chơi xổ số keno trực tuyến

{"appState":{"pageLoadApiCallsStatus":true},"categoryState":{"relatedCategories":{"headers":{"timestamp":"2025-01-31T04:01:08+00:00"},"categoryId":33686,"data":{"title":"Humanities","slug":"humanities","image":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Academics & The Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"Humanities","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33686"},"slug":"humanities","categoryId":33686}],"parentCategory":{"categoryId":33662,"title":"Academics & The Arts","slug":"academics-the-arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"}},"childCategories":[],"description":"Delve into sociology, urban planning, anthropology, and other fields that explore how humans create culture.","relatedArticles":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles?category=33686&offset=0&size=5"},"hasArticle":true,"hasBook":true,"articleCount":20,"bookCount":2},"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33686"}},"relatedCategoriesLoadedStatus":"success"},"listState":{"list":{"count":10,"total":20,"items":[{"headers":{"creationTime":"2022-06-09T15:44:43+00:00","modifiedTime":"2023-09-01T17:59:40+00:00","timestamp":"2023-09-14T18:20:00+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Academics & The Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"Humanities","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33686"},"slug":"humanities","categoryId":33686}],"title":"What Your Society Says About You","strippedTitle":"what your society says about you","slug":"what-your-society-says-about-you","canonicalUrl":"","搜模块调优":{"metaDescription":"Whether you like it or not, you are part of your society, and your actions and beliefs are part of what defines that society.","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"If you don’t understand your society, you can’t truly understand yourself. That's one reason it's worthwhile to study sociology.\r\n\r\nYou are part of your society, and your actions and beliefs are part of what defines that society. Your actions, in a thousand small ways, help shape your society, and your beliefs both influence and are influenced by your society’s norms and values.\r\n\r\n[caption id=\"attachment_285835\" align=\"alignnone\" width=\"416\"]<img class=\"wp-image-285835 size-full\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/sociology-you-society-high-res.jpg\" alt=\"clusters of people in a society\" width=\"416\" height=\"416\" /> © maximmmmum / Shutterstock.com[/caption]\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" >Aggregate facts</h2>\r\nWhen they talk about societies, sociologists like to talk about “aggregate facts.” In <a href=\"//coursofppt.com/education/science/sociology-for-dummies-cheat-sheet/\">sociology</a>, an aggregate fact is an overall description of what a large number of people are doing. An <em>aggregate trend</em> describes how an aggregate fact is changing over time.\r\n\r\nThe following aggregate facts are true of many societies in the world today. And they may be true of yours:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Marriages:</strong> About half of all marriages end in divorce.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Jobs:</strong> People typically hold several different jobs over the course of their working lives.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Musical Tastes:</strong> Most people don’t listen to classical music.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\nKnowing these facts about your society, however, tells me nothing about you as an individual. It doesn’t tell me about your personal history or the choices you personally will make in life. Those social facts don’t describe your life — but they do affect it! For better and for worse, those aggregate facts about your society heavily influence your own life, and make it different from what it would be if you lived in a different society.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab2\" >How society shapes your views</h2>\r\nTo understand how facts about society in general can affect your own personal life, think about these points:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Marriage:</strong> When you decide to marry someone, you do that with the understanding that, in your society, marriage is very often impermanent. That doesn’t mean you, as an individual, take marriage lightly. But it does mean that if the going gets rough and you or your partner decide to bail, you will be in the company of many friends and colleagues who have also experienced divorce. Consciously or unconsciously, that fact will affect the decisions you and your spouse make as your relationship progresses.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Job:</strong> Similarly, when you take a job, you can’t — and shouldn’t — expect that it will be permanent. It may be, but that would not be the norm. You can expect to have other job opportunities in the future, which would be very unusual for you to never take. This means that you probably won’t look for a job that will last a lifetime — you’ll look for a job that will serve you well over the next few years.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Music:</strong> You can listen to whatever music you want, but if you choose to listen to Beethoven or Mozart, you won’t be able to chat about it with most of the people around you — unless you happen to be a member of an orchestra. Everywhere from TV shows to dentists’ offices to nightclubs, you’re much more likely to hear pop, rock, or R&B than classical music. If you often listen to classical music, you are unusual, and that fact may cause people to make certain assumptions about your background and personality. For this reason, you may choose not to listen to classical music or to listen to it only in private. On the other hand, you may very deliberately and openly listen to classical music. Whether you’re blasting Beethoven or bumping trap music, you probably have a good understanding of how that will be perceived by people around you.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<h2 id=\"tab3\" >Structural norms, cultural norms</h2>\r\nSome of the societal pressures we all face are clear and rigid; these fall under the heading of what sociologists call “structure.\" Other pressures are looser and murkier; these fall into the category of \"culture.\" All along that continuum from structure to culture, there are norms and values that shape your life—the rules that people in your society play by.\r\n\r\nAt the structure end of the continuum, the rules are hard and fast, relating to your economic system and the laws of the land. Laws are social norms that are seen as being so important that they’re written down and made formal; if you break the law, you can be punished—with punishments ranging from a small fine to a death sentence. For example, you can’t just:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>Make up your own currency and expect it to buy you anything at the store.</li>\r\n \t<li>Give yourself a job or expect anyone else to give you one if they don’t have one to give.</li>\r\n \t<li>Break an enforceable law without risk of punishment.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\nAt the culture end of the continuum are norms and values that are probably not written into law, but that are nonetheless real. For example:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>Current fashions and styles, such as whether it’s acceptable to wear socks with sandals</li>\r\n \t<li>Religious principles and rituals, such as bat mitzvahs and baptisms</li>\r\n \t<li>Social traditions, such as freely giving candy to trick-or-treaters on Halloween in the United States</li>\r\n</ul>\r\nYou don’t <em>have </em>to follow any of these social norms. But if you don’t, people around you may find your behavior confusing or even rude. You won't go to jail, but there may be other consequences.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab4\" >No one person makes or breaks a norm</h2>\r\nWhether they are structural or cultural, these limits may seem unfair — you didn’t <em>make </em>any of these rules. In fact, no single person did. Economic realities are beyond the control of even the largest companies; laws may be proposed by specific legislators but normally must meet with broad approval to be passed; and fashion trends may be started by popular people, but even celebrities with millions of Instagram followers can’t easily change the styles of clothes people buy.\r\n\r\nNo individual person makes social norms, but every single person helps perpetuate and enforce them. How? Simply by following them and by noticing when other people don’t. You can try to buck the trend, but you’ll almost certainly face resistance. Who you are, in part, is determined by the norms of the society you live in.","description":"If you don’t understand your society, you can’t truly understand yourself. That's one reason it's worthwhile to study sociology.\r\n\r\nYou are part of your society, and your actions and beliefs are part of what defines that society. Your actions, in a thousand small ways, help shape your society, and your beliefs both influence and are influenced by your society’s norms and values.\r\n\r\n[caption id=\"attachment_285835\" align=\"alignnone\" width=\"416\"]<img class=\"wp-image-285835 size-full\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/sociology-you-society-high-res.jpg\" alt=\"clusters of people in a society\" width=\"416\" height=\"416\" /> © maximmmmum / Shutterstock.com[/caption]\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" >Aggregate facts</h2>\r\nWhen they talk about societies, sociologists like to talk about “aggregate facts.” In <a href=\"//coursofppt.com/education/science/sociology-for-dummies-cheat-sheet/\">sociology</a>, an aggregate fact is an overall description of what a large number of people are doing. An <em>aggregate trend</em> describes how an aggregate fact is changing over time.\r\n\r\nThe following aggregate facts are true of many societies in the world today. And they may be true of yours:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Marriages:</strong> About half of all marriages end in divorce.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Jobs:</strong> People typically hold several different jobs over the course of their working lives.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Musical Tastes:</strong> Most people don’t listen to classical music.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\nKnowing these facts about your society, however, tells me nothing about you as an individual. It doesn’t tell me about your personal history or the choices you personally will make in life. Those social facts don’t describe your life — but they do affect it! For better and for worse, those aggregate facts about your society heavily influence your own life, and make it different from what it would be if you lived in a different society.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab2\" >How society shapes your views</h2>\r\nTo understand how facts about society in general can affect your own personal life, think about these points:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Marriage:</strong> When you decide to marry someone, you do that with the understanding that, in your society, marriage is very often impermanent. That doesn’t mean you, as an individual, take marriage lightly. But it does mean that if the going gets rough and you or your partner decide to bail, you will be in the company of many friends and colleagues who have also experienced divorce. Consciously or unconsciously, that fact will affect the decisions you and your spouse make as your relationship progresses.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Job:</strong> Similarly, when you take a job, you can’t — and shouldn’t — expect that it will be permanent. It may be, but that would not be the norm. You can expect to have other job opportunities in the future, which would be very unusual for you to never take. This means that you probably won’t look for a job that will last a lifetime — you’ll look for a job that will serve you well over the next few years.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Music:</strong> You can listen to whatever music you want, but if you choose to listen to Beethoven or Mozart, you won’t be able to chat about it with most of the people around you — unless you happen to be a member of an orchestra. Everywhere from TV shows to dentists’ offices to nightclubs, you’re much more likely to hear pop, rock, or R&B than classical music. If you often listen to classical music, you are unusual, and that fact may cause people to make certain assumptions about your background and personality. For this reason, you may choose not to listen to classical music or to listen to it only in private. On the other hand, you may very deliberately and openly listen to classical music. Whether you’re blasting Beethoven or bumping trap music, you probably have a good understanding of how that will be perceived by people around you.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<h2 id=\"tab3\" >Structural norms, cultural norms</h2>\r\nSome of the societal pressures we all face are clear and rigid; these fall under the heading of what sociologists call “structure.\" Other pressures are looser and murkier; these fall into the category of \"culture.\" All along that continuum from structure to culture, there are norms and values that shape your life—the rules that people in your society play by.\r\n\r\nAt the structure end of the continuum, the rules are hard and fast, relating to your economic system and the laws of the land. Laws are social norms that are seen as being so important that they’re written down and made formal; if you break the law, you can be punished—with punishments ranging from a small fine to a death sentence. For example, you can’t just:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>Make up your own currency and expect it to buy you anything at the store.</li>\r\n \t<li>Give yourself a job or expect anyone else to give you one if they don’t have one to give.</li>\r\n \t<li>Break an enforceable law without risk of punishment.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\nAt the culture end of the continuum are norms and values that are probably not written into law, but that are nonetheless real. For example:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>Current fashions and styles, such as whether it’s acceptable to wear socks with sandals</li>\r\n \t<li>Religious principles and rituals, such as bat mitzvahs and baptisms</li>\r\n \t<li>Social traditions, such as freely giving candy to trick-or-treaters on Halloween in the United States</li>\r\n</ul>\r\nYou don’t <em>have </em>to follow any of these social norms. But if you don’t, people around you may find your behavior confusing or even rude. You won't go to jail, but there may be other consequences.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab4\" >No one person makes or breaks a norm</h2>\r\nWhether they are structural or cultural, these limits may seem unfair — you didn’t <em>make </em>any of these rules. In fact, no single person did. Economic realities are beyond the control of even the largest companies; laws may be proposed by specific legislators but normally must meet with broad approval to be passed; and fashion trends may be started by popular people, but even celebrities with millions of Instagram followers can’t easily change the styles of clothes people buy.\r\n\r\nNo individual person makes social norms, but every single person helps perpetuate and enforce them. How? Simply by following them and by noticing when other people don’t. You can try to buck the trend, but you’ll almost certainly face resistance. Who you are, in part, is determined by the norms of the society you live in.","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":10405,"name":"Jay Gabler","slug":"jay-gabler","description":" <p><b>Jay Gabler, PhD</b> is a writer and editor living in Minneapolis. He has authored or coauthored several books and sociological research studies, including Reconstructing the University. He works as a digital producer at The Current (a service of Minnesota Public Radio) and holds three graduate degrees from Harvard University.</p> ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/10405"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33686,"title":"Humanities","slug":"humanities","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33686"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[{"label":"Aggregate facts","target":"#tab1"},{"label":"How society shapes your views","target":"#tab2"},{"label":"Structural norms, cultural norms","target":"#tab3"},{"label":"No one person makes or breaks a norm","target":"#tab4"}],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[{"articleId":284802,"title":"BIPOC—Complexities of Life in Color","slug":"bipoc-complexities-of-life-in-color","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/284802"}},{"articleId":209101,"title":"Sociology For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"sociology-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/209101"}},{"articleId":193079,"title":"The Power Trio of Sociology","slug":"the-power-trio-of-sociology","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/193079"}},{"articleId":193078,"title":"Types of Sociological Analysis","slug":"types-of-sociological-analysis","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/193078"}},{"articleId":193074,"title":"Common Misconceptions about Society","slug":"common-misconceptions-about-society","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/193074"}}],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":284802,"title":"BIPOC—Complexities of Life in Color","slug":"bipoc-complexities-of-life-in-color","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/284802"}},{"articleId":209101,"title":"Sociology For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"sociology-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/209101"}},{"articleId":209010,"title":"Anthropology For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"anthropology-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/209010"}},{"articleId":207753,"title":"Archaeology For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"archaeology-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/207753"}},{"articleId":207496,"title":"Critical Thinking Skills For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"critical-thinking-skills-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/207496"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":282588,"slug":"sociology-for-dummies-2","isbn":"9781119772811","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"amazon":{"default":"//www.amazon.com/gp/product/1119772818/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","ca":"//www.amazon.ca/gp/product/1119772818/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","indigo_ca":"//www.tkqlhce.com/click-9208661-13710633?url=//www.chapters.indigo.ca/en-ca/books/product/1119772818-item.html&cjsku=978111945484","gb":"//www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/1119772818/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","de":"//www.amazon.de/gp/product/1119772818/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20"},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/sociology-for-dumies-2nd-edition-cover-9781119772811-203x255.jpg","width":203,"height":255},"title":"Sociology For Dummies","testBankPinActivationLink":"","bookOutOfPrint":true,"authorsInfo":"<p><b><b data-author-id=\"10405\">Jay Gabler</b>, PhD</b> is a writer and editor living in Minneapolis. He has authored or coauthored several books and sociological research studies, including Reconstructing the University. He works as a digital producer at The Current (a service of Minnesota Public Radio) and holds three graduate degrees from Harvard University.</p>","authors":[{"authorId":10405,"name":"Jay Gabler","slug":"jay-gabler","description":" <p><b>Jay Gabler, PhD</b> is a writer and editor living in Minneapolis. He has authored or coauthored several books and sociological research studies, including Reconstructing the University. He works as a digital producer at The Current (a service of Minnesota Public Radio) and holds three graduate degrees from Harvard University.</p> ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/10405"}}],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/books/"}},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;humanities&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781119772811&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-63221b508eafe\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;humanities&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781119772811&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-63221b508fd06\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Articles","articleList":null,"content":null,"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Advance","lifeExpectancy":"Two years","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2022-06-09T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":284787},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2022-06-09T16:28:07+00:00","modifiedTime":"2023-09-01T17:59:13+00:00","timestamp":"2023-09-14T18:20:00+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Academics & The Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"Humanities","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33686"},"slug":"humanities","categoryId":33686}],"title":"BIPOC—Complexities of Life in Color","strippedTitle":"bipoc—complexities of life in color","slug":"bipoc-complexities-of-life-in-color","canonicalUrl":"","搜模块调优":{"metaDescription":"Explore distinctions among terms like BIPOC (Black, Indigenous, and People of Color), racial intersectionality, and colorism.","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"The acronym <em>BIPOC</em> has come into common use recently; it stands for <em>Black, Indigenous, and People of Color.</em> The term became widely adopted amid the discussions sparked by the death of George Floyd in 2020, as people confronted the reality that different groups have different experiences.\r\n\r\n[caption id=\"attachment_284803\" align=\"alignnone\" width=\"556\"]<img class=\"size-full wp-image-284803\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/sociology-bipoc.jpg\" alt=\"BIPOC, Black Indigenous People Of Color\" width=\"556\" height=\"365\" /> © Dmitry Demidovich / Shutterstock.com[/caption]\r\n\r\nIt’s an evolving effort. “The whole point is that we want to take up space,” writer Sylvia Obell, who doesn’t care for the acronym, told the <em>New York Times </em>(Sandra E. Garcia, “Where Did BIPOC Come From?”, 2020). “Take the time to say black, Latinx and Asian. Say our names. Take the time to learn. Show me that you know the difference.”\r\n\r\nThis is a rich and important vein of <a href=\"//coursofppt.com/education/science/sociology-for-dummies-cheat-sheet/\">sociological research</a>; here are just two ways in which people’s lived realities involve variables that go well beyond anything you could check on a census form.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" >Intersectionality</h2>\r\nHave you sent a mouth swab in for genetic testing, or do you know someone who has? People are often surprised by just how varied their genetic makeup is, testament to how the human family tree has always crossed branches. In a world that sorts people into racial and ethnic boxes, though, people at the intersections of different groups are forced to navigate challenging landscapes. Many multiracial people have stories of being baldly asked, “What <em>are</em> you?”\r\n\r\nElizabeth Hordge-Freeman and Edlin Veras (<em>Sociology of Race and Ethnicity</em>, 2019) point out that nearly a quarter of Hispanics in America identify as Afro-Latinx, tracing heritage to both Africa and to Latin America. Talking to people in this group, the sociologists found widespread reports of what they called <em>ethnoracial dissonance</em>. In other words, many Afro-Latinx Americans simply don’t feel like they fit into the racial and ethnic groups recognized by the people around them. In some cases, that even included their own families; one woman said that her relatives coached her to downplay her Black features by straightening her hair.\r\n\r\n“To be Afro-Latine in America,” said one research subject, “is to feel like you don’t fit in anywhere. You’re not Black enough, you’re not Puerto Rican enough. To be Afro-Latine is to be salsa and hip-hop, bachata and reggae, rice and beans and collard greens, papito and homeboy. Afro-Latine is important because we exist.”\r\n\r\nThe term <em>intersectionality</em>, in reference to overlapping aspects of social identity that can lead to distinct experiences of oppression (such as African, Latinx, and female), was coined in 1989 by Kimberlé Williams Crenshaw, a Black feminist scholar.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab2\" >Colorism</h2>\r\nDiscrimination based on skin color, referred to as <em>colorism</em>, is experienced by people around the world. Angela R. Dixon and Edward E. Telles (writing in the <em>Annual Review of Sociology</em>, 2017) identify colorism as “a globalized preference for whiteness and/or lightness.” That can lead to discrimination against darker-skinned individuals by people both outside and within what any given society defines as a “race.”\r\n<p class=\"article-tips tech\">That there’s even a distinction between <em>colorism</em> and <em>racism</em> is another example of the degree to which race is a social construct. In the United States, a biased preference for lighter-skinned individuals within, say, the Black community is called “colorism.” Meanwhile, “racism” means discrimination against the entire Black community. In Latin America, on the other hand, concepts of “race” are less prevalent, and what someone from the United States might call colorism is experienced as racism.</p>\r\nSociologists and historians have extensively studied colorism in the United States, which in Black American communities stretches back to the time of slavery, when lighter-skinned slaves (their fathers often being slave owners who committed rape) were given preferential treatment. Civil rights activists have fought colorism, concerned for its potential to divide communities that need to unite against white supremacy.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab3\" >A persistent disadvantage</h2>\r\nDespite some progress, colorism remains widespread; across races, researchers have found that lighter-skinned individuals fare better in areas including income, education, and occupational status. Irene V. Blair, Charles M. Judd, and Kristine M. Chapleau (<em>Psychological Science</em>, 2004) found that for crimes committed in Florida between 1998 and 2002, both Black and white convicts received harsher sentences when their facial features were more Afrocentric. The sale of products designed to lighten the skin, and cosmetic surgery to change racial features, is a multi-billion-dollar industry that spans continents from Asia to Africa to America.\r\n\r\nAs the world becomes increasingly multi-racial, sociologists expect that intersectionality and colorism will become increasingly important as lenses through which to understand discrimination, inequality, and identity.","description":"The acronym <em>BIPOC</em> has come into common use recently; it stands for <em>Black, Indigenous, and People of Color.</em> The term became widely adopted amid the discussions sparked by the death of George Floyd in 2020, as people confronted the reality that different groups have different experiences.\r\n\r\n[caption id=\"attachment_284803\" align=\"alignnone\" width=\"556\"]<img class=\"size-full wp-image-284803\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/sociology-bipoc.jpg\" alt=\"BIPOC, Black Indigenous People Of Color\" width=\"556\" height=\"365\" /> © Dmitry Demidovich / Shutterstock.com[/caption]\r\n\r\nIt’s an evolving effort. “The whole point is that we want to take up space,” writer Sylvia Obell, who doesn’t care for the acronym, told the <em>New York Times </em>(Sandra E. Garcia, “Where Did BIPOC Come From?”, 2020). “Take the time to say black, Latinx and Asian. Say our names. Take the time to learn. Show me that you know the difference.”\r\n\r\nThis is a rich and important vein of <a href=\"//coursofppt.com/education/science/sociology-for-dummies-cheat-sheet/\">sociological research</a>; here are just two ways in which people’s lived realities involve variables that go well beyond anything you could check on a census form.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" >Intersectionality</h2>\r\nHave you sent a mouth swab in for genetic testing, or do you know someone who has? People are often surprised by just how varied their genetic makeup is, testament to how the human family tree has always crossed branches. In a world that sorts people into racial and ethnic boxes, though, people at the intersections of different groups are forced to navigate challenging landscapes. Many multiracial people have stories of being baldly asked, “What <em>are</em> you?”\r\n\r\nElizabeth Hordge-Freeman and Edlin Veras (<em>Sociology of Race and Ethnicity</em>, 2019) point out that nearly a quarter of Hispanics in America identify as Afro-Latinx, tracing heritage to both Africa and to Latin America. Talking to people in this group, the sociologists found widespread reports of what they called <em>ethnoracial dissonance</em>. In other words, many Afro-Latinx Americans simply don’t feel like they fit into the racial and ethnic groups recognized by the people around them. In some cases, that even included their own families; one woman said that her relatives coached her to downplay her Black features by straightening her hair.\r\n\r\n“To be Afro-Latine in America,” said one research subject, “is to feel like you don’t fit in anywhere. You’re not Black enough, you’re not Puerto Rican enough. To be Afro-Latine is to be salsa and hip-hop, bachata and reggae, rice and beans and collard greens, papito and homeboy. Afro-Latine is important because we exist.”\r\n\r\nThe term <em>intersectionality</em>, in reference to overlapping aspects of social identity that can lead to distinct experiences of oppression (such as African, Latinx, and female), was coined in 1989 by Kimberlé Williams Crenshaw, a Black feminist scholar.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab2\" >Colorism</h2>\r\nDiscrimination based on skin color, referred to as <em>colorism</em>, is experienced by people around the world. Angela R. Dixon and Edward E. Telles (writing in the <em>Annual Review of Sociology</em>, 2017) identify colorism as “a globalized preference for whiteness and/or lightness.” That can lead to discrimination against darker-skinned individuals by people both outside and within what any given society defines as a “race.”\r\n<p class=\"article-tips tech\">That there’s even a distinction between <em>colorism</em> and <em>racism</em> is another example of the degree to which race is a social construct. In the United States, a biased preference for lighter-skinned individuals within, say, the Black community is called “colorism.” Meanwhile, “racism” means discrimination against the entire Black community. In Latin America, on the other hand, concepts of “race” are less prevalent, and what someone from the United States might call colorism is experienced as racism.</p>\r\nSociologists and historians have extensively studied colorism in the United States, which in Black American communities stretches back to the time of slavery, when lighter-skinned slaves (their fathers often being slave owners who committed rape) were given preferential treatment. Civil rights activists have fought colorism, concerned for its potential to divide communities that need to unite against white supremacy.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab3\" >A persistent disadvantage</h2>\r\nDespite some progress, colorism remains widespread; across races, researchers have found that lighter-skinned individuals fare better in areas including income, education, and occupational status. Irene V. Blair, Charles M. Judd, and Kristine M. Chapleau (<em>Psychological Science</em>, 2004) found that for crimes committed in Florida between 1998 and 2002, both Black and white convicts received harsher sentences when their facial features were more Afrocentric. The sale of products designed to lighten the skin, and cosmetic surgery to change racial features, is a multi-billion-dollar industry that spans continents from Asia to Africa to America.\r\n\r\nAs the world becomes increasingly multi-racial, sociologists expect that intersectionality and colorism will become increasingly important as lenses through which to understand discrimination, inequality, and identity.","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":10405,"name":"Jay Gabler","slug":"jay-gabler","description":" <p><b>Jay Gabler, PhD</b> is a writer and editor living in Minneapolis. He has authored or coauthored several books and sociological research studies, including Reconstructing the University. He works as a digital producer at The Current (a service of Minnesota Public Radio) and holds three graduate degrees from Harvard University.</p> ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/10405"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33686,"title":"Humanities","slug":"humanities","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33686"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[{"label":"Intersectionality","target":"#tab1"},{"label":"Colorism","target":"#tab2"},{"label":"A persistent disadvantage","target":"#tab3"}],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[{"articleId":284787,"title":"What Your Society Says About You","slug":"what-your-society-says-about-you","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/284787"}},{"articleId":209101,"title":"Sociology For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"sociology-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/209101"}},{"articleId":193079,"title":"The Power Trio of Sociology","slug":"the-power-trio-of-sociology","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/193079"}},{"articleId":193078,"title":"Types of Sociological Analysis","slug":"types-of-sociological-analysis","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/193078"}},{"articleId":193074,"title":"Common Misconceptions about Society","slug":"common-misconceptions-about-society","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/193074"}}],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":284787,"title":"What Your Society Says About You","slug":"what-your-society-says-about-you","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/284787"}},{"articleId":209101,"title":"Sociology For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"sociology-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/209101"}},{"articleId":209010,"title":"Anthropology For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"anthropology-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/209010"}},{"articleId":207753,"title":"Archaeology For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"archaeology-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/207753"}},{"articleId":207496,"title":"Critical Thinking Skills For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"critical-thinking-skills-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/207496"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":282588,"slug":"sociology-for-dummies-2","isbn":"9781119772811","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"amazon":{"default":"//www.amazon.com/gp/product/1119772818/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","ca":"//www.amazon.ca/gp/product/1119772818/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","indigo_ca":"//www.tkqlhce.com/click-9208661-13710633?url=//www.chapters.indigo.ca/en-ca/books/product/1119772818-item.html&cjsku=978111945484","gb":"//www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/1119772818/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","de":"//www.amazon.de/gp/product/1119772818/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20"},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/sociology-for-dumies-2nd-edition-cover-9781119772811-203x255.jpg","width":203,"height":255},"title":"Sociology For Dummies","testBankPinActivationLink":"","bookOutOfPrint":true,"authorsInfo":"<p><b><b data-author-id=\"10405\">Jay Gabler</b>, PhD</b> is a writer and editor living in Minneapolis. He has authored or coauthored several books and sociological research studies, including Reconstructing the University. He works as a digital producer at The Current (a service of Minnesota Public Radio) and holds three graduate degrees from Harvard University.</p>","authors":[{"authorId":10405,"name":"Jay Gabler","slug":"jay-gabler","description":" <p><b>Jay Gabler, PhD</b> is a writer and editor living in Minneapolis. He has authored or coauthored several books and sociological research studies, including Reconstructing the University. He works as a digital producer at The Current (a service of Minnesota Public Radio) and holds three graduate degrees from Harvard University.</p> ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/10405"}}],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/books/"}},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;humanities&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781119772811&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-63221b5077556\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;humanities&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781119772811&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-63221b5077b47\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Articles","articleList":null,"content":null,"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Advance","lifeExpectancy":"One year","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2022-06-09T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":284802},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2017-03-27T16:47:07+00:00","modifiedTime":"2023-02-18T19:42:01+00:00","timestamp":"2023-09-14T18:19:10+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Academics & The Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"Humanities","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33686"},"slug":"humanities","categoryId":33686}],"title":"Critical Thinking Skills For Dummies Cheat Sheet","strippedTitle":"critical thinking skills for dummies cheat sheet","slug":"critical-thinking-skills-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","canonicalUrl":"","搜模块调优":{"metaDescription":"Master the logic of arguments and methodologies as you read, write, speak, or listen with these critical thinking skills.","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"Have you ever felt you needed to hone your critical thinking skills, to enable you to master the logic of arguments and improve your critical skills as you read, write, speak, or listen? This Cheat Sheet is here to help.\r\n\r\n[caption id=\"attachment_288907\" align=\"alignnone\" width=\"630\"]<img class=\"wp-image-288907 size-full\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/people-looking-at-smartphones.jpg\" alt=\"People looking at smartphones\" width=\"630\" height=\"420\" /> © LinkedIn Sales Solutions / Unsplash.com[/caption]","description":"Have you ever felt you needed to hone your critical thinking skills, to enable you to master the logic of arguments and improve your critical skills as you read, write, speak, or listen? This Cheat Sheet is here to help.\r\n\r\n[caption id=\"attachment_288907\" align=\"alignnone\" width=\"630\"]<img class=\"wp-image-288907 size-full\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/people-looking-at-smartphones.jpg\" alt=\"People looking at smartphones\" width=\"630\" height=\"420\" /> © LinkedIn Sales Solutions / Unsplash.com[/caption]","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":9175,"name":"Martin Cohen","slug":"martin-cohen","description":" <p><b>Martin Cohen</b> is a philosopher, editor and reviewer. His first book, <i>101 Philosophy Problems</i>, has been published in a dozen languages and is now in its fourth edition. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9175"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33686,"title":"Humanities","slug":"humanities","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33686"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":284802,"title":"BIPOC—Complexities of Life in Color","slug":"bipoc-complexities-of-life-in-color","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/284802"}},{"articleId":284787,"title":"What Your Society Says About You","slug":"what-your-society-says-about-you","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/284787"}},{"articleId":209101,"title":"Sociology For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"sociology-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/209101"}},{"articleId":209010,"title":"Anthropology For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"anthropology-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/209010"}},{"articleId":207753,"title":"Archaeology For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"archaeology-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/207753"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":0,"slug":null,"isbn":null,"categoryList":null,"amazon":null,"image":null,"title":null,"testBankPinActivationLink":null,"bookOutOfPrint":false,"authorsInfo":null,"authors":null,"_links":null},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;humanities&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[null]}]\" id=\"du-slot-63221b1e0dd02\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;humanities&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[null]}]\" id=\"du-slot-63221b1e0e79e\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Cheat Sheet","articleList":[{"articleId":143193,"title":"The Ingredients of a Good Critical Thinker","slug":"the-ingredients-of-a-good-critical-thinker","categoryList":[],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/143193"}},{"articleId":143195,"title":"Critical Thinkers Check the Methodology","slug":"critical-thinkers-check-the-methodology","categoryList":[],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/143195"}},{"articleId":143192,"title":"Tackling the Question of Assertibility","slug":"tackling-the-question-of-assertibility","categoryList":[],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/143192"}},{"articleId":143194,"title":"How Critical Thinkers Understand Audiences","slug":"how-critical-thinkers-understand-audiences","categoryList":[],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/143194"}}],"content":[{"title":"The ingredients of a good critical thinker","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>A good critical thinker is composed of many ingredients. If you were building a critical thinker, à la Dr. Frankenstein, the following abilities and attributes would be needed:</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Tolerance:</b> Critical thinkers delight in hearing divergent views and enjoy a real debate.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Analytical skills:</b> Critical thinkers don’t accept just any kind of talking. They want properly constructed arguments that present reasons and draw sound conclusions.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Confidence:</b> Critical thinkers have to be a little bit confident to be able to examine views that others present — often people in authority.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Curiosity:</b> Critical thinkers need curiosity. It may have killed the cat, but curiosity is the essential ingredient for ideas and insights.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Truth-seeking:</b> Critical thinkers are on mission of &#8220;objective truth&#8221; — even if it turns out to undermine their own previously held convictions and long-cherished beliefs, and is flat against their self-interest.</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"Critical thinkers check the methodology","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>A key critical thinking skill is to be able to understand, and criticize, a writer’s methodology. When authors write books, conduct studies, or investigate a topic, they operate within a <i>research paradigm</i> (a theoretical framework) that affects how they view and investigate the subject. In formal academic studies, authors discuss the research paradigm upfront, and so that’s straightforward.</p>\n<p>But more often, they leave the nature of the chosen paradigm in the background – as a given. So, the critical reader has to make a specific effort to work it out — and consider how the choice may skew the information reported.</p>\n<p>Here are some useful questions to ask when looking at reports and research findings in the broad area of social science:</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Theoretical or empirical:</b> Is the text primarily concerned with ideas and theories or primarily based on observations and measurements? Most texts mix the two approaches, but critical readers need to identify which element should be the primary focus — even if the author seems confused!</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Nomothetic or idiographic:</b><i> </i>These grand terms originate from ancient Greek (<i>nomos</i> means law and <i>idios</i> means own or private) and refer to laws or rules that apply in general in contrast to ones that relate to individuals. Most social research is concerned with the <i>nomothetic</i> — the general case — because even when studying individuals, researchers usually hope to generalize the findings to everyone else. Always bear in mind the extent to which entirely valid observations about a particular case can safely be generalized.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Cause or correlation:</b> So many people mix up these terms that the error has its own special name — <i>cum hoc ergo propter hoc</i> (Latin for &#8220;with this, therefore because of this&#8221;). In other words, putting things together whose connection is unproven. Take a medical example. A recent study of over a million women with breast cancer checked how many were cured by operations to remove suspected cancerous cells. It found that two-thirds were still alive ten years later.</p>\n<p class=\"child-para\">It might seem natural to assume that the survival was due to the treatment, but the study also found that a control group of women given a mock operation (involving no removal of any cells) had an identical survival rate — plus greatly reduced risks or ill-effects from the procedures. Be aware that in experimental studies, there is a built-in bias exists to see causation even when, maybe, none exists.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Statistical answers or ideological hypotheses:</b> A lot of research is based on probabilities. But working them out is something that even experienced researchers get wrong — perhaps applying the wrong statistical procedure to their data and generally overestimating the significance of their findings. Statistics aren’t simple plain-as-a-pikestaff facts; they’re created, misunderstood, and manipulated, which is why politicians and businesses sometimes seize on them in order to present a partial picture.</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"Tackling the question of assertibility","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>How do critical thinkers separate out cranky views that aren’t supported by evidence from reasonable theories that maybe worth serious consideration? This problem is sometimes called <i>the assertibility question</i>, because you’re asking what evidence allows you to assert that the claim is true.</p>\n<p>Here’s a useful checklist for testing scientific theories:</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">How well does the idea fit with common sense? Is the idea nutty?</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Who proposed the idea, and does the person have a built-in bias towards it being true?</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Do proposers use statistics in an honest way? Do they back it up with references to other work that supports the approach?</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Does the idea explain too much — or too little — to be useful?</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">How open are the proponents of the idea about their methods and data?</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">How many <i>free parameters</i> exist? That is, how many artificially decided settings that constrain and affect the theory?</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"How critical thinkers understand audiences","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Critical thinkers evaluate the audience intended for all types of writing. The following are some general critical thinking approaches for particular types of writing aimed at specific audiences:</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Academic studies and report writing:</b><i> </i>A summary usually starts this kind of writing and the main body of the report usually follows a set pattern: a section outlining the problem, a section that explains what people have already said about it and the all-important research methods section. This latter section is where the author explains why they&#8217;ve chosen to go about exploring the issue, whatever it may be, in a certain way. The bulk of the report then concerns an account of &#8220;what was found out&#8221; using this method, and the final sections concern the conclusions being drawn from this research.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Journal articles:</b> These usually begin with a separate summary called the <i>synopsis</i> and the main body starts off by looking at the context of the issue and examining several possible positions, all taken with very detailed referencing. The final paragraph may well be called &#8220;conclusion,&#8221; and that’s what it is — drawing together the threads of what has been discussed earlier. The synopsis and the conclusion of many academic journal articles are very similar.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Magazine article:</b> This may well start with a little story, or a teasing question, which is followed by a discussion that gets more detailed as you read on — and may well end up with a surprise at the end!</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Newspaper article: </b>At least conventionally, these start off by stating all the key points in the first line. The second paragraph then expands on this opening, and the article itself consists of the same again in more detail. Newspaper articles don’t save the best bit until last, because for practical production reasons, the end of the article is the first bit cut if space is a bit tight. Old-school journalists used to be told always to structure stories the same way: to say <i>who, what, when, where, why, and how,</i> in that order.</p>\n<p class=\"child-para\">Don’t dismiss journalistic writing. It <i>is</i> structured, and it shares one important feature with academic writing – the search for impartiality.</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n<p>&#8220;What you see is news, what you know is background, what you feel is opinion,&#8221; as<i> </i>American journalist Lester Markel said.</p>\n"}],"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Explore","lifeExpectancy":"Two years","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2022-10-13T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":207496},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2017-03-27T16:56:36+00:00","modifiedTime":"2022-12-13T19:42:09+00:00","timestamp":"2023-09-14T18:18:53+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Academics & The Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"Humanities","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33686"},"slug":"humanities","categoryId":33686}],"title":"Sociology For Dummies Cheat Sheet","strippedTitle":"sociology for dummies cheat sheet","slug":"sociology-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","canonicalUrl":"","搜模块调优":{"metaDescription":"Learn about sociology, the study of society—of people interacting in groups, from small social circles to global society.","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"Sociology is the study of society — of people interacting in groups, from small social circles to global society. Sociologists gather information about the social world and systematically analyze that information to understand social phenomena including class, race, gender, culture, social networks, and historical change.\r\n\r\nMany sociologists are academics — trying to understand society simply for the sake of understanding — but many work in corporations, government departments, and nonprofit organizations trying to understand (and help to solve) specific social problems.\r\n\r\n[caption id=\"attachment_283122\" align=\"alignnone\" width=\"556\"]<img class=\"size-full wp-image-283122\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/sociology-concept.jpg\" alt=\"sociology\" width=\"556\" height=\"296\" /> © Boris15 / Shutterstock.com[/caption]","description":"Sociology is the study of society — of people interacting in groups, from small social circles to global society. Sociologists gather information about the social world and systematically analyze that information to understand social phenomena including class, race, gender, culture, social networks, and historical change.\r\n\r\nMany sociologists are academics — trying to understand society simply for the sake of understanding — but many work in corporations, government departments, and nonprofit organizations trying to understand (and help to solve) specific social problems.\r\n\r\n[caption id=\"attachment_283122\" align=\"alignnone\" width=\"556\"]<img class=\"size-full wp-image-283122\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/sociology-concept.jpg\" alt=\"sociology\" width=\"556\" height=\"296\" /> © Boris15 / Shutterstock.com[/caption]","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":10405,"name":"Jay Gabler","slug":"jay-gabler","description":" <p><b>Jay Gabler, PhD</b> is a writer and editor living in Minneapolis. He has authored or coauthored several books and sociological research studies, including Reconstructing the University. He works as a digital producer at The Current (a service of Minnesota Public Radio) and holds three graduate degrees from Harvard University.</p> ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/10405"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33686,"title":"Humanities","slug":"humanities","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33686"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[{"articleId":284802,"title":"BIPOC—Complexities of Life in Color","slug":"bipoc-complexities-of-life-in-color","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/284802"}},{"articleId":284787,"title":"What Your Society Says About You","slug":"what-your-society-says-about-you","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/284787"}},{"articleId":193079,"title":"The Power Trio of Sociology","slug":"the-power-trio-of-sociology","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/193079"}},{"articleId":193078,"title":"Types of Sociological Analysis","slug":"types-of-sociological-analysis","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/193078"}},{"articleId":193074,"title":"Common Misconceptions about Society","slug":"common-misconceptions-about-society","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/193074"}}],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":284802,"title":"BIPOC—Complexities of Life in Color","slug":"bipoc-complexities-of-life-in-color","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/284802"}},{"articleId":284787,"title":"What Your Society Says About You","slug":"what-your-society-says-about-you","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/284787"}},{"articleId":209010,"title":"Anthropology For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"anthropology-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/209010"}},{"articleId":207753,"title":"Archaeology For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"archaeology-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/207753"}},{"articleId":207496,"title":"Critical Thinking Skills For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"critical-thinking-skills-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/207496"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":282588,"slug":"sociology-for-dummies-2","isbn":"9781119772811","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"amazon":{"default":"//www.amazon.com/gp/product/1119772818/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","ca":"//www.amazon.ca/gp/product/1119772818/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","indigo_ca":"//www.tkqlhce.com/click-9208661-13710633?url=//www.chapters.indigo.ca/en-ca/books/product/1119772818-item.html&cjsku=978111945484","gb":"//www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/1119772818/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","de":"//www.amazon.de/gp/product/1119772818/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20"},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/sociology-for-dumies-2nd-edition-cover-9781119772811-203x255.jpg","width":203,"height":255},"title":"Sociology For Dummies","testBankPinActivationLink":"","bookOutOfPrint":true,"authorsInfo":"<p><b><b data-author-id=\"10405\">Jay Gabler</b>, PhD</b> is a writer and editor living in Minneapolis. He has authored or coauthored several books and sociological research studies, including Reconstructing the University. He works as a digital producer at The Current (a service of Minnesota Public Radio) and holds three graduate degrees from Harvard University.</p>","authors":[{"authorId":10405,"name":"Jay Gabler","slug":"jay-gabler","description":" <p><b>Jay Gabler, PhD</b> is a writer and editor living in Minneapolis. He has authored or coauthored several books and sociological research studies, including Reconstructing the University. He works as a digital producer at The Current (a service of Minnesota Public Radio) and holds three graduate degrees from Harvard University.</p> ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/10405"}}],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/books/"}},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;humanities&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781119772811&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-63221b0dcc807\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;humanities&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781119772811&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-63221b0dcd1aa\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Cheat Sheet","articleList":[{"articleId":193079,"title":"The Power Trio of Sociology","slug":"the-power-trio-of-sociology","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/193079"}},{"articleId":193078,"title":"Types of Sociological Analysis","slug":"types-of-sociological-analysis","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/193078"}},{"articleId":193049,"title":"Means of Social Inequality","slug":"means-of-social-inequality","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/193049"}},{"articleId":193050,"title":"Three Aspects of Social Organization","slug":"three-aspects-of-social-organization","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/193050"}},{"articleId":193074,"title":"Common Misconceptions about Society","slug":"common-misconceptions-about-society","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/193074"}}],"content":[{"title":"The power trio of sociology","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Karl Marx, Emile Durkheim, and Max Weber were the three most influential figures in the history of sociology. Their ideas about society are still discussed today, and you’re apt to hear their names in all branches of sociology. It’s important to know what they thought and said.</p>\n<h3><strong>Karl Marx (1818-1883)</strong></h3>\n<p style=\"padding-left: 40px;\">Karl Marx was a German philosopher who believed that material goods are at the root of the social world. According to Marx, social life is fundamentally about conflict over food, land, money, and other material goods. Marx believed that the ideal government would be a communist state where each person is given what they need, while contributing what they can.</p>\n<h3><strong>Émile Durkheim (1858-1917)</strong></h3>\n<p style=\"padding-left: 40px;\">Émile Durkheim was a French sociologist who helped establish sociology as a discipline by arguing that society had to be studied on its own terms — that understanding individual psychology was insufficient. Durkheim believed that societies are held together by shared values, which change over time as societies become bigger and more complex.</p>\n<h3><strong>Max Weber (1864-1920)</strong></h3>\n<p style=\"padding-left: 40px;\">Max Weber was a German sociologist who agreed with Marx that people often fight to protect their own interests, but he agreed with Durkheim that what people consider their interests often are determined by socialization and shared values. He believed society is becoming more rationalized and bureaucratic over time.</p>\n"},{"title":"Types of sociological analysis","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>There is no one correct way to look at society; to understand how society works, sociologists use a range of different approaches and techniques. These are five common approaches to sociological analysis, and in practice they often overlap:</p>\n<ul>\n<li><strong>Quantitative analysis</strong> is the study of society using numbers and statistics. For example, considering people’s income (a number of dollars, say) in light of their education (a grade level or a number of years).</li>\n<li><strong>Qualitative analysis</strong> is the study of society by getting to know people and situations in detail, and then describing them using words. As part of a qualitative analysis, sociologists might interview people about their experiences in the workplace and the labor market.</li>\n<li><strong>Macrosociological analysis </strong>is looking at the “big picture” of historical change over dozens or hundreds of years, such as the rise and fall of political systems or class hierarchies.</li>\n<li><strong>Microsociological analysis </strong>involves looking at the one-to-one interactions between individuals, such as how people negotiate social situations like job interviews or personal confrontations.</li>\n<li><strong>Network analysis </strong>means examining the patterns of social ties among people in a group, and assessing what those patterns mean for the group as a whole.</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"Means of social inequality","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>“All animals are equal, but some are more equal than others,” say the pigs in George Orwell’s <em>Animal Farm</em>. Social inequality is a core topic for sociologists, who think very carefully about the many ways that people in societies are divided. These are the most important means of social inequality, and they all interact with each other to determine individuals’ places in society:</p>\n<ul>\n<li><strong>Income and wealth:</strong> Some people have more money than others.</li>\n<li><strong>Occupation:</strong> People work at different kinds of jobs.</li>\n<li><strong>Innate ability:</strong> People are born with innate differences, from appearance to brainpower.</li>\n<li><strong>Motivation:</strong> For various reasons, some people try harder at certain tasks than others do.</li>\n<li><strong>Connections:</strong> People have different — and differently sized — social circles.</li>\n<li><strong>Credentials:</strong> Official credentials, like academic degrees and professional certifications, are possessed by some people and not others.</li>\n<li><strong>Education:</strong> The process of education bestows a wide range of advantages but can cost a great deal of money.</li>\n<li><strong>Specialized knowledge:</strong> Individuals each have a particular set of skills and experiences, which differ from others.</li>\n<li><strong>Bias and discrimination:</strong> In all societies — though in varying ways — individuals face discrimination based on the color of their skin, their gender, their families of origin, and their age.</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"The complexity of identity","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Sociologists are crucially concerned with class, race, and sex, and they understand that none of those are simple concepts. Some aspects of your identity are imposed on you by others, and others are self-identified.</p>\n<ul>\n<li><strong>Class: </strong>Your <em>class</em> is not observed exclusively by how much money you make. It also depends on how much you have in the bank, as well as factors like human capital (skills you develop) and cultural capital (your fluency with different types of culture).</li>\n</ul>\n<ul>\n<li><strong>Race: </strong>Sociologists distinguish between <em>race</em> (a category imposed upon you by society, based on your appearance or origin) and <em>ethnicity</em> (your own understanding of background, culture, and interests shared with fellow members of a group).</li>\n</ul>\n<ul>\n<li><strong>Sex: </strong>For sociologists, <em>sex</em> (physical characteristics) is not the same as <em>gender</em> (an individual’s identity and expression). Gender is a spectrum. Even in societies throughout history, gender hasn’t been purely a female-male binary.</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"Common misconceptions about society","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Many people are absolutely convinced of the truth of some things about society that are not entirely true. Here are a few of the most common misconceptions about society, proven false by sociology:</p>\n<ul>\n<li><strong>Social inequality is deserved. </strong>Although it’s true that people with many resources in society (saved wealth, good jobs, useful connections) have typically worked hard to earn those resources, it’s not necessarily true that people who lack such resources are lacking them because it’s somehow their fault. Social disadvantages generally compound one another, meaning that when you’re in a disadvantaged position in society — a position you may be born into — it’s much more difficult to climb out of that position than people in advantaged positions may realize.</li>\n</ul>\n<ul>\n<li><strong>Race doesn’t matter anymore. </strong>To say that race matters is not to say there hasn’t been progress in <a href=\"//dummies-wp-admin.coursofppt.com/education/history/american-history/the-beginning-of-the-civil-rights-movement/\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\">civil rights</a>, and it’s not to say that progress isn’t happening now. The simple reality is that race remains very much a factor in how people are seen, how they are judged, and how they are treated. People who say they “don’t see race” are really not being truthful, even if their intentions are good.</li>\n</ul>\n<ul>\n<li><strong>Society prevents us from being our “true selves.” </strong>From a sociological perspective, humans are fundamentally social beings. From the moment you were born, the people around you have been at the heart of your life and your idea of who you are. This is one of the most important reasons to study sociology: If you don’t understand your society, you can’t truly understand yourself.</li>\n</ul>\n"}],"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Advance","lifeExpectancy":"Six months","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2022-07-21T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":209101},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2017-03-26T21:27:10+00:00","modifiedTime":"2022-12-13T19:27:31+00:00","timestamp":"2023-09-14T18:18:53+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Academics & The Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"Humanities","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33686"},"slug":"humanities","categoryId":33686}],"title":"Common Misconceptions about Society","strippedTitle":"common misconceptions about society","slug":"common-misconceptions-about-society","canonicalUrl":"","搜模块调优":{"metaDescription":"Many people are absolutely convinced of the truth of some things about society that are not entirely true. Here are a few of the most common misconceptions abou","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"Many people are absolutely convinced of the truth of some things about society that are not entirely true. Here are a few of the most common misconceptions about society, proven false by sociology.\r\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Social inequality is deserved.</b> Although it’s true that people with many resources in society (saved wealth, good jobs, happy families) have worked hard to earn those resources, it’s not necessarily true that people who lack such resources are lacking them because it’s somehow their fault.</p>\r\n<p class=\"child-para\">Social disadvantages generally compound one another, meaning that when you’re in a disadvantaged position in society — for whatever reason — it’s much more difficult to climb out of that position than people in advantaged positions may realize.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Race and gender don’t matter anymore.</b> Physical characteristics have always affected the way people regard one another in society, and they always will. Although many societies have seen a welcome decline in the most destructive forms of racism and sexism, it’s flatly false to say that physical characteristics — skin color, sex, height, weight, you name it — no longer matter.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Society prevents us from being our “true selves.</b>” From a sociological perspective, humans are fundamentally social beings. From the moment you were born, the people around you have been at the heart of your life and your idea of who you are. This is one of the most important reasons to study sociology: If you don’t understand your society, you can’t truly understand yourself.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n</ul>","description":"Many people are absolutely convinced of the truth of some things about society that are not entirely true. Here are a few of the most common misconceptions about society, proven false by sociology.\r\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Social inequality is deserved.</b> Although it’s true that people with many resources in society (saved wealth, good jobs, happy families) have worked hard to earn those resources, it’s not necessarily true that people who lack such resources are lacking them because it’s somehow their fault.</p>\r\n<p class=\"child-para\">Social disadvantages generally compound one another, meaning that when you’re in a disadvantaged position in society — for whatever reason — it’s much more difficult to climb out of that position than people in advantaged positions may realize.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Race and gender don’t matter anymore.</b> Physical characteristics have always affected the way people regard one another in society, and they always will. Although many societies have seen a welcome decline in the most destructive forms of racism and sexism, it’s flatly false to say that physical characteristics — skin color, sex, height, weight, you name it — no longer matter.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Society prevents us from being our “true selves.</b>” From a sociological perspective, humans are fundamentally social beings. From the moment you were born, the people around you have been at the heart of your life and your idea of who you are. This is one of the most important reasons to study sociology: If you don’t understand your society, you can’t truly understand yourself.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n</ul>","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":10405,"name":"Jay Gabler","slug":"jay-gabler","description":" <p><b>Jay Gabler, PhD</b> is a writer and editor living in Minneapolis. He has authored or coauthored several books and sociological research studies, including Reconstructing the University. He works as a digital producer at The Current (a service of Minnesota Public Radio) and holds three graduate degrees from Harvard University.</p> ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/10405"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33686,"title":"Humanities","slug":"humanities","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33686"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[{"articleId":284802,"title":"BIPOC—Complexities of Life in Color","slug":"bipoc-complexities-of-life-in-color","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/284802"}},{"articleId":284787,"title":"What Your Society Says About You","slug":"what-your-society-says-about-you","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/284787"}},{"articleId":209101,"title":"Sociology For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"sociology-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/209101"}},{"articleId":193079,"title":"The Power Trio of Sociology","slug":"the-power-trio-of-sociology","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/193079"}},{"articleId":193078,"title":"Types of Sociological Analysis","slug":"types-of-sociological-analysis","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/193078"}}],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":284802,"title":"BIPOC—Complexities of Life in Color","slug":"bipoc-complexities-of-life-in-color","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/284802"}},{"articleId":284787,"title":"What Your Society Says About You","slug":"what-your-society-says-about-you","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/284787"}},{"articleId":209101,"title":"Sociology For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"sociology-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/209101"}},{"articleId":209010,"title":"Anthropology For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"anthropology-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/209010"}},{"articleId":207753,"title":"Archaeology For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"archaeology-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/207753"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":282588,"slug":"sociology-for-dummies-2","isbn":"9781119772811","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"amazon":{"default":"//www.amazon.com/gp/product/1119772818/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","ca":"//www.amazon.ca/gp/product/1119772818/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","indigo_ca":"//www.tkqlhce.com/click-9208661-13710633?url=//www.chapters.indigo.ca/en-ca/books/product/1119772818-item.html&cjsku=978111945484","gb":"//www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/1119772818/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","de":"//www.amazon.de/gp/product/1119772818/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20"},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/sociology-for-dumies-2nd-edition-cover-9781119772811-203x255.jpg","width":203,"height":255},"title":"Sociology For Dummies","testBankPinActivationLink":"","bookOutOfPrint":true,"authorsInfo":"<p><b><b data-author-id=\"10405\">Jay Gabler</b>, PhD</b> is a writer and editor living in Minneapolis. 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He works as a digital producer at The Current (a service of Minnesota Public Radio) and holds three graduate degrees from Harvard University.</p> ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/10405"}}],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/books/"}},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;humanities&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781119772811&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-63221b0dc4718\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;humanities&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781119772811&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-63221b0dc5119\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Articles","articleList":null,"content":null,"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Advance","lifeExpectancy":"Two years","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2022-12-13T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":193074},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2017-03-26T21:21:28+00:00","modifiedTime":"2022-12-13T19:25:24+00:00","timestamp":"2023-09-14T18:18:53+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Academics & The Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"Humanities","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33686"},"slug":"humanities","categoryId":33686}],"title":"Anthropology and Human Modernity","strippedTitle":"anthropology and human modernity","slug":"anthropology-and-human-modernity","canonicalUrl":"","搜模块调优":{"metaDescription":"Modern humans have physical and behavioral differences from ancient humans. When you're studying anthropology — specifically, modernity in humans — keep these p","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"Modern humans have physical and behavioral differences from ancient humans. When you're studying anthropology — specifically, modernity in humans — keep these points in mind. They highlight the most important characteristics of anatomical and behavioral human modernity:\r\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><i>Anatomical modernity</i> is having anatomical characteristics indistinguishable from modern, living humans. Appearing by 100,000 years ago, these characteristics include a larger brain (averaging 1,450 cubic centimeters), a larger body overall, and the presence of a chin.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><i></i><i>Behavioral modernity</i> is behaving in ways that are indistinguishable from modern humans; it appears by 100,000 to 50,000 years ago and includes symbolism (the use of one thing to represent another thing), complex language (with complex grammar), and complex tool use (such as the use of symmetrical tools).</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">Modern humans colonized sub-Himalayan East Asia by 80,000 BP (before present, a term archeologists use), Southeast Asia and Australia by 40,000 BP, Europe at least by 30,000 BP, the New World by 14,000 BP, and the Pacific and Arctic by 1,000 BP.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n</ul>","description":"Modern humans have physical and behavioral differences from ancient humans. When you're studying anthropology — specifically, modernity in humans — keep these points in mind. They highlight the most important characteristics of anatomical and behavioral human modernity:\r\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><i>Anatomical modernity</i> is having anatomical characteristics indistinguishable from modern, living humans. Appearing by 100,000 years ago, these characteristics include a larger brain (averaging 1,450 cubic centimeters), a larger body overall, and the presence of a chin.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><i></i><i>Behavioral modernity</i> is behaving in ways that are indistinguishable from modern humans; it appears by 100,000 to 50,000 years ago and includes symbolism (the use of one thing to represent another thing), complex language (with complex grammar), and complex tool use (such as the use of symmetrical tools).</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">Modern humans colonized sub-Himalayan East Asia by 80,000 BP (before present, a term archeologists use), Southeast Asia and Australia by 40,000 BP, Europe at least by 30,000 BP, the New World by 14,000 BP, and the Pacific and Arctic by 1,000 BP.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n</ul>","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":10053,"name":"Cameron M. Smith","slug":"cameron-m-smith","description":" <p><b>Dr. Cameron M. Smith</b> has searched for early human fossils in East Africa, studied traditional hunting methods in Arctic Alaska, and more. His research has been published in <i>The American Journal of Physical Anthropology</i> and <i>The Journal of Field Archaeology</i>, and he is the author of <i>An Atlas of Human Prehistory</i>.</p> ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/10053"}},{"authorId":10362,"name":"Evan T. Davies","slug":"evan-t-davies","description":"Evan T. Davies, PhD, has conducted fieldwork in Africa. Davies coauthored Anthropology For Dummies.","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/10362"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33686,"title":"Humanities","slug":"humanities","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33686"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[{"articleId":209010,"title":"Anthropology For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"anthropology-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/209010"}},{"articleId":192441,"title":"How Anthropologists Group the Early Hominids","slug":"how-anthropologists-group-the-early-hominids","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/192441"}},{"articleId":192439,"title":"Culture and Cultural Universals in Anthropology","slug":"culture-and-cultural-universals-in-anthropology","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/192439"}},{"articleId":192437,"title":"What Is Linguistic Anthropology?","slug":"what-is-linguistic-anthropology","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/192437"}},{"articleId":192438,"title":"Anthropology of Subsistence and Social Organization","slug":"anthropology-of-subsistence-and-social-organization","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/192438"}}],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":284802,"title":"BIPOC—Complexities of Life in Color","slug":"bipoc-complexities-of-life-in-color","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/284802"}},{"articleId":284787,"title":"What Your Society Says About You","slug":"what-your-society-says-about-you","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/284787"}},{"articleId":209101,"title":"Sociology For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"sociology-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/209101"}},{"articleId":209010,"title":"Anthropology For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"anthropology-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/209010"}},{"articleId":207753,"title":"Archaeology For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"archaeology-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/207753"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":281950,"slug":"anthropology-for-dummies","isbn":"9781119784203","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"amazon":{"default":"//www.amazon.com/gp/product/1119784204/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","ca":"//www.amazon.ca/gp/product/1119784204/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","indigo_ca":"//www.tkqlhce.com/click-9208661-13710633?url=//www.chapters.indigo.ca/en-ca/books/product/1119784204-item.html&cjsku=978111945484","gb":"//www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/1119784204/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","de":"//www.amazon.de/gp/product/1119784204/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20"},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/anthropology-for-dummies-2e-cover-9781119784203-203x255.jpg","width":203,"height":255},"title":"Anthropology For Dummies","testBankPinActivationLink":"","bookOutOfPrint":true,"authorsInfo":"<p><b>Dr. <b data-author-id=\"10053\">Cameron M. Smith</b></b> has searched for early human fossils in East Africa, studied traditional hunting methods in Arctic Alaska, and more. His research has been published in <i>The American Journal of Physical Anthropology</i> and <i>The Journal of Field Archaeology</i>, and he is the author of <i>An Atlas of Human Prehistory</i>.</p>","authors":[{"authorId":10053,"name":"Cameron M. Smith","slug":"cameron-m-smith","description":" <p><b>Dr. Cameron M. Smith</b> has searched for early human fossils in East Africa, studied traditional hunting methods in Arctic Alaska, and more. His research has been published in <i>The American Journal of Physical Anthropology</i> and <i>The Journal of Field Archaeology</i>, and he is the author of <i>An Atlas of Human Prehistory</i>.</p> ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/10053"}}],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/books/"}},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;humanities&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781119784203&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-63221b0dbd65c\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;humanities&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781119784203&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-63221b0dbe0e3\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Articles","articleList":null,"content":null,"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Advance","lifeExpectancy":"Five years","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2022-12-13T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":192440},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2017-03-27T16:56:13+00:00","modifiedTime":"2022-12-13T19:23:28+00:00","timestamp":"2023-09-14T18:18:53+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Academics & The Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"Humanities","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33686"},"slug":"humanities","categoryId":33686}],"title":"Anthropology For Dummies Cheat Sheet","strippedTitle":"anthropology for dummies cheat sheet","slug":"anthropology-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","canonicalUrl":"","搜模块调优":{"metaDescription":"What is anthropology? The study of humanity, or anthropology, starts with the origin and evolution of humanity.","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"What is anthropology? The study of humanity, or anthropology, starts with the origin and <a href=\"//coursofppt.com/education/science/evolution-for-dummies-cheat-sheet/\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\">evolution of humanity</a>. Other elements key to the study of anthropology are human modernity (anatomical and behavioral); defining culture and cultural universals; how humans feed themselves (subsistence) and the influence of subsistence on social organization; and human language.\r\n\r\n[caption id=\"attachment_285259\" align=\"alignnone\" width=\"556\"]<img class=\"size-full wp-image-285259\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/anthropology-concept.jpg\" alt=\"anthropology concept drawing\" width=\"556\" height=\"449\" /> © ivector / Shutterstock.com[/caption]","description":"What is anthropology? The study of humanity, or anthropology, starts with the origin and <a href=\"//coursofppt.com/education/science/evolution-for-dummies-cheat-sheet/\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\">evolution of humanity</a>. Other elements key to the study of anthropology are human modernity (anatomical and behavioral); defining culture and cultural universals; how humans feed themselves (subsistence) and the influence of subsistence on social organization; and human language.\r\n\r\n[caption id=\"attachment_285259\" align=\"alignnone\" width=\"556\"]<img class=\"size-full wp-image-285259\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/anthropology-concept.jpg\" alt=\"anthropology concept drawing\" width=\"556\" height=\"449\" /> © ivector / Shutterstock.com[/caption]","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":10053,"name":"Cameron M. Smith","slug":"cameron-m-smith","description":" <p><b>Dr. Cameron M. Smith</b> has searched for early human fossils in East Africa, studied traditional hunting methods in Arctic Alaska, and more. His research has been published in <i>The American Journal of Physical Anthropology</i> and <i>The Journal of Field Archaeology</i>, and he is the author of <i>An Atlas of Human Prehistory</i>.</p> ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/10053"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33686,"title":"Humanities","slug":"humanities","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33686"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[{"articleId":192441,"title":"How Anthropologists Group the Early Hominids","slug":"how-anthropologists-group-the-early-hominids","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/192441"}},{"articleId":192439,"title":"Culture and Cultural Universals in Anthropology","slug":"culture-and-cultural-universals-in-anthropology","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/192439"}},{"articleId":192440,"title":"Anthropology and Human Modernity","slug":"anthropology-and-human-modernity","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/192440"}},{"articleId":192437,"title":"What Is Linguistic Anthropology?","slug":"what-is-linguistic-anthropology","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/192437"}},{"articleId":192438,"title":"Anthropology of Subsistence and Social Organization","slug":"anthropology-of-subsistence-and-social-organization","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/192438"}}],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":284802,"title":"BIPOC—Complexities of Life in Color","slug":"bipoc-complexities-of-life-in-color","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/284802"}},{"articleId":284787,"title":"What Your Society Says About You","slug":"what-your-society-says-about-you","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/284787"}},{"articleId":209101,"title":"Sociology For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"sociology-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/209101"}},{"articleId":207753,"title":"Archaeology For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"archaeology-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/207753"}},{"articleId":207496,"title":"Critical Thinking Skills For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"critical-thinking-skills-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/207496"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":281950,"slug":"anthropology-for-dummies","isbn":"9781119784203","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"amazon":{"default":"//www.amazon.com/gp/product/1119784204/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","ca":"//www.amazon.ca/gp/product/1119784204/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","indigo_ca":"//www.tkqlhce.com/click-9208661-13710633?url=//www.chapters.indigo.ca/en-ca/books/product/1119784204-item.html&cjsku=978111945484","gb":"//www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/1119784204/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","de":"//www.amazon.de/gp/product/1119784204/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20"},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/anthropology-for-dummies-2e-cover-9781119784203-203x255.jpg","width":203,"height":255},"title":"Anthropology For Dummies","testBankPinActivationLink":"","bookOutOfPrint":true,"authorsInfo":"<p><b>Dr. <b data-author-id=\"10053\">Cameron M. Smith</b></b> has searched for early human fossils in East Africa, studied traditional hunting methods in Arctic Alaska, and more. His research has been published in <i>The American Journal of Physical Anthropology</i> and <i>The Journal of Field Archaeology</i>, and he is the author of <i>An Atlas of Human Prehistory</i>.</p>","authors":[{"authorId":10053,"name":"Cameron M. Smith","slug":"cameron-m-smith","description":" <p><b>Dr. Cameron M. Smith</b> has searched for early human fossils in East Africa, studied traditional hunting methods in Arctic Alaska, and more. His research has been published in <i>The American Journal of Physical Anthropology</i> and <i>The Journal of Field Archaeology</i>, and he is the author of <i>An Atlas of Human Prehistory</i>.</p> ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/10053"}}],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/books/"}},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;humanities&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781119784203&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-63221b0dafea2\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;humanities&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781119784203&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-63221b0db0905\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Cheat Sheet","articleList":[{"articleId":192441,"title":"How Anthropologists Group the Early Hominids","slug":"how-anthropologists-group-the-early-hominids","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/192441"}},{"articleId":192440,"title":"Anthropology and Human Modernity","slug":"anthropology-and-human-modernity","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/192440"}},{"articleId":192439,"title":"Culture and Cultural Universals in Anthropology","slug":"culture-and-cultural-universals-in-anthropology","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/192439"}},{"articleId":192438,"title":"Anthropology of Subsistence and Social Organization","slug":"anthropology-of-subsistence-and-social-organization","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/192438"}},{"articleId":192437,"title":"What Is Linguistic Anthropology?","slug":"what-is-linguistic-anthropology","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/192437"}}],"content":[{"title":"How anthropologists group the early hominids","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>By studying early <i>hominids</i> (large, bipedal primates) that date back to millions of years, anthropologists can track the development of the human race. When exploring anthropology, keep these important points in mind:</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">The evolutionary process shapes species by replication, variation, and selection, leading to adaptation.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Humans are one of roughly 200 species of the Primate order, a biological group that&#8217;s been evolving for about 60 million years.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Hominids appear (only in Africa) by at least 4 million years ago with the following adaptive characteristics: <i>bipedalism</i> (habitually walking on two legs), <i>encephalization</i> (larger brains than expected for their body size), <i>small teeth</i> (smaller teeth than expected for their body size—the canines in particular).</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n<p>The following table summarizes what anthropology has discovered about the main groups of early hominids.</p>\n<table>\n<tbody>\n<tr>\n<th>Hominid Group, Diet, and Tool Use</th>\n<th>Some Genera and Species Included</th>\n<th>Fossil Finds</th>\n<th>Dates</th>\n<th>Evolutionary Fate</th>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Gracile australopithecines: omnivorous diet with little tool<br />\nuse</td>\n<td><i>Australopithecus afarensis, Australopithecus<br />\nafricanus</i></td>\n<td><i>A. afarensis</i> in Ethiopia, and <i>A. africanus</i> at<br />\nmany sites in South and East Africa</td>\n<td>Over 4 million years ago <i>(A. afarensis)</i> to about 2<br />\nmillion years ago (later <i>A. africanus</i>)</td>\n<td><i>A. afarensis</i> probably ancestral to <i>A. africanus</i>;<br />\n<i>A. africanus</i> probably ancestral to early <i>Homo</i></td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Robust australopithecines: more herbivorous diet with little or<br />\nno tool use.</td>\n<td><i>Australopithecus aethiopicus, Australopithecus<br />\nrobustus</i></td>\n<td><i>A. aethiopicus</i> and <i>A. boisei</i> in East Africa,<br />\n<i>A. robustus</i> in South Africa</td>\n<td>Over 2 million years ago <i>(</i><i>A. aethipoicus</i><i>)</i><br />\nto about 1 million years ago (late <i>A. robustus</i>)</td>\n<td>Extinction around 1 million years ago</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Early <i>Homo:</i> omnivorous diet with more animal tissue<br />\nconsumption and survival relying on tool use.</td>\n<td><i>Homo habilis, Homo rudolfe</i><i>nsis,</i> earliest <i>Homo<br />\nerectus</i></td>\n<td>Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania and Koobi Fora, Kenya</td>\n<td>Earliest <i>Homo</i> around 2.5 million years ago; clearly<br />\n<i>H. erectus</i> by 1.8 million years ago</td>\n<td>Evolved into <i>H. erectus</i> by 1.8 million years ago</td>\n</tr>\n</tbody>\n</table>\n"},{"title":"Anthropology and human modernity","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Modern humans have physical and behavioral differences from ancient humans. Keep these in mind when thinking about “what it is to be human”:</p>\n<ul>\n<li><strong>Anatomical modernity:</strong> Having anatomical characteristics indistinguishable from modern, living humans. Appearing by 100,000 years ago (in Africa), these characteristics include a larger brain (averaging 1,450 cubic centimeters, or about four soda cans), a larger body overall, and the presence of a chin rather than a receding jaw.</li>\n<li><strong>Behavioral modernity:</strong> Behaving in ways that are indistinguishable from modern humans. This appears by 100,000 to 50,000 years ago (again, in Africa) and includes symbolism (the use of one thing to represent another thing), complex language (with complex grammar), and complex tool use (such as the use of symmetrical tools and tools made from several raw materials brought together). The most striking manifestation of early behavioral modernity are cave art and rock art, completely unknown in the rest of the animal kingdom.</li>\n</ul>\n<p>Modern humans dispersed to Southeast Asia and Australia by 50,000 Before Present (BP), Europe by 45,000 BP, the New World by 15,000 BP, and the Pacific and Arctic by 1,000 BP.</p>\n"},{"title":"Culture and cultural universals in anthropology","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Anthropologists don&#8217;t just study the evolution of human beings, they also learn about their cultures, how cultures develop, and how cultures shape human behavior. If you need to refresh your memory about culture, like what it is and how it guides human behavior, take a look at these aspects:</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><i></i><i>Culture</i> is a learned set of ideas and rules about appropriate behavior shared by a group; it&#8217;s passed on from one generation to the next not by the genes but with language.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Although the contents of each culture are different, each culture has specific ideas of <i>language</i> (a way to communicate), <i>ethics</i> (concepts of right and wrong), <i>social roles</i> (rights and responsibilities per gender and age class), the <i>supernatural</i> (the realm of supernatural beings), <i>styles of bodily decoration </i>(styles normally indicate identity), <i>family structure</i> (marriage customs and rules for inheritance), <i>sexual regulation</i><b> </b>(incest taboos and marriage customs) and <i>food preferences</i> (ideas of what&#8217;s appropriate for consumption at various social gatherings).</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"Anthropology of subsistence and social organization","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Humanity has practiced all kinds of ways of subsistence, or getting food. This table shows different modes of subsistence and the affects they&#8217;ve had on social organization.</p>\n<table>\n<tbody>\n<tr>\n<th></th>\n<th>Band</th>\n<th>Tribe</th>\n<th>Chiefdom</th>\n<th>State/Civilization</th>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Subsistence:</td>\n<td>Foraging</td>\n<td>Foraging/pastoralism</td>\n<td>Horticulture or (rarely) foraging</td>\n<td>Agriculture</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Mobility:</td>\n<td>High</td>\n<td>Medium/cyclic</td>\n<td>Low</td>\n<td>Lowest</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Food storage:</td>\n<td>Little: days to months</td>\n<td>Little: weeks to months</td>\n<td>Medium: seasons to a few years</td>\n<td>High: reliance on stored foods</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Emphasis on property:</td>\n<td>Low but present</td>\n<td>Medium: among pastoralists, herded animals are property of<br />\nindividuals</td>\n<td>High: elites own special items</td>\n<td>High: major differences in material possessions by economic<br />\nclass</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Attitudes toward social ranking:</td>\n<td>Low: little stratification and generally equal access to<br />\nresources for all members</td>\n<td>Medium: among pastoralists, families with more animals have<br />\nhigher rank</td>\n<td>High: hereditary elite class exists, but has more power to<br />\n<i>coerce</i> than <i>command</i></td>\n<td>Very high: resources allotted depend on social rank</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Population:</td>\n<td>10–150</td>\n<td>Less than 200</td>\n<td>Low hundreds to 1,500</td>\n<td>Tens of thousands to millions or billions</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Examples:</td>\n<td>Paiute of North American Great Basin, Inuit of Arctic<br />\nCanada</td>\n<td>Maasai of East Africa (cattle herders), Saami of Arctic<br />\nScandinavia (reindeer herders)</td>\n<td>Maori of New Zealand, Vikings of medieval Scandinavia</td>\n<td>Ancient Egypt and Greece, Shang China, Maya (Mexico and<br />\nGuatemala), United States</td>\n</tr>\n</tbody>\n</table>\n"},{"title":"What Is linguistic anthropology?","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Language is the system humans use to communicate. Linguistic anthropology studies human language, and these points highlight humanity&#8217;s distinct way of transmitting information:</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Human infants aren&#8217;t born with language already in mind, but all healthy infants are born hardwired to acquire any of the uniquely complex rules (grammar) of any human language.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Each language has a unique grammar, a complex set of rules that tell how to properly order the words in a sentence; children normally learn the outline of this grammar by about 3 years of age.</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n"}],"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Advance","lifeExpectancy":"Five years","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2022-05-22T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":209010},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2017-03-26T21:21:29+00:00","modifiedTime":"2022-12-13T19:18:07+00:00","timestamp":"2023-09-14T18:18:53+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Academics & The Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"Humanities","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33686"},"slug":"humanities","categoryId":33686}],"title":"How Anthropologists Group the Early Hominids","strippedTitle":"how anthropologists group the early hominids","slug":"how-anthropologists-group-the-early-hominids","canonicalUrl":"","搜模块调优":{"metaDescription":"By studying early hominids (large, bipedal primates) that date back to millions of years, anthropologists can track the development of the human race. When expl","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"By studying early <i>hominids</i> (large, bipedal primates) that date back to millions of years, anthropologists can track the development of the human race. When exploring anthropology, keep these important points in mind:\r\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">The evolutionary process shapes species by replication, variation, and selection, leading to adaptation.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">Humans are one of roughly 200 species of the Primate order, a biological group that's been evolving for about 60 million years.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">Hominids appear (only in Africa) by at least 4 million years ago with the following adaptive characteristics: <i>bipedalism</i> (habitually walking on two legs), <i>encephalization</i> (larger brains than expected for their body size), <i>small teeth</i> (smaller teeth than expected for their body size — the canines in particular).</p>\r\n</li>\r\n</ul>\r\nThe following table summarizes what anthropology has discovered about the main groups of early hominids.\r\n<table>\r\n<tbody>\r\n<tr>\r\n<th>Hominid Group, Diet, and Tool Use</th>\r\n<th>Some Genera and Species Included</th>\r\n<th>Fossil Finds</th>\r\n<th>Dates</th>\r\n<th>Evolutionary Fate</th>\r\n</tr>\r\n<tr>\r\n<td>Gracile australopithecines: omnivorous diet with little tool\r\nuse</td>\r\n<td><i>Australopithecus afarensis, Australopithecus\r\nafricanus</i></td>\r\n<td><i>A. afarensis</i> in Ethiopia, and <i>A. africanus</i> at\r\nmany sites in South and East Africa</td>\r\n<td>Over 4 million years ago <i>(A. afarensis)</i> to about 2\r\nmillion years ago (later <i>A. africanus</i>)</td>\r\n<td><i>A. afarensis</i> probably ancestral to <i>A. africanus</i>;\r\n<i>A. africanus</i> probably ancestral to early <i>Homo</i></td>\r\n</tr>\r\n<tr>\r\n<td>Robust australopithecines: more herbivorous diet with little or\r\nno tool use.</td>\r\n<td><i>Australopithecus aethiopicus, Australopithecus\r\nrobustus</i></td>\r\n<td><i>A. aethiopicus</i> and <i>A. boisei</i> in East Africa,\r\n<i>A. robustus</i> in South Africa</td>\r\n<td>Over 2 million years ago <i>(</i><i>A. aethipoicus</i><i>)</i>\r\nto about 1 million years ago (late <i>A. robustus</i>)</td>\r\n<td>Extinction around 1 million years ago</td>\r\n</tr>\r\n<tr>\r\n<td>Early <i>Homo:</i> omnivorous diet with more animal tissue\r\nconsumption and survival relying on tool use.</td>\r\n<td><i>Homo habilis, Homo rudolfe</i><i>nsis,</i> earliest <i>Homo\r\nerectus</i></td>\r\n<td>Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania and Koobi Fora, Kenya</td>\r\n<td>Earliest <i>Homo</i> around 2.5 million years ago; clearly\r\n<i>H. erectus</i> by 1.8 million years ago</td>\r\n<td>Evolved into <i>H. erectus</i> by 1.8 million years ago</td>\r\n</tr>\r\n</tbody>\r\n</table>","description":"By studying early <i>hominids</i> (large, bipedal primates) that date back to millions of years, anthropologists can track the development of the human race. When exploring anthropology, keep these important points in mind:\r\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">The evolutionary process shapes species by replication, variation, and selection, leading to adaptation.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">Humans are one of roughly 200 species of the Primate order, a biological group that's been evolving for about 60 million years.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">Hominids appear (only in Africa) by at least 4 million years ago with the following adaptive characteristics: <i>bipedalism</i> (habitually walking on two legs), <i>encephalization</i> (larger brains than expected for their body size), <i>small teeth</i> (smaller teeth than expected for their body size — the canines in particular).</p>\r\n</li>\r\n</ul>\r\nThe following table summarizes what anthropology has discovered about the main groups of early hominids.\r\n<table>\r\n<tbody>\r\n<tr>\r\n<th>Hominid Group, Diet, and Tool Use</th>\r\n<th>Some Genera and Species Included</th>\r\n<th>Fossil Finds</th>\r\n<th>Dates</th>\r\n<th>Evolutionary Fate</th>\r\n</tr>\r\n<tr>\r\n<td>Gracile australopithecines: omnivorous diet with little tool\r\nuse</td>\r\n<td><i>Australopithecus afarensis, Australopithecus\r\nafricanus</i></td>\r\n<td><i>A. afarensis</i> in Ethiopia, and <i>A. africanus</i> at\r\nmany sites in South and East Africa</td>\r\n<td>Over 4 million years ago <i>(A. afarensis)</i> to about 2\r\nmillion years ago (later <i>A. africanus</i>)</td>\r\n<td><i>A. afarensis</i> probably ancestral to <i>A. africanus</i>;\r\n<i>A. africanus</i> probably ancestral to early <i>Homo</i></td>\r\n</tr>\r\n<tr>\r\n<td>Robust australopithecines: more herbivorous diet with little or\r\nno tool use.</td>\r\n<td><i>Australopithecus aethiopicus, Australopithecus\r\nrobustus</i></td>\r\n<td><i>A. aethiopicus</i> and <i>A. boisei</i> in East Africa,\r\n<i>A. robustus</i> in South Africa</td>\r\n<td>Over 2 million years ago <i>(</i><i>A. aethipoicus</i><i>)</i>\r\nto about 1 million years ago (late <i>A. robustus</i>)</td>\r\n<td>Extinction around 1 million years ago</td>\r\n</tr>\r\n<tr>\r\n<td>Early <i>Homo:</i> omnivorous diet with more animal tissue\r\nconsumption and survival relying on tool use.</td>\r\n<td><i>Homo habilis, Homo rudolfe</i><i>nsis,</i> earliest <i>Homo\r\nerectus</i></td>\r\n<td>Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania and Koobi Fora, Kenya</td>\r\n<td>Earliest <i>Homo</i> around 2.5 million years ago; clearly\r\n<i>H. erectus</i> by 1.8 million years ago</td>\r\n<td>Evolved into <i>H. erectus</i> by 1.8 million years ago</td>\r\n</tr>\r\n</tbody>\r\n</table>","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":10053,"name":"Cameron M. Smith","slug":"cameron-m-smith","description":" <p><b>Dr. Cameron M. Smith</b> has searched for early human fossils in East Africa, studied traditional hunting methods in Arctic Alaska, and more. His research has been published in <i>The American Journal of Physical Anthropology</i> and <i>The Journal of Field Archaeology</i>, and he is the author of <i>An Atlas of Human Prehistory</i>.</p> ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/10053"}},{"authorId":10362,"name":"Evan T. Davies","slug":"evan-t-davies","description":"Evan T. Davies, PhD, has conducted fieldwork in Africa. Davies coauthored Anthropology For Dummies.","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/10362"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33686,"title":"Humanities","slug":"humanities","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33686"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[{"articleId":209010,"title":"Anthropology For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"anthropology-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/209010"}},{"articleId":192439,"title":"Culture and Cultural Universals in Anthropology","slug":"culture-and-cultural-universals-in-anthropology","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/192439"}},{"articleId":192440,"title":"Anthropology and Human Modernity","slug":"anthropology-and-human-modernity","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/192440"}},{"articleId":192437,"title":"What Is Linguistic Anthropology?","slug":"what-is-linguistic-anthropology","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/192437"}},{"articleId":192438,"title":"Anthropology of Subsistence and Social Organization","slug":"anthropology-of-subsistence-and-social-organization","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/192438"}}],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":284802,"title":"BIPOC—Complexities of Life in Color","slug":"bipoc-complexities-of-life-in-color","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/284802"}},{"articleId":284787,"title":"What Your Society Says About You","slug":"what-your-society-says-about-you","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/284787"}},{"articleId":209101,"title":"Sociology For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"sociology-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/209101"}},{"articleId":209010,"title":"Anthropology For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"anthropology-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/209010"}},{"articleId":207753,"title":"Archaeology For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"archaeology-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/207753"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":281950,"slug":"anthropology-for-dummies","isbn":"9781119784203","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"amazon":{"default":"//www.amazon.com/gp/product/1119784204/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","ca":"//www.amazon.ca/gp/product/1119784204/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","indigo_ca":"//www.tkqlhce.com/click-9208661-13710633?url=//www.chapters.indigo.ca/en-ca/books/product/1119784204-item.html&cjsku=978111945484","gb":"//www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/1119784204/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","de":"//www.amazon.de/gp/product/1119784204/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20"},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/anthropology-for-dummies-2e-cover-9781119784203-203x255.jpg","width":203,"height":255},"title":"Anthropology For Dummies","testBankPinActivationLink":"","bookOutOfPrint":true,"authorsInfo":"<p><b>Dr. <b data-author-id=\"10053\">Cameron M. Smith</b></b> has searched for early human fossils in East Africa, studied traditional hunting methods in Arctic Alaska, and more. His research has been published in <i>The American Journal of Physical Anthropology</i> and <i>The Journal of Field Archaeology</i>, and he is the author of <i>An Atlas of Human Prehistory</i>.</p>","authors":[{"authorId":10053,"name":"Cameron M. Smith","slug":"cameron-m-smith","description":" <p><b>Dr. Cameron M. Smith</b> has searched for early human fossils in East Africa, studied traditional hunting methods in Arctic Alaska, and more. His research has been published in <i>The American Journal of Physical Anthropology</i> and <i>The Journal of Field Archaeology</i>, and he is the author of <i>An Atlas of Human Prehistory</i>.</p> ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/10053"}}],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/books/"}},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;humanities&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781119784203&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-63221b0da64fb\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;humanities&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781119784203&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-63221b0da6dd4\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Articles","articleList":null,"content":null,"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Advance","lifeExpectancy":"Five years","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2022-12-13T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":192441},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2017-03-26T21:21:28+00:00","modifiedTime":"2022-12-13T19:12:23+00:00","timestamp":"2023-09-14T18:18:53+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Academics & The Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"Humanities","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33686"},"slug":"humanities","categoryId":33686}],"title":"Culture and Cultural Universals in Anthropology","strippedTitle":"culture and cultural universals in anthropology","slug":"culture-and-cultural-universals-in-anthropology","canonicalUrl":"","搜模块调优":{"metaDescription":"Anthropologists don't just study the evolution of human beings; they also learn about their cultures, how cultures develop, and how cultures shape human behavio","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"Anthropologists don't just study the evolution of human beings; they also learn about their cultures, how cultures develop, and how cultures shape human behavior. If you need to refresh your memory about culture, like what it is and how it guides human behavior, take a look at these aspects:\r\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><i></i><i>Culture</i> is a learned set of ideas and rules about appropriate behavior shared by a group; it's passed on from one generation to the next not by the genes but with language.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">Although the contents of each culture are different, each culture has specific ideas of <i>language</i> (a way to communicate), <i>ethics</i> (concepts of right and wrong), <i>social roles</i> (rights and responsibilities per gender and age class), the <i>supernatural</i> (the realm of supernatural beings), <i>styles of bodily decoration</i><b> (</b>styles normally indicate identity), <i>family structure</i> (marriage customs and rules for inheritance), <i>sexual regulation</i><b> </b>(incest taboos and marriage customs) and <i>food preferences</i> (ideas of what's appropriate for consumption at various social gatherings).</p>\r\n</li>\r\n</ul>","description":"Anthropologists don't just study the evolution of human beings; they also learn about their cultures, how cultures develop, and how cultures shape human behavior. If you need to refresh your memory about culture, like what it is and how it guides human behavior, take a look at these aspects:\r\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><i></i><i>Culture</i> is a learned set of ideas and rules about appropriate behavior shared by a group; it's passed on from one generation to the next not by the genes but with language.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">Although the contents of each culture are different, each culture has specific ideas of <i>language</i> (a way to communicate), <i>ethics</i> (concepts of right and wrong), <i>social roles</i> (rights and responsibilities per gender and age class), the <i>supernatural</i> (the realm of supernatural beings), <i>styles of bodily decoration</i><b> (</b>styles normally indicate identity), <i>family structure</i> (marriage customs and rules for inheritance), <i>sexual regulation</i><b> </b>(incest taboos and marriage customs) and <i>food preferences</i> (ideas of what's appropriate for consumption at various social gatherings).</p>\r\n</li>\r\n</ul>","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":10053,"name":"Cameron M. Smith","slug":"cameron-m-smith","description":" <p><b>Dr. Cameron M. Smith</b> has searched for early human fossils in East Africa, studied traditional hunting methods in Arctic Alaska, and more. His research has been published in <i>The American Journal of Physical Anthropology</i> and <i>The Journal of Field Archaeology</i>, and he is the author of <i>An Atlas of Human Prehistory</i>.</p> ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/10053"}},{"authorId":10362,"name":"Evan T. Davies","slug":"evan-t-davies","description":"Evan T. Davies, PhD, has conducted fieldwork in Africa. Davies coauthored Anthropology For Dummies.","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/10362"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33686,"title":"Humanities","slug":"humanities","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33686"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[{"articleId":209010,"title":"Anthropology For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"anthropology-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/209010"}},{"articleId":192441,"title":"How Anthropologists Group the Early Hominids","slug":"how-anthropologists-group-the-early-hominids","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/192441"}},{"articleId":192440,"title":"Anthropology and Human Modernity","slug":"anthropology-and-human-modernity","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/192440"}},{"articleId":192437,"title":"What Is Linguistic Anthropology?","slug":"what-is-linguistic-anthropology","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/192437"}},{"articleId":192438,"title":"Anthropology of Subsistence and Social Organization","slug":"anthropology-of-subsistence-and-social-organization","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/192438"}}],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":284802,"title":"BIPOC—Complexities of Life in Color","slug":"bipoc-complexities-of-life-in-color","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/284802"}},{"articleId":284787,"title":"What Your Society Says About You","slug":"what-your-society-says-about-you","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/284787"}},{"articleId":209101,"title":"Sociology For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"sociology-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/209101"}},{"articleId":209010,"title":"Anthropology For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"anthropology-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/209010"}},{"articleId":207753,"title":"Archaeology For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"archaeology-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/207753"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":281950,"slug":"anthropology-for-dummies","isbn":"9781119784203","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"amazon":{"default":"//www.amazon.com/gp/product/1119784204/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","ca":"//www.amazon.ca/gp/product/1119784204/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","indigo_ca":"//www.tkqlhce.com/click-9208661-13710633?url=//www.chapters.indigo.ca/en-ca/books/product/1119784204-item.html&cjsku=978111945484","gb":"//www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/1119784204/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","de":"//www.amazon.de/gp/product/1119784204/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20"},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/anthropology-for-dummies-2e-cover-9781119784203-203x255.jpg","width":203,"height":255},"title":"Anthropology For Dummies","testBankPinActivationLink":"","bookOutOfPrint":true,"authorsInfo":"<p><b>Dr. <b data-author-id=\"10053\">Cameron M. Smith</b></b> has searched for early human fossils in East Africa, studied traditional hunting methods in Arctic Alaska, and more. His research has been published in <i>The American Journal of Physical Anthropology</i> and <i>The Journal of Field Archaeology</i>, and he is the author of <i>An Atlas of Human Prehistory</i>.</p>","authors":[{"authorId":10053,"name":"Cameron M. Smith","slug":"cameron-m-smith","description":" <p><b>Dr. Cameron M. Smith</b> has searched for early human fossils in East Africa, studied traditional hunting methods in Arctic Alaska, and more. His research has been published in <i>The American Journal of Physical Anthropology</i> and <i>The Journal of Field Archaeology</i>, and he is the author of <i>An Atlas of Human Prehistory</i>.</p> ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/10053"}}],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/books/"}},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;humanities&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781119784203&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-63221b0d9dec0\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;humanities&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781119784203&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-63221b0d9e942\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Articles","articleList":null,"content":null,"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Advance","lifeExpectancy":"Five years","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2022-12-13T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":192439},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2017-03-27T16:48:22+00:00","modifiedTime":"2022-07-21T19:03:35+00:00","timestamp":"2023-09-14T18:18:27+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Academics & The Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"Humanities","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33686"},"slug":"humanities","categoryId":33686}],"title":"Archaeology For Dummies Cheat Sheet","strippedTitle":"archaeology for dummies cheat sheet","slug":"archaeology-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","canonicalUrl":"","搜模块调优":{"metaDescription":"Archaeology is exciting adventure and discovery, and while you can become a real archaeologist yourself (which requires years of really hard work), you can also","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"Archaeology is exciting adventure and discovery, and while you can become a real archaeologist yourself (which requires years of really hard work), you can also get an informal archaeology education, volunteer for digs, and more. If you go on-site for fieldwork, know what supplies and equipment to pack for a proper excavation, and what safety and health items to keep on hand during a dig.","description":"Archaeology is exciting adventure and discovery, and while you can become a real archaeologist yourself (which requires years of really hard work), you can also get an informal archaeology education, volunteer for digs, and more. If you go on-site for fieldwork, know what supplies and equipment to pack for a proper excavation, and what safety and health items to keep on hand during a dig.","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":9502,"name":"Nancy Marie White","slug":"nancy-marie-white","description":" <p><b>Nancy Marie White</b> is a registered professional archaeologist and Professor of Anthropology at the University of South Florida, Tampa. Her research includes prehistoric and historic archaeological sites of all time periods in the eastern United States, as well as theoretical issues and public archaeology. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9502"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33686,"title":"Humanities","slug":"humanities","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33686"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":284802,"title":"BIPOC—Complexities of Life in Color","slug":"bipoc-complexities-of-life-in-color","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/284802"}},{"articleId":284787,"title":"What Your Society Says About You","slug":"what-your-society-says-about-you","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/284787"}},{"articleId":209101,"title":"Sociology For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"sociology-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/209101"}},{"articleId":209010,"title":"Anthropology For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"anthropology-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/209010"}},{"articleId":207496,"title":"Critical Thinking Skills For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"critical-thinking-skills-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/207496"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":0,"slug":null,"isbn":null,"categoryList":null,"amazon":null,"image":null,"title":null,"testBankPinActivationLink":null,"bookOutOfPrint":false,"authorsInfo":null,"authors":null,"_links":null},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;humanities&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[null]}]\" id=\"du-slot-63221af3d97ed\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;humanities&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[null]}]\" id=\"du-slot-63221af3da037\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Cheat Sheet","articleList":[{"articleId":156645,"title":"3 Ways to Get Involved in Archaeology","slug":"3-ways-to-get-involved-in-archaeology","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/156645"}},{"articleId":156644,"title":"Supplies for Archaeological Digging and Recording","slug":"supplies-for-archaeological-digging-and-recording","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/156644"}},{"articleId":156654,"title":"Archaeological Fieldwork Safety and Health","slug":"archaeological-fieldwork-safety-and-health","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","humanities"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/156654"}}],"content":[{"title":"3 ways to get involved in archaeology","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>You can get involved with archaeology yourself — whether from your armchair, as a tourist, or as a participant in a dig. After you dive in, you may find even more archaeology out there than you&#8217;ll be able to absorb.</p>\n<h2>Lectures and short classes on archaeology</h2>\n<p>You can hear professional archaeology lectures at museums and universities, local libraries, and even community centers that emphasize lifelong learning. Checking out these institutions and their scheduled programs is as easy as looking around your community or online.</p>\n<p>For a lengthier (but still short-term) option, consider week-long workshops or seasonal training programs in archaeology; these offerings usually include lectures in the classroom as well as digging. The following list gives you some examples of these programs:</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Week-long archaeology camps</b> for kids or adults may be offered at museums in the summer.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Scouting groups</b> have some archaeology programs, like the Boy Scouts&#8217; merit badge in archaeology.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Elderhostel</b> programs for older folks usually include background lectures and field trips to see archaeology.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Universities</b> may have short-course offerings (right in there with piano lessons and conversational Spanish) for anyone who isn&#8217;t a regular student enrolled for a degree.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Land management agencies or your State Historic Preservation Office</b> may have courses on cultural resources like archaeological and historic sites or short volunteer digs.</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n<h2>Archaeological associations</h2>\n<p>Archaeological associations, societies, and clubs are everywhere. Some are national and international, but many are regional or based in a particular state and have smaller local chapters. Members are students, professionals, amateur archaeologists — really, anyone who&#8217;s interested. Most require only the membership fee, which typically gets you a regular publication like a magazine along with information on new discoveries, activities you can participate in, and opportunities to join digs.</p>\n<p>Here are some good archaeology groups you can join:</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><a href=\"//www.archaeological.org\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\"><b>Archaeological Institute of America</b></a><b> (AIA),</b> which sends you <i>Archaeology</i> magazine with your membership. You can also join local AIA chapters, which sponsor lecture programs and other events.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><a href=\"//www.worldarchaeologicalcongress.org\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\"><b>World Archaeological Congress</b></a><b>,</b> which covers the globe and emphasizes professional and public archaeology and indigenous peoples&#8217; rights. It has an online newsletter and discussion forum that often highlights ethical dilemmas.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><a href=\"//www.saa.org\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\"><b>Society for American Archaeology</b></a><b> (SAA),</b> which is for professionals but allows anyone to join, attend meetings, and receive the journal.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>National archaeological societies, </b>in many countries and languages.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Regional societies</b> such as the <a href=\"//www.southeasternarchaeology.org/\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\">Southeastern Archaeological Conference</a> and <a href=\"//www.ou.edu/cas/archsur/plainsanth\">Plains Anthropological Society</a>, which all have annual meetings you can attend and regular journals for members.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>State societies,</b> which also offer annual meetings, journals, and sometimes booths at the state fair. More amateurs and lay people are usually members of these groups, but also professionals and students.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Local clubs</b> or chapters of the state society, which (like the others) usually have a mix of members, a newsletter, and often monthly meetings and various activities (lectures, digs).</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n<h2>Archaeological digs across the country or abroad</h2>\n<p>Many organizations sponsor excavations that draw people from everywhere. This is a great way to plan a vacation. Here&#8217;s a list of some of the best:</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>The </b><a href=\"//www.passportintime.com/\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\"><b>Passport in Time Program</b></a> of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service (USDA FS in federal lingo) takes volunteers for all kinds of archaeological projects.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>The </b><a href=\"//www.archaeological.org\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\"><b>Archaeological Institute of America</b></a><b> (AIA)</b> lists fieldwork opportunities, both formal field schools and volunteer projects all over the world that you can sign up for. Costs vary widely.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>The </b><a href=\"//www.caa-archeology.org\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\"><b>Center for American Archaeology</b></a> in Kampsville, Illinois, offers everything from single-day opportunities to workshops for adults to digs open to kids, adults, and families with children as young as 7. Costs vary from low to high.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><a href=\"//www.crowcanyon.org\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\"><b>Crow Canyon Archaeological Center</b></a> in southwestern Colorado offers short and long programs for high-schoolers, adults, families, and teachers. Costs vary.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><a href=\"//earthwatch.org\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\"><b>Earthwatch Institute</b></a> offers opportunities to join scientific expeditions of all kinds, including archaeology. Participants volunteer their time and pay living expenses and fees (which can be steep if you&#8217;re traveling to a faraway place).</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"Supplies for archaeological digging and recording","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>The archaeology field or project director usually gives you a list of what to bring. Most projects expect you to have a field pack for your own belongings, hand tools, and notebook.</p>\n<p class=\"Remember\">All the stuff you bring on a dig stands a good chance of getting damaged or destroyed, so start with a good, sturdy — but perhaps not new — pack. Used military packs of heavy cotton canvas are great, though you may consider buying a ballistic-nylon bag in a bright color so you can easily locate it.</p>\n<p>Ask what hand tools are supplied or whether you need to buy some for yourself. Here are typical excavation tools in an archaeological fieldworker&#8217;s pack:</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Pointed 4-inch Marshalltown trowel</b> (and maybe a square one, too)</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>3-meter measuring tape</b> (harder to find than inches-and-feet increments) or other small tape</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Butter knife, grapefruit or regular spoon, and pocketknife</b></p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Artist&#8217;s spatula and dental pick</b> (ask your dentist for old or broken ones)</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Sharpened wooden chopstick or length of bamboo</b> for softer digging</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Small, clean (but cheap) paintbrush </b>for brushing away dirt</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Roll of plastic flagging</b> in a bright color</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Water-resistant field notebook</b> (check dig requirements)</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Compass</b> (cheap or expensive)</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Pencils (and a sharpener), waterproof markers, waterproof pens, and/or space pen</b></p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Line level</b> for measuring depths from a level string</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Zipper-lock plastic bags</b> of all sizes for finds</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"Archaeological fieldwork safety and health","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>All archaeological fieldwork should have safety rules, a field first-aid kit, and persons skilled in medical assistance. But bring basic supplies like aspirin or bandages. It&#8217;s rare for an archaeological project not to have one or more of the following: sharp metal tools, bugs, excessive sun, poison ivy, stinging nettles, occasional bad weather, heavy physical work, and lots of dirt.</p>\n<p>Here&#8217;s a list of items relating to health and safety that you may want to have on hand at an archaeological dig:</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Refillable canteen or water bottle</b></p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Bandages and a small bottle of iodine or tube of antibiotic cream</b></p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Prescription medicines,</b> clearly labeled</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Aspirin, anti-diarrheal medicine, and sore muscle liniment</b></p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Sunblock lotion</b></p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Insect repellent and something to relieve any bites/stings</b></p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Toilet paper</b></p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Antibacterial hand cleaner</b></p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Emergency food</b> (like a granola bar and a small bag of peanuts)</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Tweezers</b> for removing slivers and stings</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Small flashlight</b></p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Work gloves</b></p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Waterproof matches</b></p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n"}],"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Advance","lifeExpectancy":"Two 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