <i>Beverage Media</i>. <b>Mary Ewing&#45;Mulligan</b> is the first woman in America to become a Master of Wine, and is currently one of 50 MWs in the U.S. and 380 in the world. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9029"}},{"authorId":9030,"name":"Mary Ewing-Mulligan","slug":"mary-ewing-mulligan","description":" <p><b>Ed McCarthy</b> is a wine writer, Certified Wine Educator, and wine consultant. McCarthy is considered a leading Champagne authority in the U.S. He is the Contributing Editor of <i>Beverage Media</i>. <b>Mary Ewing&#45;Mulligan</b> is the first woman in America to become a Master of Wine, and is currently one of 50 MWs in the U.S. and 380 in the world. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9030"}}],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/books/"}},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;home-auto-hobbies&quot;,&quot;food-drink&quot;,&quot;beverages&quot;,&quot;wine&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781119512738&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-6515e98f9f703\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;home-auto-hobbies&quot;,&quot;food-drink&quot;,&quot;beverages&quot;,&quot;wine&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781119512738&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-6515e98f9fdd6\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Articles","articleList":null,"content":null,"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Explore","lifeExpectancy":"Five years","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2024-09-28T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":259773},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2020-01-30T17:51:49+00:00","modifiedTime":"2024-09-28T20:32:20+00:00","timestamp":"2024-09-28T21:01:03+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Home, Auto, & Hobbies","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33809"},"slug":"home-auto-hobbies","categoryId":33809},{"name":"Food & Drink","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33839"},"slug":"food-drink","categoryId":33839},{"name":"Beverages","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33840"},"slug":"beverages","categoryId":33840},{"name":"Wine","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33841"},"slug":"wine","categoryId":33841}],"title":"The Differences between Red and White Wines","strippedTitle":"the differences between red and white wines","slug":"the-differences-between-red-and-white-wines","canonicalUrl":"","归类传奇座舱简化":{"metaDescription":"Beyond the colors of red and white wine, there are many differences to take note of, including what food to pair them with.","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"Your inner child will be happy to know that when it comes to wine, it’s okay to like some colors more than others. You can’t get away with saying “I don’t like green food!” much beyond your sixth birthday, but you can express a general preference for white, red, or pink wine for all your adult years.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" >(Not exactly) white wine</h2>\r\nWhoever coined the term <em>white wine</em> must have been colorblind. All you have to do is look at it to see that it’s not white; it’s yellow (sometimes barely yellow, sometimes a deeper yellow). But we’ve all gotten used to the expression by now, so <em>white wine</em> it is.\r\n\r\n<em>White wine</em> is wine without any red color (or pink color, which is in the red family). Yellow wines, golden wines, and wines that are as pale as water are all white wines.\r\n\r\nWine becomes white wine in one of two ways: First, white wine can be made from white grapes — which, by the way, aren’t white. (Did you see that one coming?) <em>White</em> grapes are greenish, greenish yellow, golden yellow, or sometimes even pinkish yellow. Basically, white grapes include all the grape types that aren’t dark red or dark bluish. If you make a wine from white grapes, it’s a white wine.\r\n\r\nThe second way a wine can become white is a little more complicated. The process involves using red grapes — but only the <em>juice</em> of red grapes, not the grape skins. The juice of almost all red grapes has no red pigmentation — only the skins do — therefore, a wine made with only the juice of red grapes can be a white wine. In practice, though, very few white wines come from red grapes. (Champagne is one exception.)\r\n<p class=\"article-tips tech\">In case you’re wondering, the skins are removed from the grapes either by pressing large quantities of grapes so that the skins break and the pulpy juice flows out — sort of like squeezing the pulp out of grapes, the way kids do — or by crushing the grapes in a machine that has rollers to break the skins so that the juice can drain away.</p>\r\nYou can drink white wine anytime you like, but typically, people drink white wine in certain situations:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>Most people drink white wines without food or with <em>lighter foods,</em> such as fish, poultry, or vegetables.</li>\r\n \t<li>White wines are often considered <em>apéritif</em> wines, meaning that people consume them before dinner, in place of cocktails, or at parties. (If you ask the officials who busy themselves defining such things, an apéritif wine is a wine that has flavors added to it, as vermouth does. But unless you’re in the business of writing wine labels for a living, don’t worry about that. In common parlance, an apéritif wine is just what we said.)</li>\r\n \t<li>A lot of people like to drink white wines when the weather is hot because they’re more refreshing than red wines, and they’re usually drunk chilled (the wines, not the people).</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<h3>White wine styles: there's no such thing as plain white wine</h3>\r\nWhite wines fall into four general taste categories, not counting sparkling wine or the really sweet white wine that you drink with dessert. Here are our four broad categories:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Fresh, unoaked whites:</strong> These wines are crisp and light, with no sweetness and no oaky character. Most Italian white wines, like Soave and Pinot Grigio, and some French whites, like Sancerre and some Chablis, fall into this category.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Earthy whites:</strong> These wines are dry, fuller-bodied, unoaked or lightly oaked, with a lot of earthy character. Some French wines, such as Mâcon or whites from the Côtes du Rhône region have this taste profile.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Aromatic whites:</strong> These wines are characterized by intense aromas and flavors that come from their particular grape variety<em>,</em> whether they’re <em>off-dry</em> (that is, not bone-dry) or dry<em>.</em> Examples include a lot of German wines and wines from flavorful grape varieties, such as Riesling or Viognier and, in some cases, Sauvignon Blanc.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Rich, oaky whites:</strong> These wines are dry or fairly dry and full-bodied with pronounced oaky character. Most Chardonnays and some French wines — like many of those from the Burgundy region of France — fall into this group.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<p class=\"article-tips tip\">We serve white wines cool, but not ice cold. Sometimes, restaurants serve white wines too cold, and we actually have to wait a while for the wine to warm up before we drink it. If you like your wine cold, fine; but try drinking your favorite white wine a little less cold sometime, and we bet you’ll discover it has more flavor that way.</p>\r\n\r\n<h3>Popular white wines</h3>\r\nThese types of white wine are available almost everywhere in the United States.\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Chardonnay:</strong> Can come from California, Australia, France, or almost any other place</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Pinot Grigio</strong> or <strong>Pinot Gris:</strong> Can come from Italy, France, Oregon, California, and other places</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Prosecco:</strong> Comes from Italy (and it’s a bubbly wine)</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Riesling:</strong> Can come from Germany, California, New York, Washington, France, Austria, Australia, and other places</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Sauvignon Blanc:</strong> Can come from California, France, New Zealand, South Africa, Italy, and other places</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Soave:</strong> Comes from Italy</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<h2 id=\"tab2\" >Red, red wine</h2>\r\nIn this case, the name is correct. Red wines really are red. They can be purple red, ruby red, or garnet, but they’re red.\r\n\r\nRed wines are made from grapes that are red or bluish in color. So, guess what wine people call these grapes? Black grapes! We suppose that’s because black is the opposite of white.\r\n\r\nThe most obvious difference between red wine and white wine is color. The red color occurs when the colorless juice of red grapes stays in contact with the dark grape skins during fermentation and absorbs the skins’ color. Along with color, the grape skins give the wine <em>tannin,</em> a substance that’s an important part of the way a red wine tastes. The presence of tannin in red wines is actually the key taste difference between red wines and white wines.\r\n\r\nRed wines vary quite a lot in style — partly because winemakers have so many ways of adjusting their red winemaking to achieve the kind of wine they want. For example, if winemakers leave the grape juice in contact with the skins for a long time, the wine becomes more <em>tannic</em> (firmer in the mouth, like strong tea; tannic wines can make you pucker). If winemakers drain the juice off the skins sooner, the wine is softer and less tannic. And heating the crushed grapes can extract color without much tannin.\r\n<p class=\"article-tips tip\">Traditionally, people have consumed red wine as part of a meal or with accompanying food rather than as a drink on its own, but plenty of red wines today are made to taste delicious even without food.</p>\r\n\r\n<h3>Red wine styles: There's no such thing as plain red wine, either</h3>\r\nHere are four red wine styles:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><em>Soft, fruity reds</em> have a lot of fruitiness and fairly little tannin (like Beaujolais Nouveau wine from France, some Pinot Noir wines from California, and many under-$15 U.S. wines).</li>\r\n \t<li><em>Mild-mannered reds</em> are medium-bodied with subtle flavors that are savory more than fruity (like less expensive wines from Bordeaux, France, and some inexpensive Italian reds).</li>\r\n \t<li><em>Spicy reds</em> are flavorful, generally fruity wines with spicy accents and some tannin (such as some Malbecs from Argentina and Dolcettos from Italy).</li>\r\n \t<li><em>Powerful reds</em> are full-bodied and tannic (such as the most expensive California Cabernets; Barolo, from Italy; Priorat, from Spain; the most expensive Australian reds; and lots of other expensive reds).</li>\r\n</ul>\r\nThanks to the wide range of red wine styles, you can find red wines to go with just about every type of food and every occasion when you want to drink wine. The one exception is times when you want to drink a wine with bubbles: Although bubbly red wines do exist, most bubbly wines are white or pink.\r\n<p class=\"article-tips warning\">One sure way to spoil the fun in drinking most red wines is to drink them too cold. Those tannins can taste really bitter when the wine is cold — just as in a cold glass of very strong tea. On the other hand, way too many restaurants serve red wines too warm. (Where do they store them? Next to the oven?) If the bottle — or the glass of wine — feels cool to your hand, that’s a good temperature.</p>\r\n\r\n<h3>Popular red wines</h3>\r\nYou find descriptions and explanations of these popular and widely available red wines all through this book.\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Barbera:</strong> Comes from Italy, but can also come from other countries</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Beaujolais:</strong> Comes from France</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Bordeaux:</strong> Comes from France</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Cabernet Sauvignon:</strong> Can come from California, Australia, France, Chile, and other places</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Chianti:</strong> Comes from Italy</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Côtes du Rhône:</strong> Comes from France</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Malbec:</strong> Comes from Argentina, France, Chile and other places</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Merlot:</strong> Can come from California, France, Washington, New York, Chile, and other places</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Pinot Noir:</strong> Can come from California, France, Oregon, New Zealand, and other places</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Zinfandel:</strong> Usually comes from California</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<h2 id=\"tab3\" >Rosé wines</h2>\r\n<em>Rosé wine</em> is the name that wine people give to pinkish wine. These wines are made from red grapes, but they don’t end up red because the grape juice stays in contact with the red skins for just a short time — only a few hours, compared to days or weeks for red wines. Because this <em>skin contact</em> (the period when the juice and the skins intermingle) is brief, rosé wines also absorb very little tannin from the skins. Therefore, you can chill these wines and drink them as you’d drink white wines.\r\n\r\nRosé wines are not only lighter in color than red wines, but they are also lighter in body (they feel less heavy in your mouth). They have a fascinating range of color, from pale orange to deep pink, depending on the grape variety that they come from. Some rosé wines are actually labeled “White [red grape name]” — “White” Zinfandel is the most common — as a marketing gimmick.\r\n\r\nThe rosé wines that call themselves <em>white</em> are fairly sweet; they are sometimes referred to as <em>blush</em> wines, although that term rarely appears on the label. Wines labeled <em>rosé</em> can be sweetish, too, but some wonderful rosés from Europe, including Champagne (and quite a few from the United States) are <em>dry</em> (not sweet). The popularity of rosé wines has varied over the years, but in the decade of the 20-teens, it is at an all-time high (about five times as popular in the U.S. now, compared to 30 years ago). Even hard-core wine lovers are discovering what a pleasure — not to mention what a versatile food partner — a good rosé wine can be.\r\n<h3>Five occassions to drink rosé</h3>\r\nHere are some of our favorite reasons to drink pink:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>When she’s having fish and he’s having meat (or vice versa)</li>\r\n \t<li>When a red wine just seems too heavy</li>\r\n \t<li>On the patio or deck on warm, sunny days</li>\r\n \t<li>To wean a son/daughter, mate, friend (yourself?) off cola</li>\r\n \t<li>When serving ham (hot or cold) or other pork dishes</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<h2 id=\"tab4\" >How to choose wine color</h2>\r\nYour choice of a white wine, red wine, or pink wine will vary with the season, the occasion, and the type of food you’re eating (not to mention your personal taste). Choosing a color usually is the starting point for selecting a specific wine in a wine shop or in a restaurant. Most stores and most restaurant wine lists arrange wines by color before making other distinctions, such as grape varieties, wine regions, or taste categories.\r\n\r\nCertain foods can straddle the line between white wine and red wine compatibility — grilled salmon, for example, can be delicious with either a rich white wine or a fruity red. But your personal preference for red, white, or rosé wine will often be your first consideration in pairing food with wine.\r\n\r\nPairing food and wine is one of the most fun aspects of wine, because the possible combinations are almost limitless. Best of all, your personal taste rules!\r\n<p class=\"article-tips tech\">Red wine sensitivities: Some people complain that they can’t drink red wines without getting a headache or feeling ill. Usually, they blame the sulfites in the wine. We’re not doctors or scientists, but we can tell you that red wines contain far less sulfur than white wines. That’s because the tannin in red wines acts as a preservative, making sulfur dioxide less necessary. Red wines do contain numerous substances derived from the grape skins that could be the culprits. Whatever the source of the discomfort, it’s probably not sulfites.</p>","description":"Your inner child will be happy to know that when it comes to wine, it’s okay to like some colors more than others. You can’t get away with saying “I don’t like green food!” much beyond your sixth birthday, but you can express a general preference for white, red, or pink wine for all your adult years.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" >(Not exactly) white wine</h2>\r\nWhoever coined the term <em>white wine</em> must have been colorblind. All you have to do is look at it to see that it’s not white; it’s yellow (sometimes barely yellow, sometimes a deeper yellow). But we’ve all gotten used to the expression by now, so <em>white wine</em> it is.\r\n\r\n<em>White wine</em> is wine without any red color (or pink color, which is in the red family). Yellow wines, golden wines, and wines that are as pale as water are all white wines.\r\n\r\nWine becomes white wine in one of two ways: First, white wine can be made from white grapes — which, by the way, aren’t white. (Did you see that one coming?) <em>White</em> grapes are greenish, greenish yellow, golden yellow, or sometimes even pinkish yellow. Basically, white grapes include all the grape types that aren’t dark red or dark bluish. If you make a wine from white grapes, it’s a white wine.\r\n\r\nThe second way a wine can become white is a little more complicated. The process involves using red grapes — but only the <em>juice</em> of red grapes, not the grape skins. The juice of almost all red grapes has no red pigmentation — only the skins do — therefore, a wine made with only the juice of red grapes can be a white wine. In practice, though, very few white wines come from red grapes. (Champagne is one exception.)\r\n<p class=\"article-tips tech\">In case you’re wondering, the skins are removed from the grapes either by pressing large quantities of grapes so that the skins break and the pulpy juice flows out — sort of like squeezing the pulp out of grapes, the way kids do — or by crushing the grapes in a machine that has rollers to break the skins so that the juice can drain away.</p>\r\nYou can drink white wine anytime you like, but typically, people drink white wine in certain situations:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>Most people drink white wines without food or with <em>lighter foods,</em> such as fish, poultry, or vegetables.</li>\r\n \t<li>White wines are often considered <em>apéritif</em> wines, meaning that people consume them before dinner, in place of cocktails, or at parties. (If you ask the officials who busy themselves defining such things, an apéritif wine is a wine that has flavors added to it, as vermouth does. But unless you’re in the business of writing wine labels for a living, don’t worry about that. In common parlance, an apéritif wine is just what we said.)</li>\r\n \t<li>A lot of people like to drink white wines when the weather is hot because they’re more refreshing than red wines, and they’re usually drunk chilled (the wines, not the people).</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<h3>White wine styles: there's no such thing as plain white wine</h3>\r\nWhite wines fall into four general taste categories, not counting sparkling wine or the really sweet white wine that you drink with dessert. Here are our four broad categories:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Fresh, unoaked whites:</strong> These wines are crisp and light, with no sweetness and no oaky character. Most Italian white wines, like Soave and Pinot Grigio, and some French whites, like Sancerre and some Chablis, fall into this category.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Earthy whites:</strong> These wines are dry, fuller-bodied, unoaked or lightly oaked, with a lot of earthy character. Some French wines, such as Mâcon or whites from the Côtes du Rhône region have this taste profile.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Aromatic whites:</strong> These wines are characterized by intense aromas and flavors that come from their particular grape variety<em>,</em> whether they’re <em>off-dry</em> (that is, not bone-dry) or dry<em>.</em> Examples include a lot of German wines and wines from flavorful grape varieties, such as Riesling or Viognier and, in some cases, Sauvignon Blanc.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Rich, oaky whites:</strong> These wines are dry or fairly dry and full-bodied with pronounced oaky character. Most Chardonnays and some French wines — like many of those from the Burgundy region of France — fall into this group.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<p class=\"article-tips tip\">We serve white wines cool, but not ice cold. Sometimes, restaurants serve white wines too cold, and we actually have to wait a while for the wine to warm up before we drink it. If you like your wine cold, fine; but try drinking your favorite white wine a little less cold sometime, and we bet you’ll discover it has more flavor that way.</p>\r\n\r\n<h3>Popular white wines</h3>\r\nThese types of white wine are available almost everywhere in the United States.\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Chardonnay:</strong> Can come from California, Australia, France, or almost any other place</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Pinot Grigio</strong> or <strong>Pinot Gris:</strong> Can come from Italy, France, Oregon, California, and other places</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Prosecco:</strong> Comes from Italy (and it’s a bubbly wine)</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Riesling:</strong> Can come from Germany, California, New York, Washington, France, Austria, Australia, and other places</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Sauvignon Blanc:</strong> Can come from California, France, New Zealand, South Africa, Italy, and other places</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Soave:</strong> Comes from Italy</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<h2 id=\"tab2\" >Red, red wine</h2>\r\nIn this case, the name is correct. Red wines really are red. They can be purple red, ruby red, or garnet, but they’re red.\r\n\r\nRed wines are made from grapes that are red or bluish in color. So, guess what wine people call these grapes? Black grapes! We suppose that’s because black is the opposite of white.\r\n\r\nThe most obvious difference between red wine and white wine is color. The red color occurs when the colorless juice of red grapes stays in contact with the dark grape skins during fermentation and absorbs the skins’ color. Along with color, the grape skins give the wine <em>tannin,</em> a substance that’s an important part of the way a red wine tastes. The presence of tannin in red wines is actually the key taste difference between red wines and white wines.\r\n\r\nRed wines vary quite a lot in style — partly because winemakers have so many ways of adjusting their red winemaking to achieve the kind of wine they want. For example, if winemakers leave the grape juice in contact with the skins for a long time, the wine becomes more <em>tannic</em> (firmer in the mouth, like strong tea; tannic wines can make you pucker). If winemakers drain the juice off the skins sooner, the wine is softer and less tannic. And heating the crushed grapes can extract color without much tannin.\r\n<p class=\"article-tips tip\">Traditionally, people have consumed red wine as part of a meal or with accompanying food rather than as a drink on its own, but plenty of red wines today are made to taste delicious even without food.</p>\r\n\r\n<h3>Red wine styles: There's no such thing as plain red wine, either</h3>\r\nHere are four red wine styles:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><em>Soft, fruity reds</em> have a lot of fruitiness and fairly little tannin (like Beaujolais Nouveau wine from France, some Pinot Noir wines from California, and many under-$15 U.S. wines).</li>\r\n \t<li><em>Mild-mannered reds</em> are medium-bodied with subtle flavors that are savory more than fruity (like less expensive wines from Bordeaux, France, and some inexpensive Italian reds).</li>\r\n \t<li><em>Spicy reds</em> are flavorful, generally fruity wines with spicy accents and some tannin (such as some Malbecs from Argentina and Dolcettos from Italy).</li>\r\n \t<li><em>Powerful reds</em> are full-bodied and tannic (such as the most expensive California Cabernets; Barolo, from Italy; Priorat, from Spain; the most expensive Australian reds; and lots of other expensive reds).</li>\r\n</ul>\r\nThanks to the wide range of red wine styles, you can find red wines to go with just about every type of food and every occasion when you want to drink wine. The one exception is times when you want to drink a wine with bubbles: Although bubbly red wines do exist, most bubbly wines are white or pink.\r\n<p class=\"article-tips warning\">One sure way to spoil the fun in drinking most red wines is to drink them too cold. Those tannins can taste really bitter when the wine is cold — just as in a cold glass of very strong tea. On the other hand, way too many restaurants serve red wines too warm. (Where do they store them? Next to the oven?) If the bottle — or the glass of wine — feels cool to your hand, that’s a good temperature.</p>\r\n\r\n<h3>Popular red wines</h3>\r\nYou find descriptions and explanations of these popular and widely available red wines all through this book.\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Barbera:</strong> Comes from Italy, but can also come from other countries</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Beaujolais:</strong> Comes from France</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Bordeaux:</strong> Comes from France</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Cabernet Sauvignon:</strong> Can come from California, Australia, France, Chile, and other places</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Chianti:</strong> Comes from Italy</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Côtes du Rhône:</strong> Comes from France</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Malbec:</strong> Comes from Argentina, France, Chile and other places</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Merlot:</strong> Can come from California, France, Washington, New York, Chile, and other places</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Pinot Noir:</strong> Can come from California, France, Oregon, New Zealand, and other places</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Zinfandel:</strong> Usually comes from California</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<h2 id=\"tab3\" >Rosé wines</h2>\r\n<em>Rosé wine</em> is the name that wine people give to pinkish wine. These wines are made from red grapes, but they don’t end up red because the grape juice stays in contact with the red skins for just a short time — only a few hours, compared to days or weeks for red wines. Because this <em>skin contact</em> (the period when the juice and the skins intermingle) is brief, rosé wines also absorb very little tannin from the skins. Therefore, you can chill these wines and drink them as you’d drink white wines.\r\n\r\nRosé wines are not only lighter in color than red wines, but they are also lighter in body (they feel less heavy in your mouth). They have a fascinating range of color, from pale orange to deep pink, depending on the grape variety that they come from. Some rosé wines are actually labeled “White [red grape name]” — “White” Zinfandel is the most common — as a marketing gimmick.\r\n\r\nThe rosé wines that call themselves <em>white</em> are fairly sweet; they are sometimes referred to as <em>blush</em> wines, although that term rarely appears on the label. Wines labeled <em>rosé</em> can be sweetish, too, but some wonderful rosés from Europe, including Champagne (and quite a few from the United States) are <em>dry</em> (not sweet). The popularity of rosé wines has varied over the years, but in the decade of the 20-teens, it is at an all-time high (about five times as popular in the U.S. now, compared to 30 years ago). Even hard-core wine lovers are discovering what a pleasure — not to mention what a versatile food partner — a good rosé wine can be.\r\n<h3>Five occassions to drink rosé</h3>\r\nHere are some of our favorite reasons to drink pink:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>When she’s having fish and he’s having meat (or vice versa)</li>\r\n \t<li>When a red wine just seems too heavy</li>\r\n \t<li>On the patio or deck on warm, sunny days</li>\r\n \t<li>To wean a son/daughter, mate, friend (yourself?) off cola</li>\r\n \t<li>When serving ham (hot or cold) or other pork dishes</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<h2 id=\"tab4\" >How to choose wine color</h2>\r\nYour choice of a white wine, red wine, or pink wine will vary with the season, the occasion, and the type of food you’re eating (not to mention your personal taste). Choosing a color usually is the starting point for selecting a specific wine in a wine shop or in a restaurant. Most stores and most restaurant wine lists arrange wines by color before making other distinctions, such as grape varieties, wine regions, or taste categories.\r\n\r\nCertain foods can straddle the line between white wine and red wine compatibility — grilled salmon, for example, can be delicious with either a rich white wine or a fruity red. But your personal preference for red, white, or rosé wine will often be your first consideration in pairing food with wine.\r\n\r\nPairing food and wine is one of the most fun aspects of wine, because the possible combinations are almost limitless. Best of all, your personal taste rules!\r\n<p class=\"article-tips tech\">Red wine sensitivities: Some people complain that they can’t drink red wines without getting a headache or feeling ill. Usually, they blame the sulfites in the wine. We’re not doctors or scientists, but we can tell you that red wines contain far less sulfur than white wines. That’s because the tannin in red wines acts as a preservative, making sulfur dioxide less necessary. Red wines do contain numerous substances derived from the grape skins that could be the culprits. Whatever the source of the discomfort, it’s probably not sulfites.</p>","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":9029,"name":"Ed McCarthy","slug":"ed-mccarthy","description":" <p><b>Ed McCarthy</b> is a wine writer, Certified Wine Educator, and wine consultant. McCarthy is considered a leading Champagne authority in the U.S. He is the Contributing Editor of <i>Beverage Media</i>. <b>Mary Ewing&#45;Mulligan</b> is the first woman in America to become a Master of Wine, and is currently one of 50 MWs in the U.S. and 380 in the world. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9029"}},{"authorId":9030,"name":"Mary Ewing-Mulligan","slug":"mary-ewing-mulligan","description":" <p><b>Ed McCarthy</b> is a wine writer, Certified Wine Educator, and wine consultant. McCarthy is considered a leading Champagne authority in the U.S. He is the Contributing Editor of <i>Beverage Media</i>. <b>Mary Ewing&#45;Mulligan</b> is the first woman in America to become a Master of Wine, and is currently one of 50 MWs in the U.S. and 380 in the world. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9030"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33841,"title":"Wine","slug":"wine","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33841"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[{"label":"(Not exactly) white wine","target":"#tab1"},{"label":"Red, red wine","target":"#tab2"},{"label":"Rosé wines","target":"#tab3"},{"label":"How to choose wine color","target":"#tab4"}],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[{"articleId":259776,"title":"How to Read a Wine Label","slug":"how-to-read-a-wine-label","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","beverages","wine"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/259776"}},{"articleId":259773,"title":"How to Judge Wine for Quality","slug":"wine-quality-how-to-judge-good-or-bad-wines","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","beverages","wine"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/259773"}},{"articleId":259770,"title":"How to Describe a Wine's Taste","slug":"how-to-describe-a-wines-taste","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","beverages","wine"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/259770"}},{"articleId":259762,"title":"The Special Technique for Tasting Wine","slug":"the-special-technique-for-tasting-wine","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","beverages","wine"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/259762"}},{"articleId":259756,"title":"How is Wine Made?","slug":"how-is-wine-made","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","beverages","wine"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/259756"}}],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":259776,"title":"How to Read a Wine Label","slug":"how-to-read-a-wine-label","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","beverages","wine"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/259776"}},{"articleId":259773,"title":"How to Judge Wine for Quality","slug":"wine-quality-how-to-judge-good-or-bad-wines","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","beverages","wine"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/259773"}},{"articleId":259770,"title":"How to Describe a Wine's Taste","slug":"how-to-describe-a-wines-taste","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","beverages","wine"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/259770"}},{"articleId":259762,"title":"The Special Technique for Tasting Wine","slug":"the-special-technique-for-tasting-wine","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","beverages","wine"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/259762"}},{"articleId":259756,"title":"How is Wine Made?","slug":"how-is-wine-made","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","beverages","wine"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/259756"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":282675,"slug":"wine-for-dummies-7th-edition","isbn":"9781119512738","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","beverages","wine"],"amazon":{"default":"//www.amazon.com/gp/product/1119512735/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","ca":"//www.amazon.ca/gp/product/1119512735/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","indigo_ca":"//www.tkqlhce.com/click-9208661-13710633?url=//www.chapters.indigo.ca/en-ca/books/product/1119512735-item.html&cjsku=978111945484","gb":"//www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/1119512735/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","de":"//www.amazon.de/gp/product/1119512735/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20"},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/wine-for-dummies-7th-edition-cover-9781119512738-203x255.jpg","width":203,"height":255},"title":"Wine For Dummies","testBankPinActivationLink":"","bookOutOfPrint":false,"authorsInfo":"<p><b data-author-id=\"9029\">Ed McCarthy</b> is a wine writer, Certified Wine Educator, and wine consultant. McCarthy is considered a leading Champagne authority in the U.S. He is the Contributing Editor of <i>Beverage Media</i>. <b data-author-id=\"9030\">Mary Ewing-Mulligan</b> is the first woman in America to become a Master of Wine, and is currently one of 50 MWs in the U.S. and 380 in the world. </p>","authors":[{"authorId":9029,"name":"Ed McCarthy","slug":"ed-mccarthy","description":" <p><b>Ed McCarthy</b> is a wine writer, Certified Wine Educator, and wine consultant. McCarthy is considered a leading Champagne authority in the U.S. He is the Contributing Editor of <i>Beverage Media</i>. <b>Mary Ewing&#45;Mulligan</b> is the first woman in America to become a Master of Wine, and is currently one of 50 MWs in the U.S. and 380 in the world. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9029"}},{"authorId":9030,"name":"Mary Ewing-Mulligan","slug":"mary-ewing-mulligan","description":" <p><b>Ed McCarthy</b> is a wine writer, Certified Wine Educator, and wine consultant. McCarthy is considered a leading Champagne authority in the U.S. He is the Contributing Editor of <i>Beverage Media</i>. <b>Mary Ewing&#45;Mulligan</b> is the first woman in America to become a Master of Wine, and is currently one of 50 MWs in the U.S. and 380 in the world. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9030"}}],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/books/"}},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;home-auto-hobbies&quot;,&quot;food-drink&quot;,&quot;beverages&quot;,&quot;wine&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781119512738&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-6515e98f97f8a\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;home-auto-hobbies&quot;,&quot;food-drink&quot;,&quot;beverages&quot;,&quot;wine&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781119512738&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-6515e98f9864f\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Articles","articleList":null,"content":null,"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Explore","lifeExpectancy":"Five years","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2024-09-28T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":259759},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2020-01-30T18:13:43+00:00","modifiedTime":"2024-09-28T20:30:44+00:00","timestamp":"2024-09-28T21:01:03+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Home, Auto, & Hobbies","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33809"},"slug":"home-auto-hobbies","categoryId":33809},{"name":"Food & Drink","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33839"},"slug":"food-drink","categoryId":33839},{"name":"Beverages","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33840"},"slug":"beverages","categoryId":33840},{"name":"Wine","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33841"},"slug":"wine","categoryId":33841}],"title":"How to Read a Wine Label","strippedTitle":"how to read a wine label","slug":"how-to-read-a-wine-label","canonicalUrl":"","归类传奇座舱简化":{"metaDescription":"Wine bottle labels can tell you a lot about the wine inside if you know what the various terms mean. Here's what to look for.","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"Once upon a time, wine labels were boring, colorless (literally and in spirit), and the opposite of inviting. Now, many wine labels are fun. They catch your eye, draw you in for a closer look, and maybe make you smile. Although we tend to have classic tastes in wine, we love the variety of wine labels because it makes browsing for wine more enjoyable than ever.\r\n\r\nBut wine labels have an important purpose besides making their bottles stand out on the shelves. Wine labels contain information about the wine that’s inside the bottle — and knowing what the information means can make you a smarter buyer. Sometimes that information is straightforward — like the name of the region where the grapes grew — and sometimes it’s tricky, like long phrases in a foreign language that you don’t speak.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" >The mandatory sentences on wine labels</h2>\r\nThe government authorities in the United States (and other governments) mandate that certain information appear on the main label of all wine bottles — basic stuff, such as the alcohol content, the type of wine (usually <em>red table wine</em> or <em>white table wine</em>), and the country of origin. Such items are generally referred to as <em>the mandatory.</em> These items include the following:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>A brand name</li>\r\n \t<li>Indication of class or type (table wine, dessert wine, or sparkling wine)</li>\r\n \t<li>The percentage of alcohol by volume (unless it’s implicit — for example, the statement <em>table wine</em> implies an alcohol content of less than 14 percent)</li>\r\n \t<li>Name and location of the bottler</li>\r\n \t<li>Net contents (expressed in milliliters; the standard wine bottle is 750 milliliters, which is 25.6 ounces)</li>\r\n \t<li>The phrase <em>Contains Sulfites</em> (with very, very few exceptions)</li>\r\n \t<li>The government warning (that we won’t dignify by repeating here; just pick up any bottle of wine, and you’ll see it on a label)</li>\r\n</ul>\r\nThe following figure shows you how all the details come together on a label of an American varietal wine.\r\n\r\n[caption id=\"attachment_259763\" align=\"alignnone\" width=\"535\"]<img class=\"size-full wp-image-259763\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/wine-american-label.jpg\" alt=\"wine-american-label\" width=\"535\" height=\"376\" /> Illustration by Lisa S. Reed <br /><br />The label of an American varietal wine.[/caption]\r\n\r\nWines made outside the United States but sold within it must also carry the phrase <em>imported by</em> on their labels, along with the name and business location of the importer.\r\n\r\nThe mandatory information required on U.S. and Canadian wine labels is also required by the E.U. authorities for most wines produced in European Union countries (although the wording of the warning label can vary). The labels of those E.U. wines must contain one additional item of information not required on labels of wines from elsewhere. This additional item is a phrase indicating that the wine comes from an officially recognized wine zone (see the next section for the scoop).\r\n<h2 id=\"tab2\" >Indications of origin</h2>\r\nThe European Union has set up a system to recognize and protect agricultural products (such as wine, cheese, olives, hams, and so forth) that come from specific places so that companies in other places can’t make products with the same name and thus confuse consumers. Wines from all the classic wine regions of E.U. member countries (France, Italy, Spain, Germany, and so forth) are covered under this system. When you see the label of a European wine that’s from a recognized, protected place, you’ll find a phrase to that effect.\r\n\r\nActually, two different phrases exist because European wines from protected places fall into two categories:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>Wines named for places where production is highly regulated so that the very place-name of the wine not only defines the territory of production but also connotes the wine’s grape varieties, grape-growing methods, and winemaking techniques</li>\r\n \t<li>Wines that carry the protected names of larger places where winemakers have more freedom in terms of the grape varieties and production methods they use</li>\r\n</ul>\r\nThe E.U.’s mandated phrases for these two types of place-name wines are the following:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><em>Protected Designation of Origin (PDO),</em> for the most regulated wines. The classic wines mentioned in the sidebar “Decoding common European place-names,” for example, are all in this category.</li>\r\n \t<li><em>Protected Geographic Indication (PGI),</em> for the less regulated wines from registered regions.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\nIn theory, every bottle of European wine — except for the most broadly sourced, least expensive wines — carries one of these two phrases on its label.\r\n\r\nBut in practice, the situation is much more complicated, especially at the moment. How so?\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>For one thing, each country can, and does, translate the words <em>Protected Designation of Origin</em> and <em>Protected Geographic Indication</em> into its own language on its labels.</li>\r\n \t<li>Second, because these E.U. designations went into full effect only in 2012, some wine labels still carry the phrases that were previously used by each country to designate a wine’s category of origin.</li>\r\n \t<li>And finally, each country can permit its wineries to continue using the former phrases rather than the new phrases.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\nIf you’re getting into French, Italian, or other European wines and see a long, foreign phrase on the label that’s adjacent to the place-name or region of the wine, know that it indicates an officially protected geographic zone. If you really want to know which of the two protected categories the wine falls into, refer to the lists in the next two sections.\r\n<p class=\"article-tips tip\">Incidentally, the phrase for a registered place-name in the United States is American Viticultural Area (AVA). But the phrase doesn’t appear on wine labels. Nor does any such phrase appear on labels of Australian or South American wines. Nor do two different degrees of regulations exist, as they do in the European Union.</p>\r\n\r\n<h3>Label terms that mean PDO (Protected Designation of Origin)</h3>\r\n<p class=\"article-tips tech\">Here are the phrases — first in the new terminology and then in the original terminology — that you might find on labels of PDO wines from the major European countries. In all cases, the phrases translate more or less as “Protected Designation of Origin”:</p>\r\n\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>France:</strong> Appellation d’Origine Protégée (AOP) or Appellation Contrôlée or Appellation d’Origine Contrôlée (AC or AOC, in short)</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Italy:</strong> Denominazione di Origine Protetta (DOP) or Denominazione di Origine Controllata (DOC); and for certain wines of an even higher status, Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita (DOCG)</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Spain:</strong> <em>Denominación de Origen Protegida (DOP)</em> or <em>Denominación de Origen (DO),</em> as well as <em>Denominación de Origen Calificada (DOCa)</em> for regions with the highest status (of which only two exist: Rioja and Priorat)</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Portugal:</strong> Denominação de Origem Protegida (DOP) or Denominação de Origem Controlada (DOC)</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Germany:</strong> <em>Qualitätswein;</em> and for wines of higher ripeness, <em>Prädikatsweine</em></li>\r\n</ul>\r\nThis figure shows a European wine label as it would appear in the United States, using the original place-name terminology.\r\n\r\n[caption id=\"attachment_259765\" align=\"alignnone\" width=\"488\"]<img class=\"size-full wp-image-259765\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/wine-european-label.jpg\" alt=\"wine-european-label\" width=\"488\" height=\"500\" /> Illustration by Lisa S. Reed<br /><br />The label of a European wine to be sold in the United States.[/caption]\r\n<h3>Label terms that mean PGI (Protected Geographic Indication)</h3>\r\n<p class=\"article-tips tech\">Here are the phrases — first in the new terminology and then in the original terminology — that you might find on labels of PGI wines from the major European countries. In all cases, the phrases translate more or less as “Protected Geographic Indication”:</p>\r\n\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>France:</strong> <em>Indication Géographique Protégée (IGP)</em> or <em>Vin de Pays</em> followed by the name of an approved area</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Italy:</strong> Indicazione Geografica Protetta (IGP) or Indicazione Geografica Tipica (IGT) and the name of an approved area</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Spain:</strong> <em>Indicación Geográfica Protegida (IGP)</em> or <em>Vino de la Tierra</em> followed by the name of an approved area</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Portugal:</strong> <em>Indicaçõa Geográfica (IG)</em> to refer to a region, but on a label, the original phrase, <em>Vinho Regional</em> (regional wine) and the name of an approved area</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Germany:</strong> <em>Landwein</em></li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<h2 id=\"tab3\" >Some optional label lingo</h2>\r\nBesides the mandatory information required by government authorities, all sorts of other words can appear on wine labels. These words include meaningless phrases intended to make you think that you’re getting a special quality wine, and words that provide useful information about what’s in the bottle. Sometimes the same word can fall into either category, depending on the label. This ambiguity occurs because some words that are strictly regulated in some producing countries aren’t regulated at all in others.\r\n<h3>Vintage</h3>\r\nThe word <em>vintage</em> followed by a year, or the year listed alone without the word <em>vintage,</em> is the most common optional item on a wine label (refer to Figure 4-2). Sometimes the vintage appears on the label itself, and sometimes it has its own small label closer to the neck of the bottle.\r\n\r\nThe vintage year is nothing more than the year in which the grapes for a particular wine grew; the wine must have 75 to 100 percent of the grapes of this year, depending on the country of origin. (Non-vintage wines contain wines from more than one year.) But an aura surrounds vintage-dated wine causing many people to believe that any wine with a vintage date is by definition better than a wine without a vintage date. In fact, no correlation exists between the presence of a vintage date and the wine’s quality.\r\n\r\nGenerally speaking, what vintage a wine is — that is, whether the grapes grew in a year with perfect weather or whether the grapes were meteorologically challenged — is an issue you need to consider (a) only when you buy top-quality wines, and (b) mainly when those wines come from parts of the world that experience significant variations in weather from year to year — such as many European wine regions.\r\n<h3>Reserve</h3>\r\n<em>Reserve</em> is our favorite meaningless word on U.S. wine labels. The term is used to convince you that the wine inside the bottle is special. This trick usually works because the word <em>does</em> have specific meaning and <em>does</em> carry a certain amount of prestige on labels of wines from many other countries:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>In Italy and Spain, the word <em>reserve</em> (or its foreign language equivalent, which looks something like <em>reserve</em>) indicates a wine that has received extra aging at the winery before release. Implicit in the extra aging is the idea that the wine was better than normal and, therefore, worthy of the extra aging. Spain even has <em>degrees</em> of reserve, such as Gran Reserva.</li>\r\n \t<li>In France, the use of <em>reserve</em> isn’t regulated. However, its use is generally consistent with the notion that the wine is better in quality than a given producer’s norm.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<p class=\"article-tips remember\">In the United States, the word reserve has historically been used in the same sense — as in, Beaulieu Vineyards Georges de Latour Private Reserve, the best Cabernet that Beaulieu Vineyards makes. But these days, the word is bandied about so much that it no longer has meaning. For example, some California wines labeled Proprietor’s Reserve are the least expensive wines in a particular producer’s lineup and some of the least expensive wines, period. Other wines are labeled Special Reserve, Vintage Reserve, Vintner’s Reserve, or Reserve Selection — all utterly meaningless phrases.</p>\r\n\r\n<h3>Estate-bottled</h3>\r\n<em>Estate</em> is a genteel word for a wine farm, a combined grape-growing and winemaking operation. The words <em>estate-bottled</em> on a wine label indicate that the company that grew the grapes and made the wine also bottled the wine. In other words, <em>estate-bottled</em> suggests accountability from the vineyard to the winemaking through to the bottling. In many countries, the winery doesn’t necessarily have to own the vineyards, but it has to control the vineyards and perform the vineyard operations.\r\n\r\nEstate-bottling is an important concept to those who believe that you can’t make good wine unless the grapes are as good as they can possibly be. If <em>we</em> made wine, we’d sure want to control our own vineyards.\r\n\r\nWe wouldn’t go so far as to say that great wines <em>must</em> be estate-bottled, though. Ravenswood Winery — to name just one example — makes some terrific wines from the grapes of small vineyards owned and operated by private landowners. And some large California landowners are quite serious about their vineyards but don’t make wine themselves; they sell their grapes to various wineries. None of those wines would be considered estate-bottled.\r\n<p class=\"article-tips tip\">Sometimes French wine labels carry the words domaine-bottled or château-bottled (or the phrase mis en bouteille au château/au domaine). The concept is the same as estate-bottled, with domaine and château being equivalent to the U.S. term estate.</p>\r\n\r\n<h3>Vineyard name</h3>\r\nSome wines in the medium-to-expensive price category — costing about $25 or more — might carry on the label the name of the specific vineyard where the grapes for that wine grew. Sometimes one winery will make two or three different wines that are distinguishable only by the vineyard name on the label. Each wine is unique because the <em>terroir</em> of each vineyard is unique. These single vineyards might or might not be identified by the word <em>vineyard</em> next to the name of the vineyard.\r\n\r\nItalian wines, which are really into the single-vineyard game, will have <em>vigneto</em> or <em>vigna</em> on their labels next to the name of the single vineyard. Or they won’t. It’s optional.","description":"Once upon a time, wine labels were boring, colorless (literally and in spirit), and the opposite of inviting. Now, many wine labels are fun. They catch your eye, draw you in for a closer look, and maybe make you smile. Although we tend to have classic tastes in wine, we love the variety of wine labels because it makes browsing for wine more enjoyable than ever.\r\n\r\nBut wine labels have an important purpose besides making their bottles stand out on the shelves. Wine labels contain information about the wine that’s inside the bottle — and knowing what the information means can make you a smarter buyer. Sometimes that information is straightforward — like the name of the region where the grapes grew — and sometimes it’s tricky, like long phrases in a foreign language that you don’t speak.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" >The mandatory sentences on wine labels</h2>\r\nThe government authorities in the United States (and other governments) mandate that certain information appear on the main label of all wine bottles — basic stuff, such as the alcohol content, the type of wine (usually <em>red table wine</em> or <em>white table wine</em>), and the country of origin. Such items are generally referred to as <em>the mandatory.</em> These items include the following:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>A brand name</li>\r\n \t<li>Indication of class or type (table wine, dessert wine, or sparkling wine)</li>\r\n \t<li>The percentage of alcohol by volume (unless it’s implicit — for example, the statement <em>table wine</em> implies an alcohol content of less than 14 percent)</li>\r\n \t<li>Name and location of the bottler</li>\r\n \t<li>Net contents (expressed in milliliters; the standard wine bottle is 750 milliliters, which is 25.6 ounces)</li>\r\n \t<li>The phrase <em>Contains Sulfites</em> (with very, very few exceptions)</li>\r\n \t<li>The government warning (that we won’t dignify by repeating here; just pick up any bottle of wine, and you’ll see it on a label)</li>\r\n</ul>\r\nThe following figure shows you how all the details come together on a label of an American varietal wine.\r\n\r\n[caption id=\"attachment_259763\" align=\"alignnone\" width=\"535\"]<img class=\"size-full wp-image-259763\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/wine-american-label.jpg\" alt=\"wine-american-label\" width=\"535\" height=\"376\" /> Illustration by Lisa S. Reed <br /><br />The label of an American varietal wine.[/caption]\r\n\r\nWines made outside the United States but sold within it must also carry the phrase <em>imported by</em> on their labels, along with the name and business location of the importer.\r\n\r\nThe mandatory information required on U.S. and Canadian wine labels is also required by the E.U. authorities for most wines produced in European Union countries (although the wording of the warning label can vary). The labels of those E.U. wines must contain one additional item of information not required on labels of wines from elsewhere. This additional item is a phrase indicating that the wine comes from an officially recognized wine zone (see the next section for the scoop).\r\n<h2 id=\"tab2\" >Indications of origin</h2>\r\nThe European Union has set up a system to recognize and protect agricultural products (such as wine, cheese, olives, hams, and so forth) that come from specific places so that companies in other places can’t make products with the same name and thus confuse consumers. Wines from all the classic wine regions of E.U. member countries (France, Italy, Spain, Germany, and so forth) are covered under this system. When you see the label of a European wine that’s from a recognized, protected place, you’ll find a phrase to that effect.\r\n\r\nActually, two different phrases exist because European wines from protected places fall into two categories:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>Wines named for places where production is highly regulated so that the very place-name of the wine not only defines the territory of production but also connotes the wine’s grape varieties, grape-growing methods, and winemaking techniques</li>\r\n \t<li>Wines that carry the protected names of larger places where winemakers have more freedom in terms of the grape varieties and production methods they use</li>\r\n</ul>\r\nThe E.U.’s mandated phrases for these two types of place-name wines are the following:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><em>Protected Designation of Origin (PDO),</em> for the most regulated wines. The classic wines mentioned in the sidebar “Decoding common European place-names,” for example, are all in this category.</li>\r\n \t<li><em>Protected Geographic Indication (PGI),</em> for the less regulated wines from registered regions.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\nIn theory, every bottle of European wine — except for the most broadly sourced, least expensive wines — carries one of these two phrases on its label.\r\n\r\nBut in practice, the situation is much more complicated, especially at the moment. How so?\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>For one thing, each country can, and does, translate the words <em>Protected Designation of Origin</em> and <em>Protected Geographic Indication</em> into its own language on its labels.</li>\r\n \t<li>Second, because these E.U. designations went into full effect only in 2012, some wine labels still carry the phrases that were previously used by each country to designate a wine’s category of origin.</li>\r\n \t<li>And finally, each country can permit its wineries to continue using the former phrases rather than the new phrases.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\nIf you’re getting into French, Italian, or other European wines and see a long, foreign phrase on the label that’s adjacent to the place-name or region of the wine, know that it indicates an officially protected geographic zone. If you really want to know which of the two protected categories the wine falls into, refer to the lists in the next two sections.\r\n<p class=\"article-tips tip\">Incidentally, the phrase for a registered place-name in the United States is American Viticultural Area (AVA). But the phrase doesn’t appear on wine labels. Nor does any such phrase appear on labels of Australian or South American wines. Nor do two different degrees of regulations exist, as they do in the European Union.</p>\r\n\r\n<h3>Label terms that mean PDO (Protected Designation of Origin)</h3>\r\n<p class=\"article-tips tech\">Here are the phrases — first in the new terminology and then in the original terminology — that you might find on labels of PDO wines from the major European countries. In all cases, the phrases translate more or less as “Protected Designation of Origin”:</p>\r\n\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>France:</strong> Appellation d’Origine Protégée (AOP) or Appellation Contrôlée or Appellation d’Origine Contrôlée (AC or AOC, in short)</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Italy:</strong> Denominazione di Origine Protetta (DOP) or Denominazione di Origine Controllata (DOC); and for certain wines of an even higher status, Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita (DOCG)</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Spain:</strong> <em>Denominación de Origen Protegida (DOP)</em> or <em>Denominación de Origen (DO),</em> as well as <em>Denominación de Origen Calificada (DOCa)</em> for regions with the highest status (of which only two exist: Rioja and Priorat)</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Portugal:</strong> Denominação de Origem Protegida (DOP) or Denominação de Origem Controlada (DOC)</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Germany:</strong> <em>Qualitätswein;</em> and for wines of higher ripeness, <em>Prädikatsweine</em></li>\r\n</ul>\r\nThis figure shows a European wine label as it would appear in the United States, using the original place-name terminology.\r\n\r\n[caption id=\"attachment_259765\" align=\"alignnone\" width=\"488\"]<img class=\"size-full wp-image-259765\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/wine-european-label.jpg\" alt=\"wine-european-label\" width=\"488\" height=\"500\" /> Illustration by Lisa S. Reed<br /><br />The label of a European wine to be sold in the United States.[/caption]\r\n<h3>Label terms that mean PGI (Protected Geographic Indication)</h3>\r\n<p class=\"article-tips tech\">Here are the phrases — first in the new terminology and then in the original terminology — that you might find on labels of PGI wines from the major European countries. In all cases, the phrases translate more or less as “Protected Geographic Indication”:</p>\r\n\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>France:</strong> <em>Indication Géographique Protégée (IGP)</em> or <em>Vin de Pays</em> followed by the name of an approved area</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Italy:</strong> Indicazione Geografica Protetta (IGP) or Indicazione Geografica Tipica (IGT) and the name of an approved area</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Spain:</strong> <em>Indicación Geográfica Protegida (IGP)</em> or <em>Vino de la Tierra</em> followed by the name of an approved area</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Portugal:</strong> <em>Indicaçõa Geográfica (IG)</em> to refer to a region, but on a label, the original phrase, <em>Vinho Regional</em> (regional wine) and the name of an approved area</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Germany:</strong> <em>Landwein</em></li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<h2 id=\"tab3\" >Some optional label lingo</h2>\r\nBesides the mandatory information required by government authorities, all sorts of other words can appear on wine labels. These words include meaningless phrases intended to make you think that you’re getting a special quality wine, and words that provide useful information about what’s in the bottle. Sometimes the same word can fall into either category, depending on the label. This ambiguity occurs because some words that are strictly regulated in some producing countries aren’t regulated at all in others.\r\n<h3>Vintage</h3>\r\nThe word <em>vintage</em> followed by a year, or the year listed alone without the word <em>vintage,</em> is the most common optional item on a wine label (refer to Figure 4-2). Sometimes the vintage appears on the label itself, and sometimes it has its own small label closer to the neck of the bottle.\r\n\r\nThe vintage year is nothing more than the year in which the grapes for a particular wine grew; the wine must have 75 to 100 percent of the grapes of this year, depending on the country of origin. (Non-vintage wines contain wines from more than one year.) But an aura surrounds vintage-dated wine causing many people to believe that any wine with a vintage date is by definition better than a wine without a vintage date. In fact, no correlation exists between the presence of a vintage date and the wine’s quality.\r\n\r\nGenerally speaking, what vintage a wine is — that is, whether the grapes grew in a year with perfect weather or whether the grapes were meteorologically challenged — is an issue you need to consider (a) only when you buy top-quality wines, and (b) mainly when those wines come from parts of the world that experience significant variations in weather from year to year — such as many European wine regions.\r\n<h3>Reserve</h3>\r\n<em>Reserve</em> is our favorite meaningless word on U.S. wine labels. The term is used to convince you that the wine inside the bottle is special. This trick usually works because the word <em>does</em> have specific meaning and <em>does</em> carry a certain amount of prestige on labels of wines from many other countries:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>In Italy and Spain, the word <em>reserve</em> (or its foreign language equivalent, which looks something like <em>reserve</em>) indicates a wine that has received extra aging at the winery before release. Implicit in the extra aging is the idea that the wine was better than normal and, therefore, worthy of the extra aging. Spain even has <em>degrees</em> of reserve, such as Gran Reserva.</li>\r\n \t<li>In France, the use of <em>reserve</em> isn’t regulated. However, its use is generally consistent with the notion that the wine is better in quality than a given producer’s norm.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<p class=\"article-tips remember\">In the United States, the word reserve has historically been used in the same sense — as in, Beaulieu Vineyards Georges de Latour Private Reserve, the best Cabernet that Beaulieu Vineyards makes. But these days, the word is bandied about so much that it no longer has meaning. For example, some California wines labeled Proprietor’s Reserve are the least expensive wines in a particular producer’s lineup and some of the least expensive wines, period. Other wines are labeled Special Reserve, Vintage Reserve, Vintner’s Reserve, or Reserve Selection — all utterly meaningless phrases.</p>\r\n\r\n<h3>Estate-bottled</h3>\r\n<em>Estate</em> is a genteel word for a wine farm, a combined grape-growing and winemaking operation. The words <em>estate-bottled</em> on a wine label indicate that the company that grew the grapes and made the wine also bottled the wine. In other words, <em>estate-bottled</em> suggests accountability from the vineyard to the winemaking through to the bottling. In many countries, the winery doesn’t necessarily have to own the vineyards, but it has to control the vineyards and perform the vineyard operations.\r\n\r\nEstate-bottling is an important concept to those who believe that you can’t make good wine unless the grapes are as good as they can possibly be. If <em>we</em> made wine, we’d sure want to control our own vineyards.\r\n\r\nWe wouldn’t go so far as to say that great wines <em>must</em> be estate-bottled, though. Ravenswood Winery — to name just one example — makes some terrific wines from the grapes of small vineyards owned and operated by private landowners. And some large California landowners are quite serious about their vineyards but don’t make wine themselves; they sell their grapes to various wineries. None of those wines would be considered estate-bottled.\r\n<p class=\"article-tips tip\">Sometimes French wine labels carry the words domaine-bottled or château-bottled (or the phrase mis en bouteille au château/au domaine). The concept is the same as estate-bottled, with domaine and château being equivalent to the U.S. term estate.</p>\r\n\r\n<h3>Vineyard name</h3>\r\nSome wines in the medium-to-expensive price category — costing about $25 or more — might carry on the label the name of the specific vineyard where the grapes for that wine grew. Sometimes one winery will make two or three different wines that are distinguishable only by the vineyard name on the label. Each wine is unique because the <em>terroir</em> of each vineyard is unique. These single vineyards might or might not be identified by the word <em>vineyard</em> next to the name of the vineyard.\r\n\r\nItalian wines, which are really into the single-vineyard game, will have <em>vigneto</em> or <em>vigna</em> on their labels next to the name of the single vineyard. Or they won’t. It’s optional.","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":9029,"name":"Ed McCarthy","slug":"ed-mccarthy","description":" <p><b>Ed McCarthy</b> is a wine writer, Certified Wine Educator, and wine consultant. McCarthy is considered a leading Champagne authority in the U.S. He is the Contributing Editor of <i>Beverage Media</i>. <b>Mary Ewing&#45;Mulligan</b> is the first woman in America to become a Master of Wine, and is currently one of 50 MWs in the U.S. and 380 in the world. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9029"}},{"authorId":9030,"name":"Mary Ewing-Mulligan","slug":"mary-ewing-mulligan","description":" <p><b>Ed McCarthy</b> is a wine writer, Certified Wine Educator, and wine consultant. McCarthy is considered a leading Champagne authority in the U.S. He is the Contributing Editor of <i>Beverage Media</i>. <b>Mary Ewing&#45;Mulligan</b> is the first woman in America to become a Master of Wine, and is currently one of 50 MWs in the U.S. and 380 in the world. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9030"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33841,"title":"Wine","slug":"wine","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33841"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[{"label":"The mandatory sentences on wine labels","target":"#tab1"},{"label":"Indications of origin","target":"#tab2"},{"label":"Some optional label lingo","target":"#tab3"}],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[{"articleId":259773,"title":"How to Judge Wine for Quality","slug":"wine-quality-how-to-judge-good-or-bad-wines","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","beverages","wine"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/259773"}},{"articleId":259770,"title":"How to Describe a Wine's Taste","slug":"how-to-describe-a-wines-taste","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","beverages","wine"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/259770"}},{"articleId":259762,"title":"The Special Technique for Tasting Wine","slug":"the-special-technique-for-tasting-wine","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","beverages","wine"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/259762"}},{"articleId":259759,"title":"The Differences between Red and White Wines","slug":"the-differences-between-red-and-white-wines","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","beverages","wine"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/259759"}},{"articleId":259756,"title":"How is Wine Made?","slug":"how-is-wine-made","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","beverages","wine"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/259756"}}],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":259773,"title":"How to Judge Wine for Quality","slug":"wine-quality-how-to-judge-good-or-bad-wines","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","beverages","wine"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/259773"}},{"articleId":259770,"title":"How to Describe a Wine's Taste","slug":"how-to-describe-a-wines-taste","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","beverages","wine"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/259770"}},{"articleId":259762,"title":"The Special Technique for Tasting Wine","slug":"the-special-technique-for-tasting-wine","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","beverages","wine"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/259762"}},{"articleId":259759,"title":"The Differences between Red and White Wines","slug":"the-differences-between-red-and-white-wines","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","beverages","wine"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/259759"}},{"articleId":259756,"title":"How is Wine Made?","slug":"how-is-wine-made","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","beverages","wine"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/259756"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":282675,"slug":"wine-for-dummies-7th-edition","isbn":"9781119512738","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","beverages","wine"],"amazon":{"default":"//www.amazon.com/gp/product/1119512735/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","ca":"//www.amazon.ca/gp/product/1119512735/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","indigo_ca":"//www.tkqlhce.com/click-9208661-13710633?url=//www.chapters.indigo.ca/en-ca/books/product/1119512735-item.html&cjsku=978111945484","gb":"//www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/1119512735/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","de":"//www.amazon.de/gp/product/1119512735/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20"},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/wine-for-dummies-7th-edition-cover-9781119512738-203x255.jpg","width":203,"height":255},"title":"Wine For Dummies","testBankPinActivationLink":"","bookOutOfPrint":false,"authorsInfo":"<p><b data-author-id=\"9029\">Ed McCarthy</b> is a wine writer, Certified Wine Educator, and wine consultant. McCarthy is considered a leading Champagne authority in the U.S. He is the Contributing Editor of <i>Beverage Media</i>. <b data-author-id=\"9030\">Mary Ewing-Mulligan</b> is the first woman in America to become a Master of Wine, and is currently one of 50 MWs in the U.S. and 380 in the world. </p>","authors":[{"authorId":9029,"name":"Ed McCarthy","slug":"ed-mccarthy","description":" <p><b>Ed McCarthy</b> is a wine writer, Certified Wine Educator, and wine consultant. McCarthy is considered a leading Champagne authority in the U.S. He is the Contributing Editor of <i>Beverage Media</i>. <b>Mary Ewing&#45;Mulligan</b> is the first woman in America to become a Master of Wine, and is currently one of 50 MWs in the U.S. and 380 in the world. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9029"}},{"authorId":9030,"name":"Mary Ewing-Mulligan","slug":"mary-ewing-mulligan","description":" <p><b>Ed McCarthy</b> is a wine writer, Certified Wine Educator, and wine consultant. McCarthy is considered a leading Champagne authority in the U.S. He is the Contributing Editor of <i>Beverage Media</i>. <b>Mary Ewing&#45;Mulligan</b> is the first woman in America to become a Master of Wine, and is currently one of 50 MWs in the U.S. and 380 in the world. 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But when it comes to wine, drinking and tasting are not synonymous. Wine is much more complex than other beverages: There’s more going on in a mouthful of wine. For example, most wines have a lot of different (and subtle) flavors, all at the same time, and they give you multiple simultaneous sensations, such as softness and sharpness together.\r\n\r\n[caption id=\"attachment_262716\" align=\"alignnone\" width=\"535\"]<img class=\"size-full wp-image-262716\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/wine-tasting.jpg\" alt=\"wine tasting\" width=\"535\" height=\"357\" /> © Shutterstock/Jack Frog[/caption]\r\n\r\nIf you just drink wine by gulping it down the way you do soda, you miss a lot of what you paid for. But if you <em>taste</em> wine, you can discover its nuances. In fact, the more slowly and attentively you taste wine, the more interesting it tastes.\r\nAnd with that, we have the two fundamental rules of wine tasting:\r\n<ol>\r\n \t<li>Slow down.</li>\r\n \t<li>Pay attention.</li>\r\n</ol>\r\nThe process of tasting a wine — of systematically experiencing all the wine’s attributes — has three steps, which we discuss in the following sections. The first two steps don’t actually involve your mouth at all: First, you look at the wine, and then you smell it. Finally, you get to sip it.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" >Savoring a wine’s appearance</h2>\r\nWe enjoy looking at the wine in our glass, noticing how brilliant it is and the way it reflects the light, trying to decide precisely which shade of red it is and whether it will stain the tablecloth permanently if we tilt the glass too far.\r\n\r\nTo observe a wine’s appearance, tilt a (no more than half-full) glass away from you and look at the color of the wine against a white background, such as the tablecloth or a piece of paper (a colored background distorts the color of the wine).\r\n\r\nNotice how dark or how pale the wine is and what color it is. Also notice whether the wine is cloudy, clear, or brilliant. (Most wines are clear. Some unfiltered wines can be less than brilliant but shouldn’t be cloudy.) Eventually, you’ll begin to notice patterns, such as deeper color in younger red wines and older white wines.\r\n\r\nIf you have time, at this point you can also swirl the wine around in your glass (see the following section) and observe the way the wine runs back down the inside of the glass. Some wines form <em>legs</em> or <em>tears</em> that flow slowly down. Once upon a time, these legs were interpreted as the sure sign of a rich, high-quality wine.\r\n\r\nToday, we know that a wine’s legs are a complicated phenomenon having to do with the surface tension of the wine and the evaporation rate of the wine’s alcohol. If you’re a physicist, feel free to show off your expertise and enlighten your fellow tasters — but otherwise, don’t bother drawing conclusions from the legs.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab2\" >The nose knows: Sniffing wine</h2>\r\nAfter you observe a wine’s appearance, you get to the really fun part of tasting wine: swirling and sniffing. This is the stage when you can let your imagination run wild, and no one will ever dare to contradict you. If you say that a wine smells like wild strawberries to you, how can anyone prove that it doesn’t?\r\n\r\nBefore we explain the smelling ritual, and the tasting technique that goes along with it (described in the next section), we want to assure you that (a) you don’t have to apply this procedure to every single wine you drink; (b) you won’t look foolish doing it, at least in the eyes of other wine lovers (we can’t speak for the rest of the human population); and (c) it’s a great trick at parties to avoid talking with someone you don’t like.\r\n<p class=\"article-tips warning\">To get the most out of your sniffing, swirl the wine in the glass first. But don’t even think about swirling your wine if your glass is more than half full.</p>\r\nKeep your glass on the table and rotate it three or four times so that the wine swirls around inside the glass and mixes with air. Then quickly bring the glass to your nose. Stick your nose into the airspace of the glass and smell the wine. Free-associate. Is the aroma fruity, woodsy, fresh, cooked, intense, mild? Your nose tires quickly, but it recovers quickly, too. Wait just a moment and try again. Listen to your friends’ comments and try to find the same things they find in the smell.\r\n\r\nAs you swirl, the aromas in the wine vaporize so that you can smell them. Wine has so many <em>aromatic compounds</em> that whatever you find in the smell of a wine is probably not merely a figment of your imagination.\r\n\r\nThe point behind this whole ritual of swirling and sniffing is that what you smell should be pleasurable to you, maybe even fascinating, and that you should have fun in the process. But what if you notice a smell that you don’t like?\r\n\r\nHang around wine geeks for a while, and you’ll start to hear words like <em>petrol, sweaty saddle, burnt match,</em> and <em>asparagus</em> used to describe the aromas of some wines. “Yuck!” you say? Of course you do! Fortunately, the wines that exhibit such smells are not the wines you’ll be drinking for the most part — at least not unless you really catch the wine bug. And when you do catch the wine bug, you might discover that those aromas, in the right wine, can really be a kick.\r\n\r\nEven if you don’t come to enjoy those smells (some of us do, honest!), you’ll appreciate them as typical characteristics of certain regions or grapes.\r\n\r\nWine can also have bad smells that nobody will try to defend. It doesn’t happen often, but it does happen, because wine is a natural, agricultural product with a will of its own. Often, when a wine is seriously flawed, it shows immediately in the nose of the wine. Wine judges have a term for such wines. They call them DNPIM — Do Not Put in Mouth. Not that you’ll get ill, but why subject your taste buds to the same abuse that your nose just took? Sometimes a bad cork is to blame, and sometimes the problem lies with some issue in the winemaking or even the storage of the wine. Just rack it up to experience and open a different bottle.\r\n<p class=\"article-tips remember\">When it comes to smelling wine, many people are concerned that they aren’t able to detect as many aromas as they think they should. Smelling wine is really just a matter of practice and attention. If you start to pay more attention to smells in your normal activities, you’ll get better at smelling wine.</p>\r\n\r\n<h3>Tips for smelling wine</h3>\r\nTry these techniques for getting more out of wine when you sniff:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>Be bold. Stick your nose right into the airspace of the glass where the aromas are captured.</li>\r\n \t<li>Don’t wear a strong scent; it will compete with the smell of the wine.</li>\r\n \t<li>Don’t knock yourself out smelling a wine when strong food aromas are present. The meat you smell in the wine could really be a stew cooking on the stove.</li>\r\n \t<li>Become a smeller. Smell every ingredient when you cook, everything you eat, the fresh fruits and vegetables you buy at the supermarket, even the smells of your environment — like leather, wet earth, fresh road tar, grass, flowers, your wet dog, shoe polish, and your medicine cabinet. Stuff your mental database with smells so you’ll have aroma memories at your disposal when you need to draw on them.</li>\r\n \t<li>Try different techniques of sniffing. Some people like to take short, quick “rabbit sniffs,” while others like to inhale a deep whiff of the wine’s smell. Keeping your mouth open a bit while you inhale can help you perceive aromas. (Some people even hold one nostril closed and smell with the other, but we think that’s a bit kinky.)</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<h3>10 aromas (or flavors) associated with win</h3>\r\nThe following are some of the most common aromas you can find in wine:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>Fruits of all sorts</li>\r\n \t<li>Herbs</li>\r\n \t<li>Flowers</li>\r\n \t<li>Earth</li>\r\n \t<li>Grass</li>\r\n \t<li>Tobacco</li>\r\n \t<li>Butterscotch</li>\r\n \t<li>Toast</li>\r\n \t<li>Vanilla</li>\r\n \t<li>Coffee, mocha, or chocolate</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<h2 id=\"tab3\" >The mouth action when wine tasting</h2>\r\nAfter you’ve looked at the wine and smelled it, you’re finally allowed to taste it. This is the stage when grown men and women sit around and make strange faces, gurgling the wine and sloshing it around in their mouths with looks of intense concentration in their eyes. You can make an enemy for life if you distract a wine taster just at the moment when he’s focusing all his energy on the last few drops of a special wine.\r\n\r\nHere’s the procedure to follow:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Take a medium-sized sip of wine.</strong></li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Hold the wine in your mouth, purse your lips, and draw in some air across your tongue, over the wine. </strong>(Be utterly careful not to choke or dribble, or everyone will strongly suspect that you’re not a wine expert.)</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Swish the wine around in your mouth as if you’re chewing it.</strong></li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Swallow the wine.</strong></li>\r\n</ul>\r\nThe whole process should take several seconds, depending on how much you are concentrating on the wine.\r\n<h3>Wines have noses — and palates, too</h3>\r\nWith poetic license typical of wine tasters, someone once dubbed the smell of a wine its <em>nose</em> — and the expression took hold. If someone says that a wine has a huge nose, he means that the wine has a very strong aroma. If he says that he detects lemon <em>in the nose</em> or <em>on the nose,</em> he means that the wine smells something like lemons.\r\n\r\nIn fact, most wine tasters rarely use the word <em>smell</em> to describe how a wine smells because the word <em>smell</em> (like the word <em>odor</em>) seems pejorative. Wine tasters talk about the wine’s nose or aroma. Sometimes they use the word <em>bouquet,</em> although that word is falling out of fashion.\r\n\r\nJust as a wine taster might use the term <em>nose</em> for the smell of a wine, he might use the word <em>palate</em> in referring to the taste of a wine. A wine’s palate is the overall impression the wine gives in your mouth, or any isolated aspect of the wine’s taste — as in, “This wine has a harmonious palate,” or “The palate of this wine is a bit acidic.” When a wine taster says that he finds raspberries <em>on the palate,</em> he means that the wine has the flavor of raspberries.\r\n<h3>Feeling the tastes</h3>\r\nTaste buds on the tongue can register various sensations, which are known as the <em>basic tastes</em> — sweetness, sourness, saltiness, bitterness, and umami, a savory characteristic. Of these tastes, sweetness, sourness, and bitterness are those most commonly found in wine. By moving the wine around in your mouth, you give it a chance to hit all your taste buds so that you don’t miss anything in the wine (even if sourness and bitterness sound like things you wouldn’t mind missing).\r\n\r\nAs you swish the wine around in your mouth, you’re also buying time. Your brain needs a few seconds to figure out what the tongue is tasting and make some sense of it. Any sweetness in the wine often registers in your brain first; <em>acidity</em> (which, by the way, is known to normal people as <em>sourness</em>) and bitterness register subsequently. While your brain is working out the relative impressions of sweetness, acidity, and bitterness, you can be thinking about how the wine feels in your mouth — whether it’s heavy, light, smooth, rough, and so on.\r\n<h3>Tasting the smells of wine</h3>\r\nUntil you cut your nose in on the action, all you can taste in the wine are those three sensations of sweetness, acidity, and bitterness and a general impression of weight and texture. Where have all the wild strawberries gone?\r\n\r\nThey’re still there in the wine, right next to the chocolate and plums. But to be perfectly correct about it, these flavors are actually <em>aromas</em> that you taste, not through tongue contact, but by inhaling them up an interior nasal passage in the back of your mouth called the <em>retronasal passage</em> (see the following figure). When you draw in air across the wine in your mouth, you’re vaporizing the aromas just as you did when you swirled the wine in your glass. There’s a method to this madness.\r\n\r\n[caption id=\"attachment_259766\" align=\"alignnone\" width=\"469\"]<img class=\"size-full wp-image-259766\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/wine-flavors-smell.jpg\" alt=\"wine-flavors-smell\" width=\"469\" height=\"400\" /> Illustration by Lisa S. Reed<br /><br />Wine flavors are actually aromas that vaporize in your mouth; you perceive them through the rear nasal passage.[/caption]\r\n\r\nAfter you go through all this rigmarole, it’s time to reach a conclusion: Do you like what you tasted? The possible answers are yes, no, an indifferent shrug of the shoulders, or “I’m not sure, let me take another taste,” which means that you have serious wine-nerd potential.","description":"You drink beverages every day, tasting them as they pass through your mouth. But when it comes to wine, drinking and tasting are not synonymous. Wine is much more complex than other beverages: There’s more going on in a mouthful of wine. For example, most wines have a lot of different (and subtle) flavors, all at the same time, and they give you multiple simultaneous sensations, such as softness and sharpness together.\r\n\r\n[caption id=\"attachment_262716\" align=\"alignnone\" width=\"535\"]<img class=\"size-full wp-image-262716\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/wine-tasting.jpg\" alt=\"wine tasting\" width=\"535\" height=\"357\" /> © Shutterstock/Jack Frog[/caption]\r\n\r\nIf you just drink wine by gulping it down the way you do soda, you miss a lot of what you paid for. But if you <em>taste</em> wine, you can discover its nuances. In fact, the more slowly and attentively you taste wine, the more interesting it tastes.\r\nAnd with that, we have the two fundamental rules of wine tasting:\r\n<ol>\r\n \t<li>Slow down.</li>\r\n \t<li>Pay attention.</li>\r\n</ol>\r\nThe process of tasting a wine — of systematically experiencing all the wine’s attributes — has three steps, which we discuss in the following sections. The first two steps don’t actually involve your mouth at all: First, you look at the wine, and then you smell it. Finally, you get to sip it.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" >Savoring a wine’s appearance</h2>\r\nWe enjoy looking at the wine in our glass, noticing how brilliant it is and the way it reflects the light, trying to decide precisely which shade of red it is and whether it will stain the tablecloth permanently if we tilt the glass too far.\r\n\r\nTo observe a wine’s appearance, tilt a (no more than half-full) glass away from you and look at the color of the wine against a white background, such as the tablecloth or a piece of paper (a colored background distorts the color of the wine).\r\n\r\nNotice how dark or how pale the wine is and what color it is. Also notice whether the wine is cloudy, clear, or brilliant. (Most wines are clear. Some unfiltered wines can be less than brilliant but shouldn’t be cloudy.) Eventually, you’ll begin to notice patterns, such as deeper color in younger red wines and older white wines.\r\n\r\nIf you have time, at this point you can also swirl the wine around in your glass (see the following section) and observe the way the wine runs back down the inside of the glass. Some wines form <em>legs</em> or <em>tears</em> that flow slowly down. Once upon a time, these legs were interpreted as the sure sign of a rich, high-quality wine.\r\n\r\nToday, we know that a wine’s legs are a complicated phenomenon having to do with the surface tension of the wine and the evaporation rate of the wine’s alcohol. If you’re a physicist, feel free to show off your expertise and enlighten your fellow tasters — but otherwise, don’t bother drawing conclusions from the legs.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab2\" >The nose knows: Sniffing wine</h2>\r\nAfter you observe a wine’s appearance, you get to the really fun part of tasting wine: swirling and sniffing. This is the stage when you can let your imagination run wild, and no one will ever dare to contradict you. If you say that a wine smells like wild strawberries to you, how can anyone prove that it doesn’t?\r\n\r\nBefore we explain the smelling ritual, and the tasting technique that goes along with it (described in the next section), we want to assure you that (a) you don’t have to apply this procedure to every single wine you drink; (b) you won’t look foolish doing it, at least in the eyes of other wine lovers (we can’t speak for the rest of the human population); and (c) it’s a great trick at parties to avoid talking with someone you don’t like.\r\n<p class=\"article-tips warning\">To get the most out of your sniffing, swirl the wine in the glass first. But don’t even think about swirling your wine if your glass is more than half full.</p>\r\nKeep your glass on the table and rotate it three or four times so that the wine swirls around inside the glass and mixes with air. Then quickly bring the glass to your nose. Stick your nose into the airspace of the glass and smell the wine. Free-associate. Is the aroma fruity, woodsy, fresh, cooked, intense, mild? Your nose tires quickly, but it recovers quickly, too. Wait just a moment and try again. Listen to your friends’ comments and try to find the same things they find in the smell.\r\n\r\nAs you swirl, the aromas in the wine vaporize so that you can smell them. Wine has so many <em>aromatic compounds</em> that whatever you find in the smell of a wine is probably not merely a figment of your imagination.\r\n\r\nThe point behind this whole ritual of swirling and sniffing is that what you smell should be pleasurable to you, maybe even fascinating, and that you should have fun in the process. But what if you notice a smell that you don’t like?\r\n\r\nHang around wine geeks for a while, and you’ll start to hear words like <em>petrol, sweaty saddle, burnt match,</em> and <em>asparagus</em> used to describe the aromas of some wines. “Yuck!” you say? Of course you do! Fortunately, the wines that exhibit such smells are not the wines you’ll be drinking for the most part — at least not unless you really catch the wine bug. And when you do catch the wine bug, you might discover that those aromas, in the right wine, can really be a kick.\r\n\r\nEven if you don’t come to enjoy those smells (some of us do, honest!), you’ll appreciate them as typical characteristics of certain regions or grapes.\r\n\r\nWine can also have bad smells that nobody will try to defend. It doesn’t happen often, but it does happen, because wine is a natural, agricultural product with a will of its own. Often, when a wine is seriously flawed, it shows immediately in the nose of the wine. Wine judges have a term for such wines. They call them DNPIM — Do Not Put in Mouth. Not that you’ll get ill, but why subject your taste buds to the same abuse that your nose just took? Sometimes a bad cork is to blame, and sometimes the problem lies with some issue in the winemaking or even the storage of the wine. Just rack it up to experience and open a different bottle.\r\n<p class=\"article-tips remember\">When it comes to smelling wine, many people are concerned that they aren’t able to detect as many aromas as they think they should. Smelling wine is really just a matter of practice and attention. If you start to pay more attention to smells in your normal activities, you’ll get better at smelling wine.</p>\r\n\r\n<h3>Tips for smelling wine</h3>\r\nTry these techniques for getting more out of wine when you sniff:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>Be bold. Stick your nose right into the airspace of the glass where the aromas are captured.</li>\r\n \t<li>Don’t wear a strong scent; it will compete with the smell of the wine.</li>\r\n \t<li>Don’t knock yourself out smelling a wine when strong food aromas are present. The meat you smell in the wine could really be a stew cooking on the stove.</li>\r\n \t<li>Become a smeller. Smell every ingredient when you cook, everything you eat, the fresh fruits and vegetables you buy at the supermarket, even the smells of your environment — like leather, wet earth, fresh road tar, grass, flowers, your wet dog, shoe polish, and your medicine cabinet. Stuff your mental database with smells so you’ll have aroma memories at your disposal when you need to draw on them.</li>\r\n \t<li>Try different techniques of sniffing. Some people like to take short, quick “rabbit sniffs,” while others like to inhale a deep whiff of the wine’s smell. Keeping your mouth open a bit while you inhale can help you perceive aromas. (Some people even hold one nostril closed and smell with the other, but we think that’s a bit kinky.)</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<h3>10 aromas (or flavors) associated with win</h3>\r\nThe following are some of the most common aromas you can find in wine:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>Fruits of all sorts</li>\r\n \t<li>Herbs</li>\r\n \t<li>Flowers</li>\r\n \t<li>Earth</li>\r\n \t<li>Grass</li>\r\n \t<li>Tobacco</li>\r\n \t<li>Butterscotch</li>\r\n \t<li>Toast</li>\r\n \t<li>Vanilla</li>\r\n \t<li>Coffee, mocha, or chocolate</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<h2 id=\"tab3\" >The mouth action when wine tasting</h2>\r\nAfter you’ve looked at the wine and smelled it, you’re finally allowed to taste it. This is the stage when grown men and women sit around and make strange faces, gurgling the wine and sloshing it around in their mouths with looks of intense concentration in their eyes. You can make an enemy for life if you distract a wine taster just at the moment when he’s focusing all his energy on the last few drops of a special wine.\r\n\r\nHere’s the procedure to follow:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Take a medium-sized sip of wine.</strong></li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Hold the wine in your mouth, purse your lips, and draw in some air across your tongue, over the wine. </strong>(Be utterly careful not to choke or dribble, or everyone will strongly suspect that you’re not a wine expert.)</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Swish the wine around in your mouth as if you’re chewing it.</strong></li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Swallow the wine.</strong></li>\r\n</ul>\r\nThe whole process should take several seconds, depending on how much you are concentrating on the wine.\r\n<h3>Wines have noses — and palates, too</h3>\r\nWith poetic license typical of wine tasters, someone once dubbed the smell of a wine its <em>nose</em> — and the expression took hold. If someone says that a wine has a huge nose, he means that the wine has a very strong aroma. If he says that he detects lemon <em>in the nose</em> or <em>on the nose,</em> he means that the wine smells something like lemons.\r\n\r\nIn fact, most wine tasters rarely use the word <em>smell</em> to describe how a wine smells because the word <em>smell</em> (like the word <em>odor</em>) seems pejorative. Wine tasters talk about the wine’s nose or aroma. Sometimes they use the word <em>bouquet,</em> although that word is falling out of fashion.\r\n\r\nJust as a wine taster might use the term <em>nose</em> for the smell of a wine, he might use the word <em>palate</em> in referring to the taste of a wine. A wine’s palate is the overall impression the wine gives in your mouth, or any isolated aspect of the wine’s taste — as in, “This wine has a harmonious palate,” or “The palate of this wine is a bit acidic.” When a wine taster says that he finds raspberries <em>on the palate,</em> he means that the wine has the flavor of raspberries.\r\n<h3>Feeling the tastes</h3>\r\nTaste buds on the tongue can register various sensations, which are known as the <em>basic tastes</em> — sweetness, sourness, saltiness, bitterness, and umami, a savory characteristic. Of these tastes, sweetness, sourness, and bitterness are those most commonly found in wine. By moving the wine around in your mouth, you give it a chance to hit all your taste buds so that you don’t miss anything in the wine (even if sourness and bitterness sound like things you wouldn’t mind missing).\r\n\r\nAs you swish the wine around in your mouth, you’re also buying time. Your brain needs a few seconds to figure out what the tongue is tasting and make some sense of it. Any sweetness in the wine often registers in your brain first; <em>acidity</em> (which, by the way, is known to normal people as <em>sourness</em>) and bitterness register subsequently. While your brain is working out the relative impressions of sweetness, acidity, and bitterness, you can be thinking about how the wine feels in your mouth — whether it’s heavy, light, smooth, rough, and so on.\r\n<h3>Tasting the smells of wine</h3>\r\nUntil you cut your nose in on the action, all you can taste in the wine are those three sensations of sweetness, acidity, and bitterness and a general impression of weight and texture. Where have all the wild strawberries gone?\r\n\r\nThey’re still there in the wine, right next to the chocolate and plums. But to be perfectly correct about it, these flavors are actually <em>aromas</em> that you taste, not through tongue contact, but by inhaling them up an interior nasal passage in the back of your mouth called the <em>retronasal passage</em> (see the following figure). When you draw in air across the wine in your mouth, you’re vaporizing the aromas just as you did when you swirled the wine in your glass. There’s a method to this madness.\r\n\r\n[caption id=\"attachment_259766\" align=\"alignnone\" width=\"469\"]<img class=\"size-full wp-image-259766\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/wine-flavors-smell.jpg\" alt=\"wine-flavors-smell\" width=\"469\" height=\"400\" /> Illustration by Lisa S. Reed<br /><br />Wine flavors are actually aromas that vaporize in your mouth; you perceive them through the rear nasal passage.[/caption]\r\n\r\nAfter you go through all this rigmarole, it’s time to reach a conclusion: Do you like what you tasted? The possible answers are yes, no, an indifferent shrug of the shoulders, or “I’m not sure, let me take another taste,” which means that you have serious wine-nerd potential.","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":9029,"name":"Ed McCarthy","slug":"ed-mccarthy","description":" <p><b>Ed McCarthy</b> is a wine writer, Certified Wine Educator, and wine consultant. McCarthy is considered a leading Champagne authority in the U.S. He is the Contributing Editor of <i>Beverage Media</i>. <b>Mary Ewing&#45;Mulligan</b> is the first woman in America to become a Master of Wine, and is currently one of 50 MWs in the U.S. and 380 in the world. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9029"}},{"authorId":9030,"name":"Mary Ewing-Mulligan","slug":"mary-ewing-mulligan","description":" <p><b>Ed McCarthy</b> is a wine writer, Certified Wine Educator, and wine consultant. McCarthy is considered a leading Champagne authority in the U.S. He is the Contributing Editor of <i>Beverage Media</i>. <b>Mary Ewing&#45;Mulligan</b> is the first woman in America to become a Master of Wine, and is currently one of 50 MWs in the U.S. and 380 in the world. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9030"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33841,"title":"Wine","slug":"wine","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33841"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[{"label":"Savoring a wine’s appearance","target":"#tab1"},{"label":"The nose knows: Sniffing wine","target":"#tab2"},{"label":"The mouth action when wine tasting","target":"#tab3"}],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[{"articleId":259776,"title":"How to Read a Wine Label","slug":"how-to-read-a-wine-label","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","beverages","wine"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/259776"}},{"articleId":259773,"title":"How to Judge Wine for Quality","slug":"wine-quality-how-to-judge-good-or-bad-wines","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","beverages","wine"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/259773"}},{"articleId":259770,"title":"How to Describe a Wine's Taste","slug":"how-to-describe-a-wines-taste","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","beverages","wine"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/259770"}},{"articleId":259759,"title":"The Differences between Red and White Wines","slug":"the-differences-between-red-and-white-wines","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","beverages","wine"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/259759"}},{"articleId":259756,"title":"How is Wine Made?","slug":"how-is-wine-made","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","beverages","wine"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/259756"}}],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":259776,"title":"How to Read a Wine Label","slug":"how-to-read-a-wine-label","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","beverages","wine"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/259776"}},{"articleId":259773,"title":"How to Judge Wine for Quality","slug":"wine-quality-how-to-judge-good-or-bad-wines","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","beverages","wine"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/259773"}},{"articleId":259770,"title":"How to Describe a Wine's Taste","slug":"how-to-describe-a-wines-taste","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","beverages","wine"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/259770"}},{"articleId":259759,"title":"The Differences between Red and White Wines","slug":"the-differences-between-red-and-white-wines","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","beverages","wine"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/259759"}},{"articleId":259756,"title":"How is Wine Made?","slug":"how-is-wine-made","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","beverages","wine"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/259756"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":282675,"slug":"wine-for-dummies-7th-edition","isbn":"9781119512738","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","beverages","wine"],"amazon":{"default":"//www.amazon.com/gp/product/1119512735/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","ca":"//www.amazon.ca/gp/product/1119512735/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","indigo_ca":"//www.tkqlhce.com/click-9208661-13710633?url=//www.chapters.indigo.ca/en-ca/books/product/1119512735-item.html&cjsku=978111945484","gb":"//www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/1119512735/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","de":"//www.amazon.de/gp/product/1119512735/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20"},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/wine-for-dummies-7th-edition-cover-9781119512738-203x255.jpg","width":203,"height":255},"title":"Wine For Dummies","testBankPinActivationLink":"","bookOutOfPrint":false,"authorsInfo":"<p><b data-author-id=\"9029\">Ed McCarthy</b> is a wine writer, Certified Wine Educator, and wine consultant. McCarthy is considered a leading Champagne authority in the U.S. He is the Contributing Editor of <i>Beverage Media</i>. <b data-author-id=\"9030\">Mary Ewing-Mulligan</b> is the first woman in America to become a Master of Wine, and is currently one of 50 MWs in the U.S. and 380 in the world. </p>","authors":[{"authorId":9029,"name":"Ed McCarthy","slug":"ed-mccarthy","description":" <p><b>Ed McCarthy</b> is a wine writer, Certified Wine Educator, and wine consultant. McCarthy is considered a leading Champagne authority in the U.S. He is the Contributing Editor of <i>Beverage Media</i>. <b>Mary Ewing&#45;Mulligan</b> is the first woman in America to become a Master of Wine, and is currently one of 50 MWs in the U.S. and 380 in the world. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9029"}},{"authorId":9030,"name":"Mary Ewing-Mulligan","slug":"mary-ewing-mulligan","description":" <p><b>Ed McCarthy</b> is a wine writer, Certified Wine Educator, and wine consultant. McCarthy is considered a leading Champagne authority in the U.S. He is the Contributing Editor of <i>Beverage Media</i>. <b>Mary Ewing&#45;Mulligan</b> is the first woman in America to become a Master of Wine, and is currently one of 50 MWs in the U.S. and 380 in the world. 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Here are the steps.","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"The tastes of a wine reveal themselves sequentially as the tongue detects them and your brain registers them. We recommend that you follow the natural sequence we describe in the next sections when you try to put words to what you’re tasting.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" >Sweetness in wine</h2>\r\nAs soon as you put the wine into your mouth, you can usually notice sweetness or the lack of it. In Winespeak, <em>dry</em> is the opposite of sweet. Classify the wine you’re tasting as either <em>dry, off-dry</em> (in other words, slightly sweet), or <em>sweet.</em>\r\n\r\nIs it sweetness or fruitiness? Beginning wine tasters sometimes describe dry wines as sweet because they confuse fruitiness with sweetness. Here’s the difference:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>A wine is <em>fruity</em> when it has distinct aromas and flavors of fruit. You smell the fruitiness with your nose; in your mouth, you “smell” it through your retronasal passage (see the earlier section “Tasting the smells”).</li>\r\n \t<li>Sweetness, on the other hand, is a tactile impression on your tongue. When in doubt, try holding your nose when you taste the wine; if the wine really is sweet, you’ll be able to taste the sweetness despite the fact that you can’t smell the fruitiness.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<h2 id=\"tab2\" >Acidity of wine</h2>\r\nAll wine contains acid (mainly <em>tartaric acid,</em> which exists in grapes), but some wines are more acidic than others. Acidity is a key taste factor in white wines more than in reds. For white wines, acidity is the backbone of the wine’s taste (it gives the wine firmness in your mouth). White wines with a high amount of acidity feel <em>crisp,</em> and those without enough acidity feel <em>flabby.</em>\r\n\r\nYou generally perceive acidity in the middle of your mouth — what wine-tasters call the <em>mid-palate</em>. How much you salivate after tasting a wine can be a clue to its acidity level, because high acidity triggers saliva production. You can also sense the consequences of acidity (or the lack of it) in the overall style of the wine — whether it’s a tart little number or a soft and generous sort, for example. Classify the wine you’re tasting as <em>crisp, soft,</em> or <em>Pillsbury Doughboy.</em>\r\n<p class=\"article-tips tech\">Softness and firmness are actually textural impressions a wine gives you as you taste it. Just as your mouth feels temperature in a liquid, it also feels texture. Some wines literally feel soft and smooth as they move through your mouth, while others feel hard, rough, edgy, or coarse. In white wines, acid is usually responsible for impressions of hardness or firmness (or crispness); in red wines, tannin is usually responsible.</p>\r\n<p class=\"article-tips tech\">Low levels of either substance can make a wine feel pleasantly soft — or too soft, depending on the wine and your taste preferences. Unfermented sugar also contributes to an impression of softness, and alcohol can, too. But very high alcohol — which is fairly common in wines these days — can give a wine an edge of hardness. Initially, it’s enough to notice a wine’s texture, without figuring out what factor is creating that sensation.</p>\r\n\r\n<h2 id=\"tab3\" >Tannin in wine</h2>\r\nTannin is a substance that exists naturally in the skins, seeds (or <em>pips</em>), and stems of grapes. Because red wines are fermented with their grape skins and pips, and because red grape varieties are generally higher in tannin than white varieties, tannin levels are far higher in red wines than in white wines. Aging wine in new oak barrels can also contribute tannin to wines, both reds and whites.\r\n\r\nHave you ever taken a sip of a red wine and rapidly experienced a drying-out feeling in your mouth, as if something had blotted up all your saliva? That’s tannin.\r\n\r\nTo generalize a bit, tannin is to a red wine what acidity is to a white: a backbone. Tannins alone can taste bitter, but some wine tannins are less bitter than others. Also, other elements of the wine, such as sweetness, can mask the perception of bitterness. You sense tannin — as bitterness or as firmness or richness of texture — mainly in the rear of your mouth, on the inside of your cheeks, and on your gums. Depending on the amount and nature of its tannin, you can describe a red wine as <em>astringent, firm,</em> or <em>soft.</em>\r\n<p class=\"article-tips tip\">Is it acid or tannin? Red wines have acid as well as tannin, and distinguishing between the two as you taste a wine can be a real challenge. When you’re not sure whether you’re perceiving mainly tannin or acid, pay attention to how your mouth feels after you swallow the wine. Acid makes you salivate (saliva is alkaline, and it flows to neutralize the acid). Tannin leaves your mouth dry.</p>\r\n\r\n<h2 id=\"tab4\" >A wine's body</h2>\r\nA wine’s body is an impression you get from the whole of the wine — not a basic taste that registers on your tongue. It’s the impression of the weight and size of the wine in your mouth, which is usually attributable mainly to a wine’s alcohol. We say <em>impression</em> because, obviously, one ounce of any wine will occupy exactly the same space in your mouth and weigh the same as one ounce of any other wine. But some wines <em>seem</em> fuller, bigger, or heavier in the mouth than others.\r\n\r\nThink about the wine’s fullness and weight as you taste it. Imagine that your tongue is a tiny scale and judge how much the wine is weighing it down. Classify the wine as <em>light-bodied, medium-bodied,</em> or <em>full-bodied.</em>\r\n<h2 id=\"tab5\" >The flavor dimension</h2>\r\nWines have flavors (uh, we mean <em>mouth aromas</em>), but wines don’t come in a specific flavor. Although you may enjoy the suggestion of chocolate in a red wine that you’re tasting, you wouldn’t want to go to a wine store and ask for a chocolaty wine, unless you don’t mind the idea of people holding their hands over their mouths and trying not to laugh at you.\r\n\r\nInstead, you should refer to families of flavors in wine. You have your fruity wines (the ones that make you think of all sorts of fruit when you smell them or taste them), your earthy wines (these flavors make you think of minerals and rocks, walks in the forest, turning the earth in your garden, dry leaves, and so on), your spicy wines (cinnamon, cloves, black pepper, or Indian spices, for example), your herbal wines (mint, grass, hay, rosemary, and so on), and so on, and so on.\r\n\r\nSo many flavors exist in wines that we could go on and on (and we often do!), but you get the picture, don’t you? (By the way, chocolate-like flavors would fall into the family of nuts or kernels, along with flavors of coffee and of nuts themselves.)\r\n\r\nIf you like a wine and want to try another wine that’s similar but different (and it will always be different, we guarantee you), one method is to decide what families of flavors in the wine you like and mention that to the person selling you your next bottle. In Parts 3, 4, and 5, you find wines that fit these specific flavors.\r\n\r\nAnother aspect of flavor that’s very important to consider is a wine’s <em>flavor intensity</em> — how much flavor the wine has, regardless of what those flavors are. Some wines are as flavorful as a chili cheese dog, while others have flavors as subtle as ungarnished fillet of sole. Flavor intensity is a major factor in pairing wine with food, and it’s also an issue in determining how much a wine appeals to you.","description":"The tastes of a wine reveal themselves sequentially as the tongue detects them and your brain registers them. We recommend that you follow the natural sequence we describe in the next sections when you try to put words to what you’re tasting.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" >Sweetness in wine</h2>\r\nAs soon as you put the wine into your mouth, you can usually notice sweetness or the lack of it. In Winespeak, <em>dry</em> is the opposite of sweet. Classify the wine you’re tasting as either <em>dry, off-dry</em> (in other words, slightly sweet), or <em>sweet.</em>\r\n\r\nIs it sweetness or fruitiness? Beginning wine tasters sometimes describe dry wines as sweet because they confuse fruitiness with sweetness. Here’s the difference:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>A wine is <em>fruity</em> when it has distinct aromas and flavors of fruit. You smell the fruitiness with your nose; in your mouth, you “smell” it through your retronasal passage (see the earlier section “Tasting the smells”).</li>\r\n \t<li>Sweetness, on the other hand, is a tactile impression on your tongue. When in doubt, try holding your nose when you taste the wine; if the wine really is sweet, you’ll be able to taste the sweetness despite the fact that you can’t smell the fruitiness.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<h2 id=\"tab2\" >Acidity of wine</h2>\r\nAll wine contains acid (mainly <em>tartaric acid,</em> which exists in grapes), but some wines are more acidic than others. Acidity is a key taste factor in white wines more than in reds. For white wines, acidity is the backbone of the wine’s taste (it gives the wine firmness in your mouth). White wines with a high amount of acidity feel <em>crisp,</em> and those without enough acidity feel <em>flabby.</em>\r\n\r\nYou generally perceive acidity in the middle of your mouth — what wine-tasters call the <em>mid-palate</em>. How much you salivate after tasting a wine can be a clue to its acidity level, because high acidity triggers saliva production. You can also sense the consequences of acidity (or the lack of it) in the overall style of the wine — whether it’s a tart little number or a soft and generous sort, for example. Classify the wine you’re tasting as <em>crisp, soft,</em> or <em>Pillsbury Doughboy.</em>\r\n<p class=\"article-tips tech\">Softness and firmness are actually textural impressions a wine gives you as you taste it. Just as your mouth feels temperature in a liquid, it also feels texture. Some wines literally feel soft and smooth as they move through your mouth, while others feel hard, rough, edgy, or coarse. In white wines, acid is usually responsible for impressions of hardness or firmness (or crispness); in red wines, tannin is usually responsible.</p>\r\n<p class=\"article-tips tech\">Low levels of either substance can make a wine feel pleasantly soft — or too soft, depending on the wine and your taste preferences. Unfermented sugar also contributes to an impression of softness, and alcohol can, too. But very high alcohol — which is fairly common in wines these days — can give a wine an edge of hardness. Initially, it’s enough to notice a wine’s texture, without figuring out what factor is creating that sensation.</p>\r\n\r\n<h2 id=\"tab3\" >Tannin in wine</h2>\r\nTannin is a substance that exists naturally in the skins, seeds (or <em>pips</em>), and stems of grapes. Because red wines are fermented with their grape skins and pips, and because red grape varieties are generally higher in tannin than white varieties, tannin levels are far higher in red wines than in white wines. Aging wine in new oak barrels can also contribute tannin to wines, both reds and whites.\r\n\r\nHave you ever taken a sip of a red wine and rapidly experienced a drying-out feeling in your mouth, as if something had blotted up all your saliva? That’s tannin.\r\n\r\nTo generalize a bit, tannin is to a red wine what acidity is to a white: a backbone. Tannins alone can taste bitter, but some wine tannins are less bitter than others. Also, other elements of the wine, such as sweetness, can mask the perception of bitterness. You sense tannin — as bitterness or as firmness or richness of texture — mainly in the rear of your mouth, on the inside of your cheeks, and on your gums. Depending on the amount and nature of its tannin, you can describe a red wine as <em>astringent, firm,</em> or <em>soft.</em>\r\n<p class=\"article-tips tip\">Is it acid or tannin? Red wines have acid as well as tannin, and distinguishing between the two as you taste a wine can be a real challenge. When you’re not sure whether you’re perceiving mainly tannin or acid, pay attention to how your mouth feels after you swallow the wine. Acid makes you salivate (saliva is alkaline, and it flows to neutralize the acid). Tannin leaves your mouth dry.</p>\r\n\r\n<h2 id=\"tab4\" >A wine's body</h2>\r\nA wine’s body is an impression you get from the whole of the wine — not a basic taste that registers on your tongue. It’s the impression of the weight and size of the wine in your mouth, which is usually attributable mainly to a wine’s alcohol. We say <em>impression</em> because, obviously, one ounce of any wine will occupy exactly the same space in your mouth and weigh the same as one ounce of any other wine. But some wines <em>seem</em> fuller, bigger, or heavier in the mouth than others.\r\n\r\nThink about the wine’s fullness and weight as you taste it. Imagine that your tongue is a tiny scale and judge how much the wine is weighing it down. Classify the wine as <em>light-bodied, medium-bodied,</em> or <em>full-bodied.</em>\r\n<h2 id=\"tab5\" >The flavor dimension</h2>\r\nWines have flavors (uh, we mean <em>mouth aromas</em>), but wines don’t come in a specific flavor. Although you may enjoy the suggestion of chocolate in a red wine that you’re tasting, you wouldn’t want to go to a wine store and ask for a chocolaty wine, unless you don’t mind the idea of people holding their hands over their mouths and trying not to laugh at you.\r\n\r\nInstead, you should refer to families of flavors in wine. You have your fruity wines (the ones that make you think of all sorts of fruit when you smell them or taste them), your earthy wines (these flavors make you think of minerals and rocks, walks in the forest, turning the earth in your garden, dry leaves, and so on), your spicy wines (cinnamon, cloves, black pepper, or Indian spices, for example), your herbal wines (mint, grass, hay, rosemary, and so on), and so on, and so on.\r\n\r\nSo many flavors exist in wines that we could go on and on (and we often do!), but you get the picture, don’t you? (By the way, chocolate-like flavors would fall into the family of nuts or kernels, along with flavors of coffee and of nuts themselves.)\r\n\r\nIf you like a wine and want to try another wine that’s similar but different (and it will always be different, we guarantee you), one method is to decide what families of flavors in the wine you like and mention that to the person selling you your next bottle. In Parts 3, 4, and 5, you find wines that fit these specific flavors.\r\n\r\nAnother aspect of flavor that’s very important to consider is a wine’s <em>flavor intensity</em> — how much flavor the wine has, regardless of what those flavors are. Some wines are as flavorful as a chili cheese dog, while others have flavors as subtle as ungarnished fillet of sole. Flavor intensity is a major factor in pairing wine with food, and it’s also an issue in determining how much a wine appeals to you.","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":9029,"name":"Ed McCarthy","slug":"ed-mccarthy","description":" <p><b>Ed McCarthy</b> is a wine writer, Certified Wine Educator, and wine consultant. McCarthy is considered a leading Champagne authority in the U.S. He is the Contributing Editor of <i>Beverage Media</i>. <b>Mary Ewing&#45;Mulligan</b> is the first woman in America to become a Master of Wine, and is currently one of 50 MWs in the U.S. and 380 in the world. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9029"}},{"authorId":9030,"name":"Mary Ewing-Mulligan","slug":"mary-ewing-mulligan","description":" <p><b>Ed McCarthy</b> is a wine writer, Certified Wine Educator, and wine consultant. McCarthy is considered a leading Champagne authority in the U.S. He is the Contributing Editor of <i>Beverage Media</i>. <b>Mary Ewing&#45;Mulligan</b> is the first woman in America to become a Master of Wine, and is currently one of 50 MWs in the U.S. and 380 in the world. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9030"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33841,"title":"Wine","slug":"wine","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33841"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[{"label":"Sweetness in wine","target":"#tab1"},{"label":"Acidity of wine","target":"#tab2"},{"label":"Tannin in wine","target":"#tab3"},{"label":"A wine's body","target":"#tab4"},{"label":"The flavor dimension","target":"#tab5"}],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[{"articleId":259776,"title":"How to Read a Wine Label","slug":"how-to-read-a-wine-label","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","beverages","wine"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/259776"}},{"articleId":259773,"title":"How to Judge Wine for Quality","slug":"wine-quality-how-to-judge-good-or-bad-wines","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","beverages","wine"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/259773"}},{"articleId":259762,"title":"The Special Technique for Tasting Wine","slug":"the-special-technique-for-tasting-wine","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","beverages","wine"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/259762"}},{"articleId":259759,"title":"The Differences between Red and White Wines","slug":"the-differences-between-red-and-white-wines","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","beverages","wine"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/259759"}},{"articleId":259756,"title":"How is Wine Made?","slug":"how-is-wine-made","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","beverages","wine"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/259756"}}],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":259776,"title":"How to Read a Wine Label","slug":"how-to-read-a-wine-label","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","beverages","wine"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/259776"}},{"articleId":259773,"title":"How to Judge Wine for Quality","slug":"wine-quality-how-to-judge-good-or-bad-wines","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","beverages","wine"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/259773"}},{"articleId":259762,"title":"The Special Technique for Tasting Wine","slug":"the-special-technique-for-tasting-wine","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","beverages","wine"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/259762"}},{"articleId":259759,"title":"The Differences between Red and White Wines","slug":"the-differences-between-red-and-white-wines","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","beverages","wine"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/259759"}},{"articleId":259756,"title":"How is Wine Made?","slug":"how-is-wine-made","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","beverages","wine"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/259756"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":282675,"slug":"wine-for-dummies-7th-edition","isbn":"9781119512738","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","beverages","wine"],"amazon":{"default":"//www.amazon.com/gp/product/1119512735/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","ca":"//www.amazon.ca/gp/product/1119512735/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","indigo_ca":"//www.tkqlhce.com/click-9208661-13710633?url=//www.chapters.indigo.ca/en-ca/books/product/1119512735-item.html&cjsku=978111945484","gb":"//www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/1119512735/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","de":"//www.amazon.de/gp/product/1119512735/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20"},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/wine-for-dummies-7th-edition-cover-9781119512738-203x255.jpg","width":203,"height":255},"title":"Wine For Dummies","testBankPinActivationLink":"","bookOutOfPrint":false,"authorsInfo":"<p><b data-author-id=\"9029\">Ed McCarthy</b> is a wine writer, Certified Wine Educator, and wine consultant. McCarthy is considered a leading Champagne authority in the U.S. He is the Contributing Editor of <i>Beverage Media</i>. <b data-author-id=\"9030\">Mary Ewing-Mulligan</b> is the first woman in America to become a Master of Wine, and is currently one of 50 MWs in the U.S. and 380 in the world. </p>","authors":[{"authorId":9029,"name":"Ed McCarthy","slug":"ed-mccarthy","description":" <p><b>Ed McCarthy</b> is a wine writer, Certified Wine Educator, and wine consultant. McCarthy is considered a leading Champagne authority in the U.S. He is the Contributing Editor of <i>Beverage Media</i>. <b>Mary Ewing&#45;Mulligan</b> is the first woman in America to become a Master of Wine, and is currently one of 50 MWs in the U.S. and 380 in the world. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9029"}},{"authorId":9030,"name":"Mary Ewing-Mulligan","slug":"mary-ewing-mulligan","description":" <p><b>Ed McCarthy</b> is a wine writer, Certified Wine Educator, and wine consultant. McCarthy is considered a leading Champagne authority in the U.S. He is the Contributing Editor of <i>Beverage Media</i>. <b>Mary Ewing&#45;Mulligan</b> is the first woman in America to become a Master of Wine, and is currently one of 50 MWs in the U.S. and 380 in the world. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9030"}}],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/books/"}},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;home-auto-hobbies&quot;,&quot;food-drink&quot;,&quot;beverages&quot;,&quot;wine&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781119512738&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-6515e98f7ac40\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;home-auto-hobbies&quot;,&quot;food-drink&quot;,&quot;beverages&quot;,&quot;wine&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781119512738&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-6515e98f7b33f\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Articles","articleList":null,"content":null,"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Explore","lifeExpectancy":"Five years","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2024-09-28T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":259770},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2017-03-26T07:16:49+00:00","modifiedTime":"2024-09-28T19:08:11+00:00","timestamp":"2024-09-28T21:01:03+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Home, Auto, & Hobbies","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33809"},"slug":"home-auto-hobbies","categoryId":33809},{"name":"Food & Drink","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33839"},"slug":"food-drink","categoryId":33839},{"name":"Beverages","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33840"},"slug":"beverages","categoryId":33840},{"name":"Wine","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33841"},"slug":"wine","categoryId":33841}],"title":"How to Classify a Wine’s Characteristics","strippedTitle":"how to classify a wine’s characteristics","slug":"how-to-classify-a-wines-characteristics","canonicalUrl":"","归类传奇座舱简化":{"metaDescription":"When you're wine tasting, there are some helpful ways of organizing your impressions, including its aromatics, structure, and texture.","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"The language you use to describe a wine starts with your own thoughts as you taste the wine. Thus, the process of tasting a wine and the process of describing it are intertwined.\r\n\r\nAlthough wine tasting involves examining wine visually and smelling it as well as tasting it, those first two steps are a breeze compared to the third. When the wine is in your mouth, the multiple taste sensations — flavors, texture, body, sweetness or dryness, acidity, tannin, balance, length — occur practically all at once. In order to make sense of the information you receive from the wine, you have to impose some order on those impressions.\r\n\r\nOne way of organizing the impressions a wine sends you is to classify those impressions according to the nature of the “taste:\"\r\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">The wine’s <i>aromatics</i> (all the flavors you smell in your mouth)</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">The wine’s <i>structure</i> (its alcohol/sweetness/acid/tannin makeup, that is, its basic tastes — the wine’s bricks and mortar, so to speak)</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">The wine’s <i>texture</i> (the tactile data, how the wine feels in your mouth; texture is a function of the wine’s structural components — a high acid, dry, low-alcohol white wine may feel thin or sharp, for example, whereas a high-alcohol red wine with moderate tannin may feel soft and silky)</p>\r\n</li>\r\n</ul>\r\nAnother way of organizing the impressions a wine sends you is by the sequence of your impressions. The words that tasters use to describe the sequence are\r\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Attack:</b> The first impression of the wine, which may involve sweetness, dryness, richness or thinness of texture, or even fruitiness (although most of the wine’s flavors register a few moments later).</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Evolution:</b> The development of the wine in your mouth. You can think of this stage in two parts:</p>\r\n\r\n<ul class=\"level-two\">\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">The <i>mid-palate impression,</i> a phase when you tend to notice the wine’s acidity, perhaps get a first impression of its tannin (in red wines), and notice its flavors and their intensity</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">The <i>rear-palate impression,</i> which involves persistence that the wine’s flavors have (or don’t have) across the length of your mouth, the amount and nature of the wine’s tannins, and any indication of a burning sensation from overly high alcohol</p>\r\n</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Finish or aftertaste:</b> Flavors or impressions that register after the wine has been spat or swallowed. Both the duration of the aftertaste and its nature are noteworthy. (A long finish is commendable, for example, and a bitter one is not.) A suggestion of concentrated fruit character on the finish often indicates that a wine is age-worthy.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n</ul>","description":"The language you use to describe a wine starts with your own thoughts as you taste the wine. Thus, the process of tasting a wine and the process of describing it are intertwined.\r\n\r\nAlthough wine tasting involves examining wine visually and smelling it as well as tasting it, those first two steps are a breeze compared to the third. When the wine is in your mouth, the multiple taste sensations — flavors, texture, body, sweetness or dryness, acidity, tannin, balance, length — occur practically all at once. In order to make sense of the information you receive from the wine, you have to impose some order on those impressions.\r\n\r\nOne way of organizing the impressions a wine sends you is to classify those impressions according to the nature of the “taste:\"\r\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">The wine’s <i>aromatics</i> (all the flavors you smell in your mouth)</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">The wine’s <i>structure</i> (its alcohol/sweetness/acid/tannin makeup, that is, its basic tastes — the wine’s bricks and mortar, so to speak)</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">The wine’s <i>texture</i> (the tactile data, how the wine feels in your mouth; texture is a function of the wine’s structural components — a high acid, dry, low-alcohol white wine may feel thin or sharp, for example, whereas a high-alcohol red wine with moderate tannin may feel soft and silky)</p>\r\n</li>\r\n</ul>\r\nAnother way of organizing the impressions a wine sends you is by the sequence of your impressions. The words that tasters use to describe the sequence are\r\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Attack:</b> The first impression of the wine, which may involve sweetness, dryness, richness or thinness of texture, or even fruitiness (although most of the wine’s flavors register a few moments later).</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Evolution:</b> The development of the wine in your mouth. You can think of this stage in two parts:</p>\r\n\r\n<ul class=\"level-two\">\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">The <i>mid-palate impression,</i> a phase when you tend to notice the wine’s acidity, perhaps get a first impression of its tannin (in red wines), and notice its flavors and their intensity</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">The <i>rear-palate impression,</i> which involves persistence that the wine’s flavors have (or don’t have) across the length of your mouth, the amount and nature of the wine’s tannins, and any indication of a burning sensation from overly high alcohol</p>\r\n</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Finish or aftertaste:</b> Flavors or impressions that register after the wine has been spat or swallowed. Both the duration of the aftertaste and its nature are noteworthy. (A long finish is commendable, for example, and a bitter one is not.) A suggestion of concentrated fruit character on the finish often indicates that a wine is age-worthy.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n</ul>","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":9029,"name":"Ed McCarthy","slug":"ed-mccarthy","description":" <p><b>Ed McCarthy</b> is a wine writer, Certified Wine Educator, and wine consultant. McCarthy is considered a leading Champagne authority in the U.S. He is the Contributing Editor of <i>Beverage Media</i>. <b>Mary Ewing&#45;Mulligan</b> is the first woman in America to become a Master of Wine, and is currently one of 50 MWs in the U.S. and 380 in the world. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9029"}},{"authorId":9030,"name":"Mary Ewing-Mulligan","slug":"mary-ewing-mulligan","description":" <p><b>Ed McCarthy</b> is a wine writer, Certified Wine Educator, and wine consultant. McCarthy is considered a leading Champagne authority in the U.S. He is the Contributing Editor of <i>Beverage Media</i>. <b>Mary Ewing&#45;Mulligan</b> is the first woman in America to become a Master of Wine, and is currently one of 50 MWs in the U.S. and 380 in the world. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9030"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33841,"title":"Wine","slug":"wine","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33841"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":259776,"title":"How to Read a Wine Label","slug":"how-to-read-a-wine-label","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","beverages","wine"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/259776"}},{"articleId":259773,"title":"How to Judge Wine for Quality","slug":"wine-quality-how-to-judge-good-or-bad-wines","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","beverages","wine"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/259773"}},{"articleId":259770,"title":"How to Describe a Wine's Taste","slug":"how-to-describe-a-wines-taste","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","beverages","wine"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/259770"}},{"articleId":259762,"title":"The Special Technique for Tasting Wine","slug":"the-special-technique-for-tasting-wine","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","beverages","wine"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/259762"}},{"articleId":259759,"title":"The Differences between Red and White Wines","slug":"the-differences-between-red-and-white-wines","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","beverages","wine"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/259759"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":0,"slug":null,"isbn":null,"categoryList":null,"amazon":null,"image":null,"title":null,"testBankPinActivationLink":null,"bookOutOfPrint":false,"authorsInfo":null,"authors":null,"_links":null},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;home-auto-hobbies&quot;,&quot;food-drink&quot;,&quot;beverages&quot;,&quot;wine&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[null]}]\" id=\"du-slot-6515e98f723e5\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;home-auto-hobbies&quot;,&quot;food-drink&quot;,&quot;beverages&quot;,&quot;wine&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[null]}]\" id=\"du-slot-6515e98f72afb\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Articles","articleList":null,"content":null,"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Explore","lifeExpectancy":"Five years","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2024-09-28T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":139655},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2017-03-26T17:20:25+00:00","modifiedTime":"2024-09-28T19:01:09+00:00","timestamp":"2024-09-28T21:01:03+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Home, Auto, & Hobbies","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33809"},"slug":"home-auto-hobbies","categoryId":33809},{"name":"Food & Drink","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33839"},"slug":"food-drink","categoryId":33839},{"name":"Beverages","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33840"},"slug":"beverages","categoryId":33840},{"name":"Wine","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33841"},"slug":"wine","categoryId":33841}],"title":"Useful Terms for Describing Wine","strippedTitle":"useful terms for describing wine","slug":"useful-terms-for-describing-wine","canonicalUrl":"","归类传奇座舱简化":{"metaDescription":"If you're learning about wine from the experts, you will read or hear these terms, including bouquet, finish, oaky, fruity, and tannic.","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"When describing wine, merchants, restaurant servers, and your oenophile friends will use specific language to tell you about its characteristics. Knowing these words will help you understand the wine they're describing:\r\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Aroma or bouquet:</b> The smell of a wine — bouquet applies particularly to the aroma of older wines</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Body:</b> The apparent weight of a wine in your mouth (light, medium, or full)</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Crisp:</b> A wine with refreshing acidity</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Dry:</b> Not sweet</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Finish:</b> The impression a wine leaves as you swallow it</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Flavor intensity:</b> How strong or weak a wine's flavors are</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Fruity:</b> A wine whose aromas and flavors suggest fruit; doesn't imply sweetness</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Oaky:</b> A wine that has oak flavors (smoky, toasty)</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Soft:</b> A wine that has a smooth rather than crisp mouthfeel</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Tannic:</b> A red wine that is firm and leaves the mouth feeling dry</p>\r\n</li>\r\n</ul>","description":"When describing wine, merchants, restaurant servers, and your oenophile friends will use specific language to tell you about its characteristics. Knowing these words will help you understand the wine they're describing:\r\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Aroma or bouquet:</b> The smell of a wine — bouquet applies particularly to the aroma of older wines</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Body:</b> The apparent weight of a wine in your mouth (light, medium, or full)</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Crisp:</b> A wine with refreshing acidity</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Dry:</b> Not sweet</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Finish:</b> The impression a wine leaves as you swallow it</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Flavor intensity:</b> How strong or weak a wine's flavors are</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Fruity:</b> A wine whose aromas and flavors suggest fruit; doesn't imply sweetness</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Oaky:</b> A wine that has oak flavors (smoky, toasty)</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Soft:</b> A wine that has a smooth rather than crisp mouthfeel</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Tannic:</b> A red wine that is firm and leaves the mouth feeling dry</p>\r\n</li>\r\n</ul>","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":9029,"name":"Ed McCarthy","slug":"ed-mccarthy","description":" <p><b>Ed McCarthy</b> is a wine writer, Certified Wine Educator, and wine consultant. 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Wines from California constituted almost 60 percent of all wine sales in the United States and 90 percent of a","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"<p>What is it that makes California wine so special? Wines from California constituted almost 60 percent of all wine sales in the United States and 90 percent of all U.S. exports, according to 2012 statistics from the Wine Institute. Get to know the varietals and the regions that produce them, and know the flavors to expect when you're tasting California wines.</p>\r\n","description":"<p>What is it that makes California wine so special? Wines from California constituted almost 60 percent of all wine sales in the United States and 90 percent of all U.S. exports, according to 2012 statistics from the Wine Institute. Get to know the varietals and the regions that produce them, and know the flavors to expect when you're tasting California wines.</p>\r\n","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":9029,"name":"Ed McCarthy","slug":"ed-mccarthy","description":" <p><b>Ed McCarthy</b> is a wine writer, Certified Wine Educator, and wine consultant. McCarthy is considered a leading Champagne authority in the U.S. He is the Contributing Editor of <i>Beverage Media</i>. <b>Mary Ewing&#45;Mulligan</b> is the first woman in America to become a Master of Wine, and is currently one of 50 MWs in the U.S. and 380 in the world. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9029"}},{"authorId":9030,"name":"Mary Ewing-Mulligan","slug":"mary-ewing-mulligan","description":" <p><b>Ed McCarthy</b> is a wine writer, Certified Wine Educator, and wine consultant. 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McCarthy is considered a leading Champagne authority in the U.S. He is the Contributing Editor of <i>Beverage Media</i>. <b>Mary Ewing&#45;Mulligan</b> is the first woman in America to become a Master of Wine, and is currently one of 50 MWs in the U.S. and 380 in the world. <p><b>Ed McCarthy</b> is a wine writer, Certified Wine Educator, and wine consultant. McCarthy is considered a leading Champagne authority in the U.S. He is the Contributing Editor of <i>Beverage Media</i>. <b>Mary Ewing&#45;Mulligan</b> is the first woman in America to become a Master of Wine, and is currently one of 50 MWs in the U.S. and 380 in the world.</p>","authors":[{"authorId":9029,"name":"Ed McCarthy","slug":"ed-mccarthy","description":" <p><b>Ed McCarthy</b> is a wine writer, Certified Wine Educator, and wine consultant. McCarthy is considered a leading Champagne authority in the U.S. He is the Contributing Editor of <i>Beverage Media</i>. <b>Mary Ewing&#45;Mulligan</b> is the first woman in America to become a Master of Wine, and is currently one of 50 MWs in the U.S. and 380 in the world. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9029"}},{"authorId":9030,"name":"Mary Ewing-Mulligan","slug":"mary-ewing-mulligan","description":" <p><b>Ed McCarthy</b> is a wine writer, Certified Wine Educator, and wine consultant. McCarthy is considered a leading Champagne authority in the U.S. He is the Contributing Editor of <i>Beverage Media</i>. <b>Mary Ewing&#45;Mulligan</b> is the first woman in America to become a Master of Wine, and is currently one of 50 MWs in the U.S. and 380 in the world. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9030"}}],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/books/"}},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;home-auto-hobbies&quot;,&quot;food-drink&quot;,&quot;beverages&quot;,&quot;wine&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9780470376072&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-64ecb6aebb6a0\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;home-auto-hobbies&quot;,&quot;food-drink&quot;,&quot;beverages&quot;,&quot;wine&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9780470376072&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-64ecb6aebc409\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Cheat Sheet","articleList":[{"articleId":164211,"title":"California's Main Varietal Wines","slug":"californias-main-varietal-wines","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","beverages","wine"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/164211"}},{"articleId":164213,"title":"Major California Wine Regions and Their Specialties","slug":"major-california-wine-regions-and-their-specialties","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","beverages","wine"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/164213"}},{"articleId":164219,"title":"Texture and Flavors of California Wines","slug":"texture-and-flavors-of-california-wines","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","beverages","wine"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/164219"}}],"content":[{"title":"California's Main Varietal Wines","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>You can probably find more than a dozen distinct types of varietal wine from California if you scour the shelves of a good wine shop. A handful of wines are by far the most popular, most widely available, and best-known varietal wines from the Golden State:</p>\n<table>\n<tbody>\n<tr>\n<th>Wine Name</th>\n<th>Color</th>\n<th>Taste</th>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Chardonnay</td>\n<td>White</td>\n<td>Usually dry or fairly dry; full-bodied, smooth-textured;<br />\nflavors can include ripe apple, tropical fruits, butter, or toasty<br />\noak</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Sauvignon Blanc</td>\n<td>White</td>\n<td>Fairly dry; medium-bodied; pronounced aromas and flavors that<br />\ncan include white fruits (pear, apple), citrus, herbal notes, or<br />\nfresh grass; usually no oaky character</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>White Zinfandel</td>\n<td>Pink</td>\n<td>Medium-sweet; smooth-textured; fruity flavors such as berries,<br />\nmelon</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Cabernet Sauvignon</td>\n<td>Red</td>\n<td>Dry; medium- or full-bodied, with some firmness of texture;<br />\nmedium-intense flavors that can include dark fruits, herbal notes,<br />\nand smoky oak</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Merlot</td>\n<td>Red</td>\n<td>Dry; medium- or full-bodied with fairly soft texture;<br />\nmedium-intense flavors that can include plum, tea leaves,<br />\nchocolate</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Pinot Noir</td>\n<td>Red</td>\n<td>Dry; fairly full-bodied, with silky texture; pronounced aromas<br />\nand flavors generally of red berries, dark berries, cherry</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Syrah/ Shiraz</td>\n<td>Red</td>\n<td>Dry; fairly full-bodied with smooth texture; flavors include<br />\njuicy red or dark fruits, sometimes with earthy, spicy, or herbal<br />\nnotes</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Zinfandel</td>\n<td>Red</td>\n<td>Dry or fairly dry; medium- or full-bodied, sometimes with<br />\nfirmness of texture; flavors of berries and herbs</td>\n</tr>\n</tbody>\n</table>\n"},{"title":"Major California Wine Regions and Their Specialties","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Here&#8217;s a quick look at the major California wine regions and their specialties. California wine country is gorgeous and welcomes more and more visitors each year:</p>\n<table>\n<tbody>\n<tr>\n<th>Region</th>\n<th>Wine Specialty</th>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Anderson Valley</td>\n<td>Pinot Noir, Chardonnay, Riesling, Gewurztraminer, sparkling<br />\nwine</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Carneros</td>\n<td>Pinot Noir, Chardonnay, Merlot, sparkling wine</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Monterey</td>\n<td>Chardonnay, Pinot Noir, Cabernet Sauvignon</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Napa Valley</td>\n<td>Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Paso Robles</td>\n<td>Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Zinfandel, Petite Sirah, Syrah</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Santa Barbara</td>\n<td>Pinot Noir, Chardonnay, Syrah</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Sonoma County</td>\n<td>Zinfandel, Pinot Noir, Chardonnay</td>\n</tr>\n</tbody>\n</table>\n"},{"title":"Texture and Flavors of California Wines","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p class=\"Remember\">A driving force behind the popularity of California wine is their flavor. Generally, California wines are very fruity (that is, they have aromas and flavors that suggest fruits) and very flavorful (those fruity flavors are intense and easy to notice when you taste the wine). These characteristics appeal to a wide number of palates in the United States and beyond.</p>\n<p>Try these white wines:</p>\n<ul>\n<li><b>Dry Chenin Blanc:</b> Medium-bodied with rich texture and a crisp backbone</li>\n<li><b>Gewurztraminer:</b> Full-bodied, soft, with medium-intense to intense floral and lychee flavors</li>\n<li><b>Pinot Blanc:</b> Dry, medium-bodied with crisp acidity and subtle flavors of apple and minerals</li>\n<li><b>Pinot Gris/Grigio:</b> Dry to fairly dry, fairly full, with pronounced peach, citrus, and floral flavors</li>\n<li><b>Roussanne:</b> Dry, full-bodied, with rich texture and white-fruit flavors</li>\n<li><b>Viognier:</b> Full-bodied, dry, flavorful (peaches, floral notes)</li>\n</ul>\n<p>Try these red wines:</p>\n<ul>\n<li><b>Barbera: </b>Medium-bodied, fairly soft, with tart-cherry flavors</li>\n<li><b>Cabernet Franc:</b> Medium-bodied and dry with expressive red-fruit flavors and medium tannin</li>\n<li><b>Malbec:</b> Medium- or full-bodied with velvety texture and rich plum flavor</li>\n<li><b>Petite Sirah:</b> Full-bodied, dry and firm, with ripe dark-fruit flavors and spicy notes</li>\n<li><b>Petit Verdot: </b>Full-bodied, dry and firm with tannin; flavors of blueberry with violet notes</li>\n<li><b>Sangiovese: </b>Fairly full-bodied, with firm tannin and red-fruit and herbal flavors</li>\n<li><b>Tempranillo:</b> Full-bodied, with dryish texture and flavors of dark fruits and herbs</li>\n</ul>\n"}],"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Explore","lifeExpectancy":"Five years","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2024-08-28T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":207903},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2017-03-27T16:55:58+00:00","modifiedTime":"2023-03-17T16:52:32+00:00","timestamp":"2023-09-14T18:19:28+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Home, Auto, & Hobbies","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33809"},"slug":"home-auto-hobbies","categoryId":33809},{"name":"Food & Drink","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33839"},"slug":"food-drink","categoryId":33839},{"name":"Beverages","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33840"},"slug":"beverages","categoryId":33840},{"name":"Wine","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33841"},"slug":"wine","categoryId":33841}],"title":"Home Winemaking For Dummies Cheat Sheet","strippedTitle":"home winemaking for dummies cheat sheet","slug":"home-winemaking-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","canonicalUrl":"","归类传奇座舱简化":{"metaDescription":"Fulfill your \"grape expectations\" and start making wine at home. Learn to choose the right grapes, calculate conversions, and much more.","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"Making wine at home lets you explore your creative side — from choosing the perfect grapes to learning the lingo of wine-speak. Making your own wine is also a great way to unleash your inner science geek. You need to calculate conversions, understand wine chemistry (including sugar and pH levels), and regulate temperatures, all while paying attention to the basic laws of home winemaking.","description":"Making wine at home lets you explore your creative side — from choosing the perfect grapes to learning the lingo of wine-speak. Making your own wine is also a great way to unleash your inner science geek. You need to calculate conversions, understand wine chemistry (including sugar and pH levels), and regulate temperatures, all while paying attention to the basic laws of home winemaking.","blurb":"","authors":[],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33841,"title":"Wine","slug":"wine","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33841"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[{"articleId":192046,"title":"Four Laws of Home Winemaking","slug":"four-laws-of-home-winemaking","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","beverages","wine"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/192046"}},{"articleId":192047,"title":"Great Grapes to Use for Your First Batch of Homemade Wine","slug":"great-grapes-to-use-for-your-first-batch-of-homemade-wine","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","beverages","wine"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/192047"}},{"articleId":192048,"title":"Critical Conversions for Home Winemaking","slug":"critical-conversions-for-home-winemaking","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","beverages","wine"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/192048"}},{"articleId":192043,"title":"Terms Every Winemaker Needs to Know","slug":"terms-every-winemaker-needs-to-know","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","beverages","wine"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/192043"}},{"articleId":192044,"title":"Ideal Temperatures for Home Winemaking","slug":"ideal-temperatures-for-home-winemaking","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","beverages","wine"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/192044"}}],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":259776,"title":"How to Read a Wine Label","slug":"how-to-read-a-wine-label","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","beverages","wine"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/259776"}},{"articleId":259773,"title":"Wine Quality: How to Judge Good or Bad Wines","slug":"wine-quality-how-to-judge-good-or-bad-wines","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","beverages","wine"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/259773"}},{"articleId":259770,"title":"How to Describe a Wine's Taste","slug":"how-to-describe-a-wines-taste","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","beverages","wine"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/259770"}},{"articleId":259762,"title":"The Special Technique for Tasting Wine","slug":"the-special-technique-for-tasting-wine","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","beverages","wine"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/259762"}},{"articleId":259759,"title":"The Differences between Red and White Wines","slug":"the-differences-between-red-and-white-wines","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","beverages","wine"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/259759"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":282281,"slug":"home-winemaking-for-dummies","isbn":"9780470678954","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","beverages","wine"],"amazon":{"default":"//www.amazon.com/gp/product/047067895X/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","ca":"//www.amazon.ca/gp/product/047067895X/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","indigo_ca":"//www.tkqlhce.com/click-9208661-13710633?url=//www.chapters.indigo.ca/en-ca/books/product/047067895X-item.html&cjsku=978111945484","gb":"//www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/047067895X/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","de":"//www.amazon.de/gp/product/047067895X/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20"},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/home-winemaking-for-dummies-cover-9780470678954-203x255.jpg","width":203,"height":255},"title":"Home Winemaking For Dummies","testBankPinActivationLink":"","bookOutOfPrint":false,"authorsInfo":"<p><b data-author-id=\"10326\">Tim Patterson</b> writes about wine and makes some of his own in Berkeley, California. He contributes the monthly \"Inquiring Winemaker\" column for the industry trade magazine<i> Wines &amp; Vines,</i> digging into winemaking theories and techniques, and he covered home winemaking for several years in the pages of <i>WineMaker.</i> He has won dozens of Gold medals, Double Golds, and Best of Shows from amateur winemaking competitions in California. </p>","authors":[{"authorId":10326,"name":"Tim Patterson","slug":"tim-patterson","description":" <p><b>Tim Patterson</b> writes about wine and makes some of his own in Berkeley, California. He contributes the monthly &#34;Inquiring Winemaker&#34; column for the industry trade magazine<i> Wines &#38; Vines,</i> digging into winemaking theories and techniques, and he covered home winemaking for several years in the pages of <i>WineMaker.</i> He has won dozens of Gold medals, Double Golds, and Best of Shows from amateur winemaking competitions in California. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/10326"}}],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/books/"}},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;home-auto-hobbies&quot;,&quot;food-drink&quot;,&quot;beverages&quot;,&quot;wine&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9780470678954&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-63221b3034084\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;home-auto-hobbies&quot;,&quot;food-drink&quot;,&quot;beverages&quot;,&quot;wine&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9780470678954&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-63221b3034b77\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Cheat Sheet","articleList":[{"articleId":192043,"title":"Terms Every Winemaker Needs to Know","slug":"terms-every-winemaker-needs-to-know","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","beverages","wine"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/192043"}},{"articleId":192048,"title":"Critical Conversions for Home Winemaking","slug":"critical-conversions-for-home-winemaking","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","beverages","wine"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/192048"}},{"articleId":192044,"title":"Ideal Temperatures for Home Winemaking","slug":"ideal-temperatures-for-home-winemaking","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","beverages","wine"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/192044"}},{"articleId":192046,"title":"Four Laws of Home Winemaking","slug":"four-laws-of-home-winemaking","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","beverages","wine"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/192046"}},{"articleId":192047,"title":"Great Grapes to Use for Your First Batch of Homemade Wine","slug":"great-grapes-to-use-for-your-first-batch-of-homemade-wine","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","beverages","wine"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/192047"}},{"articleId":192045,"title":"Keys to Wine Chemistry","slug":"keys-to-wine-chemistry","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","beverages","wine"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/192045"}}],"content":[{"title":"Terms every winemaker needs to know","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>As a home winemaker, you ferment grapes to produce your own wine. Along the way, you use some unique tools and techniques, as well as some words that have distinct meaning for winemakers. Brush up on your wine-speak with these essential terms:</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Brix:</b> Measure of sugar percentage by weight in a liquid — in this case, grape juice.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Carboy:</b> Narrow-mouthed glass or plastic jug used for fermenting and storing home wines for aging.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Crush:</b> Frenetic annual season when the grapes come in; also the specific process of cracking grape skins to liberate juice.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Fermentation:</b> Process by which yeast turns sugar into alcohol and grape juice into wine.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Fining:</b> Removing specific compounds — like excess tannins — from wine with a specialized <i>fining agent</i>.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Malolactic fermentation:</b> Optional process in which bacteria turn malic acid into lactic acid, softening wine.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Mouthfeel:</b> Texture of a wine in the mouth, different from aroma and flavor, but just as important.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Must:</b> Juice, with or without skins, pulp, and seeds, ready for fermentation.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>pH:</b> Balance of acidic and base properties in a liquid; on a 14-point scale, wine falls between 3.0 and 4.0.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Press:</b> Squeezing juice or wine out of grapes; also the machinery performs this task.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Racking:</b> Transferring wine from one container to another, leaving dead yeast and other detritus behind.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Stuck fermentation: </b>Problem arising when stressed yeast give up, leaving unfermented sugar and producing off odors — not a good thing.</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"Critical conversions for home winemaking","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>If you’re a home winemaker anywhere in the world, at some point you’ll probably need to convert metric measures to U.S. measures and vice versa. The following table shows some of the key conversions winemakers need:</p>\n<table>\n<tbody>\n<tr>\n<th>Quantity</th>\n<th>U.S. Measures</th>\n<th>Metric Measures</th>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Vineyard yield (premium grapes)</td>\n<td>3 to 5 U.S. tons per acre</td>\n<td>6 to 9 metric tons per hectare</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Grape weight to wine volume (commercial)</td>\n<td>1 U.S. ton = 175 gallons red, 160 gallons white</td>\n<td>1 metric ton = 730 liters red, 667 liters white</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Grapes weight to wine volume (home)</td>\n<td>100 pounds = 7 gallons red, 6 gallons white<br />\n1 U.S. ton = 140 gallons red, 120 gallons white</td>\n<td>100 kilograms (kg) = 58 liters red, 50 liters white<br />\n1 metric ton = 583 liters red, 500 liters white</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Liquid to bottles (750-milliliter bottles)</td>\n<td>1 gallon = 5.1 bottles</td>\n<td>1 liter = 1.33 bottles</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Cases per ton (commercial)</td>\n<td>1 U.S. ton = 75 cases red</td>\n<td>1 metric ton = 83 cases red</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Grapes per bottle (home)</td>\n<td>2.8 pounds of red grapes per 750-ml bottle</td>\n<td>1.27 kilograms of red grapes per 750-ml bottle</td>\n</tr>\n</tbody>\n</table>\n"},{"title":"Ideal temperatures for home winemaking","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Good home winemaking involves careful temperature control — your wine wants to be warm sometimes (and generates a bit of heat itself during fermentation), but then things need to cool down, especially for storage. The following table shows some key temperature targets for making and storing wine in Fahrenheit (F) and Celsius (C):</p>\n<table>\n<tbody>\n<tr>\n<th>º F</th>\n<th>Wine checkpoint</th>\n<th>º C</th>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>60º</td>\n<td>Cool white ferment should be under</td>\n<td>16º</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>85º</td>\n<td>Peak red ferment should reach at least</td>\n<td>29º</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>40º</td>\n<td>Home cold stabilization should be under</td>\n<td>4º</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>55º</td>\n<td>Standard for long-term bottle storage</td>\n<td>13º</td>\n</tr>\n</tbody>\n</table>\n"},{"title":"Four laws of home winemaking","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Winemaking is too much of an art to have real laws, like the laws of physics, but home winemakers are well advised to keep these four principles in mind at all times:</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Useful obsessions:</b> You cannot worry too much about sanitation, temperature, and oxygen.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Buckets:</b> You cannot possibly have too many buckets available in your winery.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Blending:</b> This technique is the home winemaker’s best friend.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Quantity:</b> You cannot make great wine in quantities small enough to drink by yourself.</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"Great grapes to use for your first batch of homemade wine","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>As a first-time winemaker, you want to set yourself up for success from the start. The grapes in the following table give you a great shot at overcoming beginner’s jitters over style, taste, and technique:</p>\n<table>\n<tbody>\n<tr>\n<th>Reds</th>\n<th>Whites:</th>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Zinfandel: The All-American red (originally from Croatia), full<br />\nof fruit and spice, good in every style from rosé to<br />\nblockbuster.</td>\n<td>Sauvignon Blanc: The best odds of making white wine with real<br />\ncharacter the first time out.</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Merlot: Always drinkable; most of the charms of Cabernet<br />\nSauvignon, with a bigger margin of error on your first try.</td>\n<td>Chardonnay: Available everywhere, popular as they come, and<br />\nperfectly delightful in a minimal, home style.</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Syrah: Full of fruit, easy to work with, a great blender.</td>\n<td>Riesling: The queen of aromatic whites, versatile with food,<br />\ndelicious dry, off-dry, and sticky-sweet.</td>\n</tr>\n</tbody>\n</table>\n"},{"title":"Keys to wine chemistry","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>As a home winemaker, you need to know certain properties of your grapes and wine, whether you ever took a chemistry class or not. The following list offers the key chemical components and how to measure them:</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Acidity:</b> The key to how refreshing your wine is in the glass, and the way to control problem pH is in acidity. Test kits let you measure total juice and wine acidity and some of its major components.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>pH:</b> The balance of electrical charges in a solution, pH influences nearly every biochemical reaction in wine. Hand-held pH meters are extremely useful and not that expensive.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Sugar:</b> You need to know how much of it is in your grapes, and whether any of it is still left after your wine has fermented. Refractometers use light to calculate sugar levels in the vineyard; glass and plastic hydrometers aid testing during fermentation; and kits with special tablets check to see if a wine is fully dry.</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n"}],"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Explore","lifeExpectancy":"Five years","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2023-03-17T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":208949},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2017-03-27T16:51:13+00:00","modifiedTime":"2023-03-14T15:41:37+00:00","timestamp":"2023-09-14T18:19:24+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Home, Auto, & Hobbies","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33809"},"slug":"home-auto-hobbies","categoryId":33809},{"name":"Food & Drink","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33839"},"slug":"food-drink","categoryId":33839},{"name":"Beverages","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33840"},"slug":"beverages","categoryId":33840},{"name":"Wine","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33841"},"slug":"wine","categoryId":33841}],"title":"Pairing Food & Wine For Dummies Cheat Sheet","strippedTitle":"pairing food & wine for dummies cheat sheet","slug":"pairing-food-wine-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","canonicalUrl":"","归类传奇座舱简化":{"metaDescription":"Short guide to tried-and-tested wine and cheese pairings for red, white, sparkling and all kinds of wines.","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"Food and wine pairing isn’t a matter of life or death. But isn’t life a little better with a good taste in your mouth? Starting with wine you like (and food you enjoy, too) is ground zero. All the other delicious considerations that lead to outstanding moments of tasting pleasure come after. To make your food and wine pairing memorable, start with a versatile wine — one that agrees with a wide range of foods — and things won’t go far wrong. Then consider a handful of taste, texture, and aromatic elements, and you may just find some magic.","description":"Food and wine pairing isn’t a matter of life or death. But isn’t life a little better with a good taste in your mouth? Starting with wine you like (and food you enjoy, too) is ground zero. All the other delicious considerations that lead to outstanding moments of tasting pleasure come after. To make your food and wine pairing memorable, start with a versatile wine — one that agrees with a wide range of foods — and things won’t go far wrong. Then consider a handful of taste, texture, and aromatic elements, and you may just find some magic.","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":9880,"name":"John Szabo","slug":"john-szabo","description":" <p><b>John Szabo</b> is the original Canadian Master Sommelier, adding the credentials in 2004, and one of only 200 worldwide. He writes for WineAlign.com, NationalPost.com, TorontoStandard.com, <i>Wine Access Magazine, Maclean's Magazine</i> and <i>Grapevine Magazine, </i>and is wine editor for <i>CityBites Magazine</i>. John is also consulting wine director for the Trump Tower Toronto and Pearson International Airport.</p>","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9880"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33841,"title":"Wine","slug":"wine","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33841"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":259776,"title":"How to Read a Wine Label","slug":"how-to-read-a-wine-label","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","beverages","wine"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/259776"}},{"articleId":259773,"title":"Wine Quality: How to Judge Good or Bad Wines","slug":"wine-quality-how-to-judge-good-or-bad-wines","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","beverages","wine"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/259773"}},{"articleId":259770,"title":"How to Describe a Wine's Taste","slug":"how-to-describe-a-wines-taste","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","beverages","wine"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/259770"}},{"articleId":259762,"title":"The Special Technique for Tasting Wine","slug":"the-special-technique-for-tasting-wine","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","beverages","wine"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/259762"}},{"articleId":259759,"title":"The Differences between Red and White Wines","slug":"the-differences-between-red-and-white-wines","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","beverages","wine"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/259759"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":0,"slug":null,"isbn":null,"categoryList":null,"amazon":null,"image":null,"title":null,"testBankPinActivationLink":null,"bookOutOfPrint":false,"authorsInfo":null,"authors":null,"_links":null},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;home-auto-hobbies&quot;,&quot;food-drink&quot;,&quot;beverages&quot;,&quot;wine&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[null]}]\" id=\"du-slot-63221b2cd13e8\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;home-auto-hobbies&quot;,&quot;food-drink&quot;,&quot;beverages&quot;,&quot;wine&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[null]}]\" id=\"du-slot-63221b2cd1e40\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Cheat Sheet","articleList":[{"articleId":173268,"title":"Pairing Food and Wine 101","slug":"pairing-food-and-wine-101","categoryList":[],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/173268"}},{"articleId":173221,"title":"Considering Versatile White Wines and Bubbly","slug":"considering-versatile-white-wines-and-bubbly","categoryList":[],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/173221"}},{"articleId":173219,"title":"Pairing Food with Versatile Red and Pink Wines","slug":"pairing-food-with-versatile-red-and-pink-wines","categoryList":[],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/173219"}},{"articleId":173220,"title":"Dealing with Spice When You Pair Wine and Food","slug":"dealing-with-spice-when-you-pair-wine-and-food","categoryList":[],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/173220"}},{"articleId":173218,"title":"Serving Wine and Cheese: What Works Well","slug":"serving-wine-and-cheese-what-works-well","categoryList":[],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/173218"}}],"content":[{"title":"Pairing food and wine 101","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Although personal preference is an overriding factor when it comes to enjoying food and wine together, most people can agree on the outcome, positive or negative, of a few basic taste interactions. The following points lay out some of these basic ground rules for happy food and wine relations, which work toward highlighting the positive sides of either the food or wine, or both, and downplaying the negative aspects. Follow these suggestions and you’ll be a little closer to food and wine harmony.</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Match weight with weight.</b> Serve dry, light-bodied, low alcohol wines with light dishes (raw/fresh, crunchy, low fat, and high acid). Serve full-bodied, ripe, high alcohol, creamy-textured wines with heavy foods (including foods that contain a lot of dairy or animal fat, protein, rich sauces, and so on).</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Serve high acid wines with high acid foods.</b> For example, serve a dry Riesling, tart Sauvignon Blanc, or zesty Sangiovese with salads dressed with vinaigrette, goat’s cheese, tomato-based dishes, and such.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Avoid tannic wines with fatty/oily fish.</b> For example, avoid a big, chewy Cabernet Sauvignon or Malbec with mackerel, black cod, salmon, or any other fish rich in Omega-3 fatty acids.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Soften tannic wines with salty, fatty, protein-rich foods. </b>Tannic wines are astringent and mouth-puckering, so a protein-rich food, such as well marbled beef properly seasoned with salt softens the astringency sensation.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Serve salty foods with high acid wines.</b> For example, serve Gamay (such as Beaujolais) or Barbera from Northern Italy with cured meats, or Italian Pinot Grigio with anything containing soy sauce.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Serve off-dry or sweet wines with slightly sweet or sweet foods.</b> Remember: The wine should always be as sweet or sweeter than what’s on the plate.</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"Considering versatile white wines and bubbly","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Serve any of these crisp, dry whites with just about any food, and you can avoid natural taste disasters. These versatile white wines (and Champagne) are also great when the meal includes multiple dishes on the table at the same time. Note that the regions or appellations and countries listed in brackets next to the grape are the archetypes, but not the only source of these versatile wines.</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Unoaked Chardonnay (Chablis, France)</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Sauvignon Blanc (Sancerre, France)</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Muscadet (Loire Valley, France)</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Pinot Gris (also known as Pinot Grigio) (Alsace, France and Northern Italy)</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Grüner Veltliner (Austria)</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Albariño (Rias Baixas, Spain, Vinho Verde, Portugal)</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Riesling (Germany; international)</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Chenin Blanc (Loire Valley, South Africa)</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Semillon (Hunter Valley, Australia)</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Champagne (France; as well as most sparkling wine)</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"Pairing food with versatile red and pink wines","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>When you’re not sure what wine to serve, look to one of these zesty, not too oaky, low tannin (not overly mouth-puckering) reds or anything similar in style. Remember that the more expensive the wine, the more distinctive it will be (or should be), but also the less food-versatile it will be. Inexpensive reds are generally more easy-going. The countries, regions, or appellations shown are where to find the original archetypes of the style, but not the only source.</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Pinot Noir (basic Bourgogne Rouge, France)</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Gamay (Beaujolais, France)</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Barbera (Barbera d’Asti, Italy)</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Sangiovese (basic Chianti, Italy)</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Valpolicella (blend; Italy)</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Grenache (Côtes du Rhône, France)</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Cabernet Franc (Chinon or Bourgeuil, France)</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Merlot (soft and fruity, new world–style, such as Central Valley, Chile)</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Tempranillo (Ribera del Duero or Rioja, Spain)</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Dry Rosé (blend; Côtes de Provence, France)</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"Dealing with spice when you pair wine and food","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Really spicy foods can ruin the enjoyment of wine (or anything else you drink alongside), but mildly spicy foods can be paired effectively. When your dishes include a lot of spice, follow these tips to ensure you find a pairing that works:</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Choose low-moderate alcohol, off-dry or sweet wines.</b> These wines lessen the burn.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Serve wines (even red wines) chilled.</b> Cool liquids provide some temporary temperature relief.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Select ripe, fruity, higher alcohol wines that have the body and implicitly sweet fruit flavor to handle spice.</b> Because <i>capsaicin</i>, the compound responsible for the burn in chiles, is soluble in alcohol, choose wines up to 14 percent alcohol. Wines with alcohol higher than 14 percent increase the burn, however.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Avoid really oaky, tannic wines.</b> Spice exaggerates oaky flavors, and tannins become more astringent and mouth-drying, neither of which are positive changes.</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"Serving wine and cheese: What works well","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Far from foolproof, cheese can be tough on wine. And contrary to popular belief, whites often fair better than reds. For your next wine and cheese party, try serving the following combinations for a tasty evening:</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Goat’s cheese with light, crisp, dry whites such as Sauvignon Blanc</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Bloomy rind cheese with soft, wood-aged whites, such as barrel-fermented Chardonnay</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Washed rind cheeses with full-bodied, aromatic, fruity (spicy), round whites, such as Gewürztraminer</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Hard cheeses with full-bodied, robust reds, such as Amarone della Valpolicella</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Blue-veined cheeses with sweet, late harvest or fortified wines, such as Icewine or Port</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n"}],"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Explore","lifeExpectancy":"Five 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