chơi xổ số keno trực tuyến

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History","slug":"world-war-ii","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33685"},"image":{"src":"/img/background-image-1.daf74cf0.png","width":0,"height":0},"hasArticle":true,"hasBook":true,"articleCount":12,"bookCount":1}],"description":"Travel back in time to glimpse the roots of the modern world. Witness global conflicts, the founding of nations, and other big moments in the human story.","relatedArticles":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles?category=33670&offset=0&size=5"},"hasArticle":true,"hasBook":true,"articleCount":375,"bookCount":32},"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33670"}},"relatedCategoriesLoadedStatus":"success"},"listState":{"list":{"count":10,"total":371,"items":[{"headers":{"creationTime":"2017-03-26T11:14:00+00:00","modifiedTime":"2024-10-20T20:36:29+00:00","timestamp":"2024-10-20T21:01:03+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Academics & The Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"History","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33670"},"slug":"history","categoryId":33670},{"name":"American History","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33672"},"slug":"american","categoryId":33672}],"title":"The American Forces in the Revolutionary War","strippedTitle":"the american forces in the revolutionary war","slug":"the-american-forces-in-the-revolutionary-war","canonicalUrl":"","浏览领头羊改善":{"metaDescription":"The armed forces in the American Revolutionary War faced many challenges, including less than overwhelming support for the war in the early years.","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"When you look at the problems the British had and then look at the dilemmas the Americans faced, it’s no wonder the American Revolutionary War took eight years.\r\n\r\nIn the early years at least, probably as few as a third of Americans supported the revolution. About 20 percent, called loyalists or Tories after the ruling political party in Britain, were loyal to the crown, and the rest didn’t care much one way or another.\r\n\r\nBecause they weren’t professional soldiers, many of those who fought in the American army had peculiar notions of soldiering. They often elected their officers, and when the officers gave orders they didn’t like, they just elected new ones.\r\n\r\nThe soldiers signed up for a year or two, and when their time was up, they simply went home, no matter how the war — or even the battle — was going. At one point, the colonial army under George Washington was down to 3,000 soldiers. They also weren’t big on sticking around when faced with a British bayonet charge.\r\n\r\nMany, if not most, battles ended with the Americans running away, so often that Washington once observed in exasperation that “they run from their own shadows.”\r\n\r\nRegional jealousies often surfaced when soldiers from one colony were given orders by officers from another colony, and there was at least one mutiny that had to be put down by other American units. The American soldiers were ill-fed, ill-housed, and so poorly clothed that in some battles, colonial soldiers fought nearly naked.\r\n<p class=\"Remember\">About 10,000 soldiers spent a bitter winter at Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, literally barefoot in the snow, and about 2,800 of them died. “The long and great sufferings of this army are unexampled in history,” wrote the army’s commander, George Washington.</p>\r\nThey were also paid in currency called <i>continentals,</i> which became so worthless the phrase “not worth a continental” became a common American saying for decades after the Revolution. Because the money was so worthless, unpatriotic American merchants often sold their goods to the British army instead, even when American troops wore rags and starved.\r\n\r\nOthers cornered the markets on goods such as food and clothing, stockpiling them until the prices rose higher and higher. As a result, desperate army leaders were forced to confiscate goods from private citizens to survive.\r\n\r\nAbout the best thing the Americans had going for them was a cause, because men who are fighting for something often fight better. Indeed, as the war wore on, the American soldier became more competent. By the end of 1777, a British officer wrote home that “though it was once the tone of this [British] army to treat them in a most contemptible light, they are now become a formidable enemy.”\r\n\r\nThe fact that there were 13 colonies was also an advantage because it meant there was no single nerve center for which the British could aim. They conquered New York, they took Philadelphia, and still the colonies fought on.\r\n\r\nAmerica also had rapid growth in its favor. “Britain, at the expense of 3 million [pounds] has killed 150 Yankees in this campaign, which is 20,000 pounds a head,” observed Ben Franklin early during the fighting. “During the same time, 60,000 children have been born in America.”\r\n\r\nBut maybe most important, the Americans were lucky enough to choose an extraordinary leader and smart enough to stick with him. Not only that, he looks good on the dollar bill.","description":"When you look at the problems the British had and then look at the dilemmas the Americans faced, it’s no wonder the American Revolutionary War took eight years.\r\n\r\nIn the early years at least, probably as few as a third of Americans supported the revolution. About 20 percent, called loyalists or Tories after the ruling political party in Britain, were loyal to the crown, and the rest didn’t care much one way or another.\r\n\r\nBecause they weren’t professional soldiers, many of those who fought in the American army had peculiar notions of soldiering. They often elected their officers, and when the officers gave orders they didn’t like, they just elected new ones.\r\n\r\nThe soldiers signed up for a year or two, and when their time was up, they simply went home, no matter how the war — or even the battle — was going. At one point, the colonial army under George Washington was down to 3,000 soldiers. They also weren’t big on sticking around when faced with a British bayonet charge.\r\n\r\nMany, if not most, battles ended with the Americans running away, so often that Washington once observed in exasperation that “they run from their own shadows.”\r\n\r\nRegional jealousies often surfaced when soldiers from one colony were given orders by officers from another colony, and there was at least one mutiny that had to be put down by other American units. The American soldiers were ill-fed, ill-housed, and so poorly clothed that in some battles, colonial soldiers fought nearly naked.\r\n<p class=\"Remember\">About 10,000 soldiers spent a bitter winter at Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, literally barefoot in the snow, and about 2,800 of them died. “The long and great sufferings of this army are unexampled in history,” wrote the army’s commander, George Washington.</p>\r\nThey were also paid in currency called <i>continentals,</i> which became so worthless the phrase “not worth a continental” became a common American saying for decades after the Revolution. Because the money was so worthless, unpatriotic American merchants often sold their goods to the British army instead, even when American troops wore rags and starved.\r\n\r\nOthers cornered the markets on goods such as food and clothing, stockpiling them until the prices rose higher and higher. As a result, desperate army leaders were forced to confiscate goods from private citizens to survive.\r\n\r\nAbout the best thing the Americans had going for them was a cause, because men who are fighting for something often fight better. Indeed, as the war wore on, the American soldier became more competent. By the end of 1777, a British officer wrote home that “though it was once the tone of this [British] army to treat them in a most contemptible light, they are now become a formidable enemy.”\r\n\r\nThe fact that there were 13 colonies was also an advantage because it meant there was no single nerve center for which the British could aim. They conquered New York, they took Philadelphia, and still the colonies fought on.\r\n\r\nAmerica also had rapid growth in its favor. “Britain, at the expense of 3 million [pounds] has killed 150 Yankees in this campaign, which is 20,000 pounds a head,” observed Ben Franklin early during the fighting. “During the same time, 60,000 children have been born in America.”\r\n\r\nBut maybe most important, the Americans were lucky enough to choose an extraordinary leader and smart enough to stick with him. Not only that, he looks good on the dollar bill.","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":9116,"name":"Steve Wiegand","slug":"steve-wiegand","description":" <p><b>Steve Wiegand</b> is an award&#45;winning political journalist and history writer. Over a 35&#45;year career, he worked as a reporter and columnist at the <i>San Diego Evening Tribune, San Francisco Chronicle</i>, and <i>Sacramento Bee</i>. He is the author or coauthor of seven books dealing with various aspects of U.S. and world history. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9116"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33672,"title":"American History","slug":"american","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33672"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":299292,"title":"The Final Events that Led To the American Revolution","slug":"the-final-events-that-led-to-the-american-revolution","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","history","american"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/299292"}},{"articleId":288783,"title":"First Ladies For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"50-key-dates-in-us-first-lady-history","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","history","american"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/288783"}},{"articleId":269903,"title":"U.S. Presidential Duties in Modern Times","slug":"performing-many-roles-the-presidents-duties-in-modern-times","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","history","american"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/269903"}},{"articleId":269900,"title":"The Controversial Style of Trump's Presidency","slug":"president-donald-trump-controversies-at-home-and-abroad","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","history","american"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/269900"}},{"articleId":269894,"title":"Scandals: Defining Donald Trump’s Presidency","slug":"scandals-defining-donald-trumps-presidency","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","history","american"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/269894"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":0,"slug":null,"isbn":null,"categoryList":null,"amazon":null,"image":null,"title":null,"testBankPinActivationLink":null,"bookOutOfPrint":false,"authorsInfo":null,"authors":null,"_links":null},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;history&quot;,&quot;american&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[null]}]\" id=\"du-slot-6532ea8f3e362\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;history&quot;,&quot;american&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[null]}]\" id=\"du-slot-6532ea8f3e868\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Articles","articleList":null,"content":null,"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Explore","lifeExpectancy":"Five years","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2024-10-20T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":151530},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2017-03-26T11:14:00+00:00","modifiedTime":"2024-10-20T20:30:39+00:00","timestamp":"2024-10-20T21:01:03+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Academics & The Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"History","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33670"},"slug":"history","categoryId":33670},{"name":"American History","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33672"},"slug":"american","categoryId":33672}],"title":"The British Forces in the Revolutionary War","strippedTitle":"the british forces in the revolutionary war","slug":"the-british-forces-in-the-revolutionary-war","canonicalUrl":"","浏览领头羊改善":{"metaDescription":"Having the best armed forces in the world doesn't necessarily mean a sure victory, as the British found out in the American Revolutionary War.","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"The first thing the British had going for them when it came to fighting the Americans was a whole bunch of fighters. The British army consisted of about 50,000 men. They “rented” another 30,000 mercenary German soldiers. In addition, they had the best navy in the world.\r\n\r\nAnd the people the Brits were fighting, the colonists, had no regular army, no navy at all, and few real resources to assemble them.\r\n\r\nBut, as America itself was to find out about two centuries later in Vietnam, having the best army and navy doesn’t always mean that much. For one thing, the British people were by no means united in a desire to rein in the colonies.\r\n\r\nWhen war broke out, several leading British military leaders refused to take part. Some British leaders also recognized the difficulty of winning a war by fighting on the enemy’s turf thousands of miles from Britain, especially when the enemy was fighting for a cause.\r\n<blockquote>“You may spread fire, sword, and desolation, but that will not be government,” warned the Duke of Richmond. “No people can ever be made to submit to a form of government they say they will not receive.”</blockquote>\r\nThree factors contributed to Britain’s ultimate downfall:\r\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>The British political leaders who did support the war were generally inept.</b> Lord North, the prime minister, was a decent bureaucrat but no leader, and he basically did what King George III wanted. And some of the British generals were nincompoops.</p>\r\n<p class=\"child-para\">One of them, leaving for duty in early 1777, boastfully bet a fair sum of money that he would be back in England “victorious from America by Christmas Day, 1777.” By Christmas Day, he had surrendered his entire army.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Britain couldn’t commit all its military resources to putting down the rebellion.</b> Because of unrest in Ireland and the potential for trouble with the French, who were still smarting from their defeats by the British in the New World, Britain had to keep many of its forces in Europe.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Because the Brits didn’t take their opponents seriously, they had no real plan for winning the war.</b> That meant they fooled around long enough to give the Americans hope. And that gave the French a reason to believe the colonials just might win, so they provided the Americans with what proved to be indispensable arms, money, ships, and troops.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n</ul>","description":"The first thing the British had going for them when it came to fighting the Americans was a whole bunch of fighters. The British army consisted of about 50,000 men. They “rented” another 30,000 mercenary German soldiers. In addition, they had the best navy in the world.\r\n\r\nAnd the people the Brits were fighting, the colonists, had no regular army, no navy at all, and few real resources to assemble them.\r\n\r\nBut, as America itself was to find out about two centuries later in Vietnam, having the best army and navy doesn’t always mean that much. For one thing, the British people were by no means united in a desire to rein in the colonies.\r\n\r\nWhen war broke out, several leading British military leaders refused to take part. Some British leaders also recognized the difficulty of winning a war by fighting on the enemy’s turf thousands of miles from Britain, especially when the enemy was fighting for a cause.\r\n<blockquote>“You may spread fire, sword, and desolation, but that will not be government,” warned the Duke of Richmond. “No people can ever be made to submit to a form of government they say they will not receive.”</blockquote>\r\nThree factors contributed to Britain’s ultimate downfall:\r\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>The British political leaders who did support the war were generally inept.</b> Lord North, the prime minister, was a decent bureaucrat but no leader, and he basically did what King George III wanted. And some of the British generals were nincompoops.</p>\r\n<p class=\"child-para\">One of them, leaving for duty in early 1777, boastfully bet a fair sum of money that he would be back in England “victorious from America by Christmas Day, 1777.” By Christmas Day, he had surrendered his entire army.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Britain couldn’t commit all its military resources to putting down the rebellion.</b> Because of unrest in Ireland and the potential for trouble with the French, who were still smarting from their defeats by the British in the New World, Britain had to keep many of its forces in Europe.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Because the Brits didn’t take their opponents seriously, they had no real plan for winning the war.</b> That meant they fooled around long enough to give the Americans hope. And that gave the French a reason to believe the colonials just might win, so they provided the Americans with what proved to be indispensable arms, money, ships, and troops.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n</ul>","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":9116,"name":"Steve Wiegand","slug":"steve-wiegand","description":" <p><b>Steve Wiegand</b> is an award&#45;winning political journalist and history writer. Over a 35&#45;year career, he worked as a reporter and columnist at the <i>San Diego Evening Tribune, San Francisco Chronicle</i>, and <i>Sacramento Bee</i>. He is the author or coauthor of seven books dealing with various aspects of U.S. and world history. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9116"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33672,"title":"American History","slug":"american","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33672"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":299292,"title":"The Final Events that Led To the American Revolution","slug":"the-final-events-that-led-to-the-american-revolution","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","history","american"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/299292"}},{"articleId":288783,"title":"First Ladies For Dummies Cheat 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Presidency","slug":"scandals-defining-donald-trumps-presidency","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","history","american"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/269894"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":0,"slug":null,"isbn":null,"categoryList":null,"amazon":null,"image":null,"title":null,"testBankPinActivationLink":null,"bookOutOfPrint":false,"authorsInfo":null,"authors":null,"_links":null},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;history&quot;,&quot;american&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[null]}]\" id=\"du-slot-6532ea8f389a8\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;history&quot;,&quot;american&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[null]}]\" id=\"du-slot-6532ea8f38eac\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Articles","articleList":null,"content":null,"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Explore","lifeExpectancy":"Five years","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2024-10-20T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":151528},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2017-03-27T16:57:19+00:00","modifiedTime":"2024-10-19T20:19:23+00:00","timestamp":"2024-10-19T21:01:03+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Academics & The Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"History","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33670"},"slug":"history","categoryId":33670},{"name":"American History","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33672"},"slug":"american","categoryId":33672}],"title":"US History For Dummies Cheat Sheet","strippedTitle":"us history for dummies cheat sheet","slug":"u-s-history-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","canonicalUrl":"","浏览领头羊改善":{"metaDescription":"This Cheat Sheet provides a timeline of significant events in U.S. history, from before the first European settlers to 2018.","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"This Cheat Sheet provides key dates that outline some of the most important events in U.S. history, which is as complex and fascinating as the people who populate the country.\r\n\r\n \r\n\r\n ","description":"This Cheat Sheet provides key dates that outline some of the most important events in U.S. history, which is as complex and fascinating as the people who populate the country.\r\n\r\n \r\n\r\n ","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":9116,"name":"Steve Wiegand","slug":"steve-wiegand","description":" <p><b>Steve Wiegand</b> is an award&#45;winning political journalist and history writer. Over a 35&#45;year career, he worked as a reporter and columnist at the <i>San Diego Evening Tribune, San Francisco Chronicle</i>, and <i>Sacramento Bee</i>. He is the author or coauthor of seven books dealing with various aspects of U.S. and world history. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9116"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33672,"title":"American History","slug":"american","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33672"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[{"articleId":194014,"title":"Key Dates in U.S. History","slug":"key-dates-in-u-s-history","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","history","american"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/194014"}},{"articleId":188970,"title":"Causes and Consequences of the Great Depression","slug":"causes-and-consequences-of-the-great-depression","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","history","american"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/188970"}},{"articleId":188964,"title":"Hurricanes Katrina and Ike Devastate the Southern United States","slug":"hurricane-katrina-devastates-new-orleans","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","history","american"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/188964"}},{"articleId":186943,"title":"The 9/11 Terrorist Attacks on the U.S.","slug":"the-911-terrorist-attacks-on-the-u-s","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","history","american"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/186943"}},{"articleId":151648,"title":"Slavery in Early America","slug":"slavery-in-early-america","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","history","american"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/151648"}}],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":299292,"title":"The Final Events that Led To the American Revolution","slug":"the-final-events-that-led-to-the-american-revolution","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","history","american"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/299292"}},{"articleId":288783,"title":"First Ladies For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"50-key-dates-in-us-first-lady-history","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","history","american"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/288783"}},{"articleId":269903,"title":"U.S. Presidential Duties in Modern Times","slug":"performing-many-roles-the-presidents-duties-in-modern-times","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","history","american"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/269903"}},{"articleId":269900,"title":"The Controversial Style of Trump's Presidency","slug":"president-donald-trump-controversies-at-home-and-abroad","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","history","american"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/269900"}},{"articleId":269894,"title":"Scandals: Defining Donald Trump’s Presidency","slug":"scandals-defining-donald-trumps-presidency","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","history","american"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/269894"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":282652,"slug":"u-s-history-for-dummies-4th-edition","isbn":"9781119550693","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","history","american"],"amazon":{"default":"//www.amazon.com/gp/product/1119550696/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","ca":"//www.amazon.ca/gp/product/1119550696/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","indigo_ca":"//www.tkqlhce.com/click-9208661-13710633?url=//www.chapters.indigo.ca/en-ca/books/product/1119550696-item.html&cjsku=978111945484","gb":"//www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/1119550696/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","de":"//www.amazon.de/gp/product/1119550696/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20"},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/u.s.-history-for-dummies-4th-edition-cover-9781119550693-203x255.jpg","width":203,"height":255},"title":"U.S. History For Dummies","testBankPinActivationLink":"//testbanks.wiley.com","bookOutOfPrint":false,"authorsInfo":"<p><b data-author-id=\"9116\">Steve Wiegand</b> is an award-winning political journalist and history writer. Over a 35-year career, he worked as a reporter and columnist at the <i>San Diego Evening Tribune, San Francisco Chronicle</i>, and <i>Sacramento Bee</i>. He is the author or coauthor of seven books dealing with various aspects of U.S. and world history. </p>","authors":[{"authorId":9116,"name":"Steve Wiegand","slug":"steve-wiegand","description":" <p><b>Steve Wiegand</b> is an award&#45;winning political journalist and history writer. Over a 35&#45;year career, he worked as a reporter and columnist at the <i>San Diego Evening Tribune, San Francisco Chronicle</i>, and <i>Sacramento Bee</i>. He is the author or coauthor of seven books dealing with various aspects of U.S. and world history. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9116"}}],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/books/"}},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;history&quot;,&quot;american&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781119550693&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-6531990f49d15\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;history&quot;,&quot;american&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781119550693&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-6531990f4a235\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Cheat Sheet","articleList":[{"articleId":194014,"title":"Key Dates in U.S. History","slug":"key-dates-in-u-s-history","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","history","american"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/194014"}}],"content":[{"title":"Key dates in US history","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>You may think U.S. history starts with the American Revolution, but before that pivotal event came the hunters who first explored the continent and the Europeans who tried to colonize it.</p>\n<p>Of course, after John Hancock and his colleagues signed the Declaration of Independence in 1776, things got really interesting, and historically significant people and events contributed to the making of the country we have today.</p>\n<p>The following timeline offers a few of the significant milestones:</p>\n<p><img loading=\"lazy\" class=\"alignnone size-full wp-image-261869\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/9781119550693-fgcs01a.jpg\" alt=\"U.S. history timeline\" width=\"535\" height=\"695\" /></p>\n<p><img loading=\"lazy\" class=\"alignnone size-full wp-image-261870\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/9781119550693-fgcs01b.jpg\" alt=\"U.S. history timeline\" width=\"535\" height=\"770\" /></p>\n"}],"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Explore","lifeExpectancy":"Five years","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2023-02-23T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":209241},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2017-03-26T20:10:08+00:00","modifiedTime":"2024-10-10T18:24:12+00:00","timestamp":"2024-10-10T21:01:02+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Academics & The Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"History","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33670"},"slug":"history","categoryId":33670},{"name":"World","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33683"},"slug":"world","categoryId":33683}],"title":"A Brief History of Palestine","strippedTitle":"a brief history of palestine","slug":"a-brief-history-of-palestine","canonicalUrl":"","浏览领头羊改善":{"metaDescription":"In this brief summary of Palestine's history, learn about the major events that shaped the region, including the Israel-Palestinian conflict.","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"“Palestine” was a common name used until 1948 to describe the geographic region between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River. In its history, the Assyrians, Babylonians, Persians, Greeks, Romans, and Egyptians, among others, have controlled Palestine at one time or another. The Ottoman Empire ruled the region from the 1500s through 1917.\r\n\r\nAfter World War I, Palestine was administered by the United Kingdom under a mandate received in 1922 from the League of Nations. The modern history of Palestine begins with the termination of the British Mandate, the Partition of Palestine and the creation of Israel, and the ensuing Israeli-Palestinian conflict.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" ><strong>The Partition of Palestine</strong></h2>\r\nIn 1947, the United Nations (U.N.) proposed a Partition Plan for Palestine titled “United Nations General Assembly Resolution 181 (II) Future Government of Palestine.” The resolution noted Britain’s planned termination of the British Mandate for Palestine and recommended the partition of Palestine into two states, one Jewish and one Arab, with the Jerusalem-Bethlehem area protected and administered by the United Nations.\r\n\r\nThe resolution included a highly detailed description of the recommended boundaries for each proposed state. The resolution also contained plans for an economic union between the proposed states and for the protection of religious and minority rights. The resolution called for the withdrawal of British forces and termination of the Mandate by August 1948 and establishment of the new independent states by October 1948.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab2\" ><strong>First Arab-Israeli War (1948)</strong></h2>\r\nJewish leadership accepted the Partition Plan but Arab leaders rejected it. The Arab League threatened to take military measures to prevent the partition of Palestine and to ensure the national rights of the Palestinian Arab population. One day before the British Mandate expired, Israel declared its independence within the borders of the Jewish State set out in the Partition Plan. The Arab countries declared war on the newly formed State of Israel beginning the 1948 Arab-Israeli War.\r\n\r\nAfter the war, which Palestinians call the Catastrophe, the 1949 Armistice Agreements established the separation lines between the combatants: Israel controlled some areas designated for the Arab state under the Partition Plan, Transjordan controlled the West Bank and East Jerusalem, and Egypt controlled the Gaza Strip.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab3\" ><strong>The Six Day War</strong></h2>\r\nThe Six Day War was fought from June 5 to June 10, 1967, with Israel emerging victorious and effectively seizing control of the Gaza Strip and the Sinai Peninsula from Egypt, the West Bank and East Jerusalem from Jordan, and the Golan Heights from Syria. The U.N. Security Council adopted Resolution 242, the “land for peace” formula, which called for Israeli withdrawal “from territories occupied” in 1967 and “the termination of all claims or states of belligerency.” Resolution 242 recognized the right of “every state in the area to live in peace within secure and recognized boundaries free from threats or acts of force.”\r\n<h2 id=\"tab4\" ><strong>The 1973 War</strong></h2>\r\nIn October 1973, war broke out again between Israel and Egypt in the Sinai and Syria in the Golan Heights. A ceasefire was achieved (U.N. resolution 339) and U.N. peacekeepers deployed on both the fronts, only withdrawing from the Egyptian front after Israel and Egypt concluded a peace treaty in 1979. U.N. peacekeepers remain deployed in the Golan Heights.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab5\" ><strong>Rise of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO)</strong></h2>\r\nIn 1974, the Arab League recognized the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) as the sole legitimate representative of the Palestinian people and relinquished its role as representative of the West Bank. The PLO gained observer status at the U.N. General Assembly the same year.\r\n\r\nIn 1988, the Palestinian National Council of the PLO approved a Palestinian Declaration of Independence in Algiers, Tunisia. The declaration proclaims a “State of Palestine on our Palestinian territory with its capital Jerusalem,” although it does not specify exact borders, and asserts U.N. Resolution 181 supports the rights of Palestinians and Palestine. The declaration was accompanied by a PLO call for multilateral negotiations on the basis of U.N. Resolution 242.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab6\" ><strong>The Intifada (1987 to 1993)</strong></h2>\r\nConditions in the Gaza Strip and West Bank, including Jerusalem, after more than 20 years of military occupation, repression and confiscation of land, contributed to a Palestinian uprising called the intifada in December 1987. Between 1987 and 1993, over 1,000 Palestinians were killed and thousands injured, detained, imprisoned in Israel or deported from the Palestinian territories.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab7\" ><strong>The peace process</strong></h2>\r\nIn 1993, the Oslo Accords, the first direct, face-to-face agreement between Israel and the PLO, were signed and intended to provide a framework for the future relations between the two parties. The Accords created the Palestinian National Authority (PNA) with responsibility for the administration of the territory under its control. The Accords also called for the withdrawal of Israeli forces from parts of the Gaza Strip and West Bank.\r\n\r\nImplementation of the Oslo Accords suffered a serious setback with the assassination of Yitzhak Rabin, Israeli Prime Minister and signer of the Oslo Accords, in November 1995. Since 1995, several peace summits and proposals, including the Camp David Summit (2000), Taba Summit (2001), the Road Map for Peace (2002), and the Arab Peace Initiative (2002 and 2007), have attempted to broker a solution, with no success. At the same time, internal divisions between two Palestinian political parties ― Hamas and Fatah ― after Hamas won legislative elections in 2006 and took over administration of the Gaza Strip, led to conflicts that undermined the peace process.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab8\" ><strong>The drive for recognition of Palestinian statehood</strong></h2>\r\nIn September 2011, Mahmoud Abbas, President of the Palestinian National Authority, requested recognition of a Palestinian state from both the United Nations General Assembly and Security Council. In October 2011, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) admitted Palestine as a member. In November 2012, the U.N. granted Palestine non-member observer State status. This progress on the international scene, however, was undercut by developments in the Gaza Strip and West Bank.\r\n\r\nIn June 2014, Hamas and Fatah instituted a unified national Palestinian government retaining Abbas as President, prompting Israel to condemn the new government and withdraw from negotiations, claiming that a Palestinian government including Hamas would lead to increased terrorism and threaten the security of Israel. Fighting immediately broke out in Gaza between Israel security forces and Hamas and lasted through the summer, ending in an Egyptian-brokered cease-fire in August 2014. Since that time, periodic violent conflicts have occurred between Palestinians and Israeli security forces with deaths on both sides.\r\n\r\nIn May 2017, Hamas officials proposed a Palestinian state defined by the 1967 borders with the capital in Jerusalem, but refused to recognize Israel as a state. In so doing, the proposal undercut a central aim of the Oslo Accords and other proposed agreements ― a two-state solution that recognizes an independent state of Palestine alongside the state of Israel. Israel immediately rejected this proposal.\r\n\r\nLate in 2017, the U.S. government made statements recognizing Jerusalem as the capital of Israel. This prompted Palestinian leaders including President Abbas in January 2018 to call for an end of Palestinian recognition of Israel until Israel recognized the state of Palestine as defined by the 1967 borders including the Gaza Strip, West Bank, and East Jerusalem, along with suspension of settlement efforts in the West Bank.\r\n\r\nIn May 2021, a further round of violence erupted between Palestinians and Israeli security forces, in response to protests in East Jerusalem over the potential eviction of several Palestinian families. The ensuing violence claimed more than 250 Palestinian lives and more than a dozen Israelis, before Israel and Hamas agreed to a cease-fire.\r\n\r\nRecent history further demonstrates that <a href=\"//coursofppt.com/article/academics-the-arts/political-science/general-political-science/obstacles-to-a-palestinian-state-186239/\">numerous issues remain to be settled by Israelis and Palestinians</a>, and even between Palestinians themselves, before a truly unified and independent state of Palestine emerges, and peace comes to the region.","description":"“Palestine” was a common name used until 1948 to describe the geographic region between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River. In its history, the Assyrians, Babylonians, Persians, Greeks, Romans, and Egyptians, among others, have controlled Palestine at one time or another. The Ottoman Empire ruled the region from the 1500s through 1917.\r\n\r\nAfter World War I, Palestine was administered by the United Kingdom under a mandate received in 1922 from the League of Nations. The modern history of Palestine begins with the termination of the British Mandate, the Partition of Palestine and the creation of Israel, and the ensuing Israeli-Palestinian conflict.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" ><strong>The Partition of Palestine</strong></h2>\r\nIn 1947, the United Nations (U.N.) proposed a Partition Plan for Palestine titled “United Nations General Assembly Resolution 181 (II) Future Government of Palestine.” The resolution noted Britain’s planned termination of the British Mandate for Palestine and recommended the partition of Palestine into two states, one Jewish and one Arab, with the Jerusalem-Bethlehem area protected and administered by the United Nations.\r\n\r\nThe resolution included a highly detailed description of the recommended boundaries for each proposed state. The resolution also contained plans for an economic union between the proposed states and for the protection of religious and minority rights. The resolution called for the withdrawal of British forces and termination of the Mandate by August 1948 and establishment of the new independent states by October 1948.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab2\" ><strong>First Arab-Israeli War (1948)</strong></h2>\r\nJewish leadership accepted the Partition Plan but Arab leaders rejected it. The Arab League threatened to take military measures to prevent the partition of Palestine and to ensure the national rights of the Palestinian Arab population. One day before the British Mandate expired, Israel declared its independence within the borders of the Jewish State set out in the Partition Plan. The Arab countries declared war on the newly formed State of Israel beginning the 1948 Arab-Israeli War.\r\n\r\nAfter the war, which Palestinians call the Catastrophe, the 1949 Armistice Agreements established the separation lines between the combatants: Israel controlled some areas designated for the Arab state under the Partition Plan, Transjordan controlled the West Bank and East Jerusalem, and Egypt controlled the Gaza Strip.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab3\" ><strong>The Six Day War</strong></h2>\r\nThe Six Day War was fought from June 5 to June 10, 1967, with Israel emerging victorious and effectively seizing control of the Gaza Strip and the Sinai Peninsula from Egypt, the West Bank and East Jerusalem from Jordan, and the Golan Heights from Syria. The U.N. Security Council adopted Resolution 242, the “land for peace” formula, which called for Israeli withdrawal “from territories occupied” in 1967 and “the termination of all claims or states of belligerency.” Resolution 242 recognized the right of “every state in the area to live in peace within secure and recognized boundaries free from threats or acts of force.”\r\n<h2 id=\"tab4\" ><strong>The 1973 War</strong></h2>\r\nIn October 1973, war broke out again between Israel and Egypt in the Sinai and Syria in the Golan Heights. A ceasefire was achieved (U.N. resolution 339) and U.N. peacekeepers deployed on both the fronts, only withdrawing from the Egyptian front after Israel and Egypt concluded a peace treaty in 1979. U.N. peacekeepers remain deployed in the Golan Heights.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab5\" ><strong>Rise of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO)</strong></h2>\r\nIn 1974, the Arab League recognized the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) as the sole legitimate representative of the Palestinian people and relinquished its role as representative of the West Bank. The PLO gained observer status at the U.N. General Assembly the same year.\r\n\r\nIn 1988, the Palestinian National Council of the PLO approved a Palestinian Declaration of Independence in Algiers, Tunisia. The declaration proclaims a “State of Palestine on our Palestinian territory with its capital Jerusalem,” although it does not specify exact borders, and asserts U.N. Resolution 181 supports the rights of Palestinians and Palestine. The declaration was accompanied by a PLO call for multilateral negotiations on the basis of U.N. Resolution 242.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab6\" ><strong>The Intifada (1987 to 1993)</strong></h2>\r\nConditions in the Gaza Strip and West Bank, including Jerusalem, after more than 20 years of military occupation, repression and confiscation of land, contributed to a Palestinian uprising called the intifada in December 1987. Between 1987 and 1993, over 1,000 Palestinians were killed and thousands injured, detained, imprisoned in Israel or deported from the Palestinian territories.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab7\" ><strong>The peace process</strong></h2>\r\nIn 1993, the Oslo Accords, the first direct, face-to-face agreement between Israel and the PLO, were signed and intended to provide a framework for the future relations between the two parties. The Accords created the Palestinian National Authority (PNA) with responsibility for the administration of the territory under its control. The Accords also called for the withdrawal of Israeli forces from parts of the Gaza Strip and West Bank.\r\n\r\nImplementation of the Oslo Accords suffered a serious setback with the assassination of Yitzhak Rabin, Israeli Prime Minister and signer of the Oslo Accords, in November 1995. Since 1995, several peace summits and proposals, including the Camp David Summit (2000), Taba Summit (2001), the Road Map for Peace (2002), and the Arab Peace Initiative (2002 and 2007), have attempted to broker a solution, with no success. At the same time, internal divisions between two Palestinian political parties ― Hamas and Fatah ― after Hamas won legislative elections in 2006 and took over administration of the Gaza Strip, led to conflicts that undermined the peace process.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab8\" ><strong>The drive for recognition of Palestinian statehood</strong></h2>\r\nIn September 2011, Mahmoud Abbas, President of the Palestinian National Authority, requested recognition of a Palestinian state from both the United Nations General Assembly and Security Council. In October 2011, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) admitted Palestine as a member. In November 2012, the U.N. granted Palestine non-member observer State status. This progress on the international scene, however, was undercut by developments in the Gaza Strip and West Bank.\r\n\r\nIn June 2014, Hamas and Fatah instituted a unified national Palestinian government retaining Abbas as President, prompting Israel to condemn the new government and withdraw from negotiations, claiming that a Palestinian government including Hamas would lead to increased terrorism and threaten the security of Israel. Fighting immediately broke out in Gaza between Israel security forces and Hamas and lasted through the summer, ending in an Egyptian-brokered cease-fire in August 2014. Since that time, periodic violent conflicts have occurred between Palestinians and Israeli security forces with deaths on both sides.\r\n\r\nIn May 2017, Hamas officials proposed a Palestinian state defined by the 1967 borders with the capital in Jerusalem, but refused to recognize Israel as a state. In so doing, the proposal undercut a central aim of the Oslo Accords and other proposed agreements ― a two-state solution that recognizes an independent state of Palestine alongside the state of Israel. Israel immediately rejected this proposal.\r\n\r\nLate in 2017, the U.S. government made statements recognizing Jerusalem as the capital of Israel. This prompted Palestinian leaders including President Abbas in January 2018 to call for an end of Palestinian recognition of Israel until Israel recognized the state of Palestine as defined by the 1967 borders including the Gaza Strip, West Bank, and East Jerusalem, along with suspension of settlement efforts in the West Bank.\r\n\r\nIn May 2021, a further round of violence erupted between Palestinians and Israeli security forces, in response to protests in East Jerusalem over the potential eviction of several Palestinian families. The ensuing violence claimed more than 250 Palestinian lives and more than a dozen Israelis, before Israel and Hamas agreed to a cease-fire.\r\n\r\nRecent history further demonstrates that <a href=\"//coursofppt.com/article/academics-the-arts/political-science/general-political-science/obstacles-to-a-palestinian-state-186239/\">numerous issues remain to be settled by Israelis and Palestinians</a>, and even between Palestinians themselves, before a truly unified and independent state of Palestine emerges, and peace comes to the region.","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":9978,"name":"Kirk Bailey","slug":"kirk-bailey","description":"","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9978"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33683,"title":"World","slug":"world","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33683"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[{"label":"The Partition of Palestine","target":"#tab1"},{"label":"First Arab-Israeli War (1948)","target":"#tab2"},{"label":"The Six Day War","target":"#tab3"},{"label":"The 1973 War","target":"#tab4"},{"label":"Rise of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO)","target":"#tab5"},{"label":"The Intifada (1987 to 1993)","target":"#tab6"},{"label":"The peace process","target":"#tab7"},{"label":"The drive for recognition of Palestinian statehood","target":"#tab8"}],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[{"articleId":209500,"title":"World History For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"world-history-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","history","world"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/209500"}},{"articleId":196448,"title":"A Timeline of World History","slug":"a-timeline-of-world-history","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","history","world"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/196448"}}],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":209500,"title":"World History For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"world-history-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","history","world"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/209500"}},{"articleId":208053,"title":"Napoleon For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"napoleon-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","history","world"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/208053"}},{"articleId":200963,"title":"Napoleon: Basking in the Glow of Glory","slug":"napoleon-basking-in-the-glow-of-glory","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","history","world"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/200963"}},{"articleId":200962,"title":"Napoleon: Being a Hero in a Troubled Nation","slug":"napoleon-being-a-hero-in-a-troubled-nation","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","history","world"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/200962"}},{"articleId":200961,"title":"Napoleon's Waterloo","slug":"napoleons-waterloo","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","history","world"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/200961"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":282678,"slug":"world-history-for-dummies","isbn":"9781119855606","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","history","world"],"amazon":{"default":"//www.amazon.com/gp/product/1119855608/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","ca":"//www.amazon.ca/gp/product/1119855608/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","indigo_ca":"//www.tkqlhce.com/click-9208661-13710633?url=//www.chapters.indigo.ca/en-ca/books/product/1119855608-item.html&cjsku=978111945484","gb":"//www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/1119855608/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","de":"//www.amazon.de/gp/product/1119855608/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20"},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/1119855608-203x255.jpg","width":203,"height":255},"title":"World History For Dummies","testBankPinActivationLink":"","bookOutOfPrint":true,"authorsInfo":"<p><b><b data-author-id=\"10598\">Peter Haugen</b> </b>is an experienced journalist, publisher, and author. He has written several history titles and appeared in publications like <i>History Magazine</i> and <i>Psychology Today</i>.</p>","authors":[{"authorId":10598,"name":"Peter Haugen","slug":"peter-haugen","description":" <p><b>Peter Haugen </b>is an experienced journalist, publisher, and author. He has written several history titles and appeared in publications like <i>History Magazine</i> and <i>Psychology Today</i>.</p> ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/10598"}}],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/books/"}},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;history&quot;,&quot;world&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781119855606&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-6525bb8ee7d96\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;history&quot;,&quot;world&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781119855606&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-6525bb8ee873d\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Articles","articleList":null,"content":null,"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Explore","lifeExpectancy":"One year","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2022-08-25T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":186279},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2021-04-06T14:20:42+00:00","modifiedTime":"2024-08-10T20:26:41+00:00","timestamp":"2024-08-10T21:01:03+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Academics & The Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"History","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33670"},"slug":"history","categoryId":33670},{"name":"American History","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33672"},"slug":"american","categoryId":33672}],"title":"Scandals: Defining Donald Trump’s Presidency","strippedTitle":"scandals: defining donald trump’s presidency","slug":"scandals-defining-donald-trumps-presidency","canonicalUrl":"","浏览领头羊改善":{"metaDescription":"Here's a brief look at the two primary scandals that have defined Trump's presidency. Take a look at the Russian and Ukraine scandals.","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"From the beginning, the Trump administration was mired in scandals that have undermined his presidency. The constant wave of scandals has resulted in negative coverage of his presidency, overshadowing his economic and foreign policy successes.\r\n\r\nInstead of being able to focus on domestic and foreign policy, President Trump has constantly dealt with putting out fires often caused by his own actions. The two biggest scandals were the Russia and the Ukraine scandals.\r\n\r\n[caption id=\"attachment_269896\" align=\"aligncenter\" width=\"556\"]<img class=\"wp-image-269896 size-full\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/us-presidents-trump-scandal.jpg\" alt=\"Trump scandal\" width=\"556\" height=\"278\" /> ©Shutterstock/Aquir[/caption]\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" >The Russia scandal</h2>\r\nAlmost as soon as Donald Trump had assumed the presidency, the Russia scandal broke out. It involved some of the president’s closest aides, including his <a href=\"//coursofppt.com/article/academics-the-arts/political-science/what-is-the-role-of-the-national-security-advisor-178895/\">national security advisor</a>.\r\n<p class=\"article-tips tech\">During the 2016 presidential election, Russian operatives hacked Hillary Clinton’s server and later also the server for the Democratic National Committee. U.S. intelligence would later find out that the Russian government was actively trying to interfere in the U.S. presidential election by creating dissent among the U.S. public and trying to undermine Democratic candidate Hillary Clinton.</p>\r\nIn May 2017 Trump fired FBI Director James Comey, who had been leading an investigation into links between the Russian government and Trump associates. Comey later testified that he was fired after he refused to drop the investigation of President Trump’s National Security Advisor Michael Flynn, who had resigned after only 24 days in office after it was discovered that he had lied to Congress about meetings with the Russian Ambassador to the United States.\r\n\r\nFormer FBI Director Robert Mueller was appointed in May of 2017 to investigate whether there was any collusion between the Trump campaign and the Russian government and whether the Trump campaign had attempted to obstruct justice.\r\n\r\nThe findings of the investigation were released in April 2019 and stated that while there was clear interference by the Russian government in the <a href=\"//coursofppt.com/article/academics-the-arts/political-science/american-government/how-the-electoral-college-affected-the-2000-and-2016-elections-267936/\">2016 presidential elections</a>, there was no clear evidence that the Trump campaign had conspired with the Russian government. The report does note that while there was no evidence the Trump campaign coordinated with the Russian government, it clearly did benefit from Russian interference.\r\n\r\nThe findings on obstruction of justice were less clear. Mueller concluded that he could not charge a sitting president with a crime because a sitting president cannot stand trial. Only Congress can charge and then impeach and even remove a president.\r\n\r\nAccording to the report: “The investigation does not conclude that the president committed a crime; however, it does also not exonerate him.” In other words Mueller took the easy way out and left it up to Congress to take the next or no steps.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab2\" >The Ukraine scandal</h2>\r\nAfter having weathered the Russia scandal, it looked like President Trump’s presidency was safe until the 2020 election. However, in September 2019, the Ukraine scandal broke out. The scandal involves President Trump’s alleged attempts to coerce Ukraine into providing information on his possible democratic challenger Joe Biden and his son Hunter.\r\n\r\nAccording to the charges, President Trump threatened to withhold $400 million in military aid from Ukraine, unless it reopened an investigation into Hunter Biden’s activities in Ukraine.\r\n\r\nAn anonymous whistle blower brought this to the attention of Congress and the media, and in September 2019, the House of Representatives began hearings on whether President Trump solicited foreign intervention in the 2020 campaign. This would be an impeachable offense.\r\n\r\nFull impeachment hearings were started on October 31, 2019. These were open to the public and were nationally televised. On December 18, 2019, the House of Representatives voted 230 to 197 to impeach President Trump for abuse of power and obstruction of Congress.\r\n<p class=\"article-tips remember\">President Trump was the third president to be impeached by the House of Representatives. Andrew Johnson and <a href=\"//coursofppt.com/article/academics-the-arts/history/american/president-bill-clintons-foreign-and-domestic-policies-151473/\">Bill Clinton</a> were the other two.</p>\r\nAfter being impeached by the House of Representatives, the Senate started on January 16, 2020, to debate whether to remove President Trump from office. On February 5, 2020, the Senate acquitted President Trump by a 52 to 48 vote. It is now up to the U.S. electorate to decide whether he deserves a second term.","description":"From the beginning, the Trump administration was mired in scandals that have undermined his presidency. The constant wave of scandals has resulted in negative coverage of his presidency, overshadowing his economic and foreign policy successes.\r\n\r\nInstead of being able to focus on domestic and foreign policy, President Trump has constantly dealt with putting out fires often caused by his own actions. The two biggest scandals were the Russia and the Ukraine scandals.\r\n\r\n[caption id=\"attachment_269896\" align=\"aligncenter\" width=\"556\"]<img class=\"wp-image-269896 size-full\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/us-presidents-trump-scandal.jpg\" alt=\"Trump scandal\" width=\"556\" height=\"278\" /> ©Shutterstock/Aquir[/caption]\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" >The Russia scandal</h2>\r\nAlmost as soon as Donald Trump had assumed the presidency, the Russia scandal broke out. It involved some of the president’s closest aides, including his <a href=\"//coursofppt.com/article/academics-the-arts/political-science/what-is-the-role-of-the-national-security-advisor-178895/\">national security advisor</a>.\r\n<p class=\"article-tips tech\">During the 2016 presidential election, Russian operatives hacked Hillary Clinton’s server and later also the server for the Democratic National Committee. U.S. intelligence would later find out that the Russian government was actively trying to interfere in the U.S. presidential election by creating dissent among the U.S. public and trying to undermine Democratic candidate Hillary Clinton.</p>\r\nIn May 2017 Trump fired FBI Director James Comey, who had been leading an investigation into links between the Russian government and Trump associates. Comey later testified that he was fired after he refused to drop the investigation of President Trump’s National Security Advisor Michael Flynn, who had resigned after only 24 days in office after it was discovered that he had lied to Congress about meetings with the Russian Ambassador to the United States.\r\n\r\nFormer FBI Director Robert Mueller was appointed in May of 2017 to investigate whether there was any collusion between the Trump campaign and the Russian government and whether the Trump campaign had attempted to obstruct justice.\r\n\r\nThe findings of the investigation were released in April 2019 and stated that while there was clear interference by the Russian government in the <a href=\"//coursofppt.com/article/academics-the-arts/political-science/american-government/how-the-electoral-college-affected-the-2000-and-2016-elections-267936/\">2016 presidential elections</a>, there was no clear evidence that the Trump campaign had conspired with the Russian government. The report does note that while there was no evidence the Trump campaign coordinated with the Russian government, it clearly did benefit from Russian interference.\r\n\r\nThe findings on obstruction of justice were less clear. Mueller concluded that he could not charge a sitting president with a crime because a sitting president cannot stand trial. Only Congress can charge and then impeach and even remove a president.\r\n\r\nAccording to the report: “The investigation does not conclude that the president committed a crime; however, it does also not exonerate him.” In other words Mueller took the easy way out and left it up to Congress to take the next or no steps.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab2\" >The Ukraine scandal</h2>\r\nAfter having weathered the Russia scandal, it looked like President Trump’s presidency was safe until the 2020 election. However, in September 2019, the Ukraine scandal broke out. The scandal involves President Trump’s alleged attempts to coerce Ukraine into providing information on his possible democratic challenger Joe Biden and his son Hunter.\r\n\r\nAccording to the charges, President Trump threatened to withhold $400 million in military aid from Ukraine, unless it reopened an investigation into Hunter Biden’s activities in Ukraine.\r\n\r\nAn anonymous whistle blower brought this to the attention of Congress and the media, and in September 2019, the House of Representatives began hearings on whether President Trump solicited foreign intervention in the 2020 campaign. This would be an impeachable offense.\r\n\r\nFull impeachment hearings were started on October 31, 2019. These were open to the public and were nationally televised. On December 18, 2019, the House of Representatives voted 230 to 197 to impeach President Trump for abuse of power and obstruction of Congress.\r\n<p class=\"article-tips remember\">President Trump was the third president to be impeached by the House of Representatives. Andrew Johnson and <a href=\"//coursofppt.com/article/academics-the-arts/history/american/president-bill-clintons-foreign-and-domestic-policies-151473/\">Bill Clinton</a> were the other two.</p>\r\nAfter being impeached by the House of Representatives, the Senate started on January 16, 2020, to debate whether to remove President Trump from office. On February 5, 2020, the Senate acquitted President Trump by a 52 to 48 vote. It is now up to the U.S. electorate to decide whether he deserves a second term.","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":9725,"name":"Marcus A. Stadelmann","slug":"marcus-stadelmann","description":"Marcus A. Stadelmann, PhD, is a professor of political science and chair of the Department of Political Science and History at the University of Texas at Tyler. Along with teaching at universities in California, Utah, and Texas, Dr. Stadelmann has published and given presentations in the fields of American politics and international relations.","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9725"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33672,"title":"American History","slug":"american","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33672"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":34474,"title":"American Government","slug":"american-government","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/34474"}},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[{"label":"The Russia scandal","target":"#tab1"},{"label":"The Ukraine scandal","target":"#tab2"}],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[{"articleId":269903,"title":"U.S. Presidential Duties in Modern Times","slug":"performing-many-roles-the-presidents-duties-in-modern-times","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","history","american"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/269903"}},{"articleId":269900,"title":"The Controversial Style of Trump's Presidency","slug":"president-donald-trump-controversies-at-home-and-abroad","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","history","american"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/269900"}},{"articleId":269891,"title":"The 10 Worst Presidents","slug":"the-10-worst-presidents","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","history","american"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/269891"}},{"articleId":269885,"title":"The 10 Best Presidents","slug":"the-10-best-presidents","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","history","american"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/269885"}},{"articleId":269475,"title":"U.S. Presidents For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"u-s-presidents-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","history","american"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/269475"}}],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":299292,"title":"The Final Events that Led To the American Revolution","slug":"the-final-events-that-led-to-the-american-revolution","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","history","american"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/299292"}},{"articleId":288783,"title":"First Ladies For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"50-key-dates-in-us-first-lady-history","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","history","american"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/288783"}},{"articleId":269903,"title":"U.S. Presidential Duties in Modern Times","slug":"performing-many-roles-the-presidents-duties-in-modern-times","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","history","american"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/269903"}},{"articleId":269900,"title":"The Controversial Style of Trump's Presidency","slug":"president-donald-trump-controversies-at-home-and-abroad","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","history","american"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/269900"}},{"articleId":269891,"title":"The 10 Worst Presidents","slug":"the-10-worst-presidents","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","history","american"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/269891"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":282653,"slug":"u-s-presidents-for-dummies-with-online-practice-2nd-edition","isbn":"9781119654537","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","history","american"],"amazon":{"default":"//www.amazon.com/gp/product/111965453X/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","ca":"//www.amazon.ca/gp/product/111965453X/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","indigo_ca":"//www.tkqlhce.com/click-9208661-13710633?url=//www.chapters.indigo.ca/en-ca/books/product/111965453X-item.html&cjsku=978111945484","gb":"//www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/111965453X/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","de":"//www.amazon.de/gp/product/111965453X/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20"},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/u.s.-presidents-for-dummies-2nd-edition-cover-9781119654537-203x255.jpg","width":203,"height":255},"title":"U.S. Presidents For Dummies with Online Practice","testBankPinActivationLink":"","bookOutOfPrint":true,"authorsInfo":"<p><p><b><b data-author-id=\"35313\">Marcus A. Stadelmann</b>, PhD,</b> is a professor of political science and chair of the Department of Political Science and History at the University of Texas at Tyler. Along with teaching at universities in California, Utah, and Texas, Dr. Stadelmann has published and given presentations in the fields of American politics and international relations.</p>","authors":[{"authorId":35313,"name":"Marcus A. Stadelmann","slug":"marcus-a-stadelmann","description":" <p><b>Marcus A. Stadelmann, PhD,</b> is a professor of political science and chair of the Department of Political Science and History at the University of Texas at Tyler. Along with teaching at universities in California, Utah, and Texas, Dr. Stadelmann has published and given presentations in the fields of American politics and international relations. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/35313"}}],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/books/"}},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;history&quot;,&quot;american&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781119654537&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-64d5500f32758\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;history&quot;,&quot;american&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781119654537&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-64d5500f32c5a\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Articles","articleList":null,"content":null,"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Advance","lifeExpectancy":"One year","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2024-08-10T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":269894},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2024-06-14T20:24:08+00:00","modifiedTime":"2024-08-04T13:19:30+00:00","timestamp":"2024-08-04T18:01:02+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Academics & The Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"History","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33670"},"slug":"history","categoryId":33670},{"name":"American History","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33672"},"slug":"american","categoryId":33672}],"title":"The Final Events that Led To the American Revolution","strippedTitle":"the final events that led to the american revolution","slug":"the-final-events-that-led-to-the-american-revolution","canonicalUrl":"","浏览领头羊改善":{"metaDescription":"Learn about the final events that led up to the American colonists fight for independence from Britain during the mid-1760s and early 1770s.","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"During the mid-1760s, America and Britain had managed to confine their differences to rhetorical battles and bloodless economic boycotts. But the conflict took a decided turn after the Boston Massacre in 1770 and the Boston Tea Party in 1773.\r\n\r\n[caption id=\"attachment_299298\" align=\"alignnone\" width=\"630\"]<img class=\"size-full wp-image-299298\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/george-washington-crossing-deleware-adobeStock_102150460.jpg\" alt=\"\" width=\"630\" height=\"384\" /> ©Tony Baggett / Adobe Stock<br />An engraved illustration of George Washington crossing the River Delaware during the American Revolutionary War, from a Victorian book dated 1886.[/caption]\r\n\r\nIn early September 1774, an extraordinary collection of American colonists gathered in Philadelphia. There were 56 of them, from all the colonies except Georgia (whose inhabitants were facing a war with Creek Indians, needed the support of British troops, and therefore didn’t want to irritate government officials in London).\r\n\r\nAll of the 56 were males. About half of them were lawyers. Some, like John Dickinson of Pennsylvania, were among the wealthiest men in America. Others, like Sam Adams of Massachusetts, were so financially strapped friends had to chip in and buy him a decent set of clothes for the convention.\r\n\r\nThere were well-known figures, such as George Washington, John Adams, and Patrick Henry, and men largely unknown outside their colonies. One (Benjamin Harrison of Virginia) would be the father and great-grandfather of future U.S. presidents. Another (Stephen Crane of New Jersey) would be bayoneted to death by German mercenary soldiers during the Revolutionary War. A third (Edward Rutledge of North Carolina) would be, at the age of 26, the youngest man to sign the Declaration of Independence.\r\n\r\nThese men were delegates to what became known as the <em>First Continental Congress.</em> They had been sent by colonial assemblies to, in the words of the Massachusetts assembly, “a meeting of Committees from the several Colonies on this Continent … to consult upon the present state of the Colonies, and the miseries, to which they are, and must be reduced, by the operation of certain Acts of Parliament respecting America… .”\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" >Getting down to business</h2>\r\nThe first order of business was to make it clear to British authorities that they were not immediately planning a revolution. Delegates wrote to General Gage in Boston to assure him they were trying to find “the most peaceable means for restoring American liberty.”\r\n\r\nAfter narrowly rejecting a conciliation plan proposed by Joseph Galloway that called for creation of an American parliament that would work with the British version, delegates drew up a <em>Declaration of Rights and Grievances</em> addressed directly to King George III. This was basically a laundry list of all the complaints America had made since passage of the Stamp Act nine years before.\r\n\r\nThey asked the king to drop the Coercive Acts. Several delegates wrote essays suggesting the colonies deal only with the king and completely ignore Parliament. More ominously, they agreed to a mutual defense pact — if one colony should be subjected to violence by British troops, the others would come to its aid.\r\n\r\nThey also endorsed a series of resolutions from Massachusetts (delivered to the convention via a Paul Revere horseback ride), known as the <em>Suffolk Resolves.</em> These called for completely ignoring the provisions of the Coercive Acts, establishing armed militias in each town, and requiring citizens to “use their utmost diligence to acquaint themselves with the art of war as soon as possible.”\r\n<h2 id=\"tab2\" >A serious boycott</h2>\r\nFinally, the congress approved a total boycott of British goods, in a united resolution called <em>The Association</em>. This boycott went far beyond previous boycotts. Under it, nothing from British sources — up to and including slaves — would be imported as of Dec. 1, 1774. Furthermore, no American goods would be exported to Britain — although after protests from their delegates, rice from South Carolina and tobacco from Virginia were exempted.\r\n\r\nThe export ban was delayed until the following year so “as not to injure our fellow-subjects in Great Britain, Ireland and the West Indies.” Finally, British goods already in the colonies would not be bought, sold or consumed.\r\n\r\n“We do for ourselves, and the inhabitants of the several colonies, whom we represent, firmly agree … to abide by the agreements,” the resolution concluded. On Oct. 26, they went home, with the understanding they would reconvene in Philadelphia on May 10, 1775, if necessary. It was.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab3\" >'Let it begin here'</h2>\r\nIt was Britain’s serve in the ping-pong political battle straddling the Atlantic. Hoping to preserve peace, William Pitt, now Earl of Chatham, proposed a sweeping rollback of almost every act that had angered the Americans. But mindful of a still-furious king, the House of Lords resoundingly rejected it.\r\n\r\nBritish Prime Minister Lord Frederick North (who served from 1770 to 1782) then offered a half-a-loaf <em>Conciliatory Resolution,</em> which said that if a colony would contribute to its own defense and pay for civil and judicial administrations within its borders, it would be exempt from paying taxes — except those necessary for the regulation of commerce<em>.</em>\r\n\r\nThe proposal, approved by Parliament in February 1775, did not reach the colonies for several months, after the fighting had begun. It was summarily rejected when it got there anyway.\r\n\r\nProdded by King George, North also pushed Parliament into declaring Massachusetts to be in a state of rebellion and authorized more troops to be sent to the colonies. The so-called <em>Restraining Acts</em> limited trade between all of the British Empire and the colonies and prohibited New England fishermen from working in the cod-rich seas off Newfoundland.\r\n\r\nParliamentary members sympathetic to the Americans warned that Britain might be biting off more than it could chew. “You cannot furnish armies, or treasure, competent to the mighty purpose of subduing America,” said Edmund Burke. “But whether France and Spain will be tame, inactive spectators of your efforts and distractions is well worthy of the consideration of your lordships.”\r\n\r\nBurke’s warning was echoed by General Gage, the Massachusetts governor who was also in command of His Majesty’s army in America. “If you think ten thousand men are enough,” he wrote Lord North, “send twenty; if a million (pounds) is thought to be enough, give two. You will save blood and treasure in the end.”\r\n<h2 id=\"tab4\" >Squirreling away supplies</h2>\r\nMeanwhile, in the colonies, efforts were being made to enforce the economic boycott — and prepare for war. To accomplish the first of these tasks, committees were appointed in every county to oversee adherence to the boycott, as well as discourage colonists from taking government jobs, particularly in Massachusetts.\r\n\r\nNames of those who were suspected of violations were publicized, and the offenders faced social ostracism, and sometimes worse. While the occasional tarring and feathering did take place, the threat of physical violence was usually implied more than employed. Shunning by one’s neighbors was usually enough.\r\n\r\nOne Massachusetts man who had been appointed a councilor to the governor walked into a church service one Sunday, only to see all his fellow congregants walk out. He thereupon declined the appointment.\r\n\r\nWhile enforcing the boycott, the Sons of Liberty group and militia, known as <em>Minute Men</em> because they were to respond quickly to any call to arms, staged surprise raids on British supply depots and made off with arms and ammunition. They took care not to shoot, daring the British troops to fire first. The tactic followed the advice of Sam Adams: “Put your enemy in the wrong and keep him so. It is a wise maxim in politics as well as in war.”\r\n<h2 id=\"tab5\" >Riding with Revere</h2>\r\nThe colonists also kept a constant eye on the movements of British troops. One of their most effective spies was the son of a French immigrant who had established himself as a master silversmith in Boston. Paul Revere also made false teeth and surgical instruments — and was good on a horse.\r\n\r\nIn mid-April 1775, General Gage received orders from London to arrest the colonial dissident leaders Sam Adams and John Hancock and seize any arms collected by the colonists. Gage was also directed to use force, if necessary. So, on the evening of April 18, Gage ordered a force of 700 men to march from Boston to the village of Concord, about 20 miles away, arrest Adams and Hancock if they found them, and destroy a cache of arms suspected to be there.\r\n\r\nRevere, however, got wind of the plan, and set out to warn the countryside that the British were coming. It was a harrowing trek. After crossing the Charles River at night in a small boat, he outrode British pursuers and made it to the small town of Lexington, about seven miles from Concord. There he warned Adams and Hancock.\r\n\r\nWith two other men, Thomas Dawes and Dr. Samuel Prescott, he then set out for Concord. The trio ran into a mounted British patrol. Prescott escaped by leaping his horse over a stone wall and made it to Concord, where the militia was able to hide most of the guns and ammunition.\r\n\r\nRevere and Dawes were briefly detained, but were somewhat inexplicably released after the troops took Revere’s horse. (Of the three riders, Revere is the one everyone remembers mainly because of a wildly popular 1861 poem by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow.)\r\n<h2 id=\"tab6\" >The 'shot heard round the world'</h2>\r\nAt the village of Lexington, the British force was confronted by a group of about 75 militia under the command of John Parker. A farmer and veteran of the French and Indian War, Parker initially ignored the British officer’s command that the Americans put down their arms. Instead, according to the later account of a man under his command, Parker replied, “Stand your ground. Don’t fire unless fired upon, but if they mean to have a war, let it begin here.”\r\n\r\nOutnumbered 10 to 1, Parker was in the process of changing his mind when a shot was fired — by which side is unknown — and a volley of gunfire followed. Eight of the colonists were killed and ten wounded.\r\n\r\nThe British troops then moved on to Concord, where they destroyed several cannons that had been too big to hide. By that time, however, hundreds of militia had arrived, and as the British troops began moving back toward Boston, they fired on the Americans, who returned fire.\r\n\r\nWhat had been an orderly withdrawal by the British now became a somewhat disorderly retreat. “We retired for 15 miles under incessant fire,” a British officer recounted, “which like a moving circle surrounded us wherever we went.”\r\n\r\nShooting from behind rocks and inside houses, the American militia killed or wounded more than 250 of the king’s soldiers, while suffering about 90 casualties themselves.\r\n\r\nThe battle was immortalized in an 1836 poem written by Ralph Waldo Emerson, called “Concord Hymn:\"\r\n<blockquote><em>“By the rude bridge that arched the flood, / Their flag to April’s breeze unfurled, / Here once the embattled farmers stood, / And fired the shot heard ’round the world.”</em></blockquote>\r\n \r\n\r\nStirring poetics aside, the long war of words between Mother Britain and her American children was over. The war of blood and death had begun.","description":"During the mid-1760s, America and Britain had managed to confine their differences to rhetorical battles and bloodless economic boycotts. But the conflict took a decided turn after the Boston Massacre in 1770 and the Boston Tea Party in 1773.\r\n\r\n[caption id=\"attachment_299298\" align=\"alignnone\" width=\"630\"]<img class=\"size-full wp-image-299298\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/george-washington-crossing-deleware-adobeStock_102150460.jpg\" alt=\"\" width=\"630\" height=\"384\" /> ©Tony Baggett / Adobe Stock<br />An engraved illustration of George Washington crossing the River Delaware during the American Revolutionary War, from a Victorian book dated 1886.[/caption]\r\n\r\nIn early September 1774, an extraordinary collection of American colonists gathered in Philadelphia. There were 56 of them, from all the colonies except Georgia (whose inhabitants were facing a war with Creek Indians, needed the support of British troops, and therefore didn’t want to irritate government officials in London).\r\n\r\nAll of the 56 were males. About half of them were lawyers. Some, like John Dickinson of Pennsylvania, were among the wealthiest men in America. Others, like Sam Adams of Massachusetts, were so financially strapped friends had to chip in and buy him a decent set of clothes for the convention.\r\n\r\nThere were well-known figures, such as George Washington, John Adams, and Patrick Henry, and men largely unknown outside their colonies. One (Benjamin Harrison of Virginia) would be the father and great-grandfather of future U.S. presidents. Another (Stephen Crane of New Jersey) would be bayoneted to death by German mercenary soldiers during the Revolutionary War. A third (Edward Rutledge of North Carolina) would be, at the age of 26, the youngest man to sign the Declaration of Independence.\r\n\r\nThese men were delegates to what became known as the <em>First Continental Congress.</em> They had been sent by colonial assemblies to, in the words of the Massachusetts assembly, “a meeting of Committees from the several Colonies on this Continent … to consult upon the present state of the Colonies, and the miseries, to which they are, and must be reduced, by the operation of certain Acts of Parliament respecting America… .”\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" >Getting down to business</h2>\r\nThe first order of business was to make it clear to British authorities that they were not immediately planning a revolution. Delegates wrote to General Gage in Boston to assure him they were trying to find “the most peaceable means for restoring American liberty.”\r\n\r\nAfter narrowly rejecting a conciliation plan proposed by Joseph Galloway that called for creation of an American parliament that would work with the British version, delegates drew up a <em>Declaration of Rights and Grievances</em> addressed directly to King George III. This was basically a laundry list of all the complaints America had made since passage of the Stamp Act nine years before.\r\n\r\nThey asked the king to drop the Coercive Acts. Several delegates wrote essays suggesting the colonies deal only with the king and completely ignore Parliament. More ominously, they agreed to a mutual defense pact — if one colony should be subjected to violence by British troops, the others would come to its aid.\r\n\r\nThey also endorsed a series of resolutions from Massachusetts (delivered to the convention via a Paul Revere horseback ride), known as the <em>Suffolk Resolves.</em> These called for completely ignoring the provisions of the Coercive Acts, establishing armed militias in each town, and requiring citizens to “use their utmost diligence to acquaint themselves with the art of war as soon as possible.”\r\n<h2 id=\"tab2\" >A serious boycott</h2>\r\nFinally, the congress approved a total boycott of British goods, in a united resolution called <em>The Association</em>. This boycott went far beyond previous boycotts. Under it, nothing from British sources — up to and including slaves — would be imported as of Dec. 1, 1774. Furthermore, no American goods would be exported to Britain — although after protests from their delegates, rice from South Carolina and tobacco from Virginia were exempted.\r\n\r\nThe export ban was delayed until the following year so “as not to injure our fellow-subjects in Great Britain, Ireland and the West Indies.” Finally, British goods already in the colonies would not be bought, sold or consumed.\r\n\r\n“We do for ourselves, and the inhabitants of the several colonies, whom we represent, firmly agree … to abide by the agreements,” the resolution concluded. On Oct. 26, they went home, with the understanding they would reconvene in Philadelphia on May 10, 1775, if necessary. It was.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab3\" >'Let it begin here'</h2>\r\nIt was Britain’s serve in the ping-pong political battle straddling the Atlantic. Hoping to preserve peace, William Pitt, now Earl of Chatham, proposed a sweeping rollback of almost every act that had angered the Americans. But mindful of a still-furious king, the House of Lords resoundingly rejected it.\r\n\r\nBritish Prime Minister Lord Frederick North (who served from 1770 to 1782) then offered a half-a-loaf <em>Conciliatory Resolution,</em> which said that if a colony would contribute to its own defense and pay for civil and judicial administrations within its borders, it would be exempt from paying taxes — except those necessary for the regulation of commerce<em>.</em>\r\n\r\nThe proposal, approved by Parliament in February 1775, did not reach the colonies for several months, after the fighting had begun. It was summarily rejected when it got there anyway.\r\n\r\nProdded by King George, North also pushed Parliament into declaring Massachusetts to be in a state of rebellion and authorized more troops to be sent to the colonies. The so-called <em>Restraining Acts</em> limited trade between all of the British Empire and the colonies and prohibited New England fishermen from working in the cod-rich seas off Newfoundland.\r\n\r\nParliamentary members sympathetic to the Americans warned that Britain might be biting off more than it could chew. “You cannot furnish armies, or treasure, competent to the mighty purpose of subduing America,” said Edmund Burke. “But whether France and Spain will be tame, inactive spectators of your efforts and distractions is well worthy of the consideration of your lordships.”\r\n\r\nBurke’s warning was echoed by General Gage, the Massachusetts governor who was also in command of His Majesty’s army in America. “If you think ten thousand men are enough,” he wrote Lord North, “send twenty; if a million (pounds) is thought to be enough, give two. You will save blood and treasure in the end.”\r\n<h2 id=\"tab4\" >Squirreling away supplies</h2>\r\nMeanwhile, in the colonies, efforts were being made to enforce the economic boycott — and prepare for war. To accomplish the first of these tasks, committees were appointed in every county to oversee adherence to the boycott, as well as discourage colonists from taking government jobs, particularly in Massachusetts.\r\n\r\nNames of those who were suspected of violations were publicized, and the offenders faced social ostracism, and sometimes worse. While the occasional tarring and feathering did take place, the threat of physical violence was usually implied more than employed. Shunning by one’s neighbors was usually enough.\r\n\r\nOne Massachusetts man who had been appointed a councilor to the governor walked into a church service one Sunday, only to see all his fellow congregants walk out. He thereupon declined the appointment.\r\n\r\nWhile enforcing the boycott, the Sons of Liberty group and militia, known as <em>Minute Men</em> because they were to respond quickly to any call to arms, staged surprise raids on British supply depots and made off with arms and ammunition. They took care not to shoot, daring the British troops to fire first. The tactic followed the advice of Sam Adams: “Put your enemy in the wrong and keep him so. It is a wise maxim in politics as well as in war.”\r\n<h2 id=\"tab5\" >Riding with Revere</h2>\r\nThe colonists also kept a constant eye on the movements of British troops. One of their most effective spies was the son of a French immigrant who had established himself as a master silversmith in Boston. Paul Revere also made false teeth and surgical instruments — and was good on a horse.\r\n\r\nIn mid-April 1775, General Gage received orders from London to arrest the colonial dissident leaders Sam Adams and John Hancock and seize any arms collected by the colonists. Gage was also directed to use force, if necessary. So, on the evening of April 18, Gage ordered a force of 700 men to march from Boston to the village of Concord, about 20 miles away, arrest Adams and Hancock if they found them, and destroy a cache of arms suspected to be there.\r\n\r\nRevere, however, got wind of the plan, and set out to warn the countryside that the British were coming. It was a harrowing trek. After crossing the Charles River at night in a small boat, he outrode British pursuers and made it to the small town of Lexington, about seven miles from Concord. There he warned Adams and Hancock.\r\n\r\nWith two other men, Thomas Dawes and Dr. Samuel Prescott, he then set out for Concord. The trio ran into a mounted British patrol. Prescott escaped by leaping his horse over a stone wall and made it to Concord, where the militia was able to hide most of the guns and ammunition.\r\n\r\nRevere and Dawes were briefly detained, but were somewhat inexplicably released after the troops took Revere’s horse. (Of the three riders, Revere is the one everyone remembers mainly because of a wildly popular 1861 poem by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow.)\r\n<h2 id=\"tab6\" >The 'shot heard round the world'</h2>\r\nAt the village of Lexington, the British force was confronted by a group of about 75 militia under the command of John Parker. A farmer and veteran of the French and Indian War, Parker initially ignored the British officer’s command that the Americans put down their arms. Instead, according to the later account of a man under his command, Parker replied, “Stand your ground. Don’t fire unless fired upon, but if they mean to have a war, let it begin here.”\r\n\r\nOutnumbered 10 to 1, Parker was in the process of changing his mind when a shot was fired — by which side is unknown — and a volley of gunfire followed. Eight of the colonists were killed and ten wounded.\r\n\r\nThe British troops then moved on to Concord, where they destroyed several cannons that had been too big to hide. By that time, however, hundreds of militia had arrived, and as the British troops began moving back toward Boston, they fired on the Americans, who returned fire.\r\n\r\nWhat had been an orderly withdrawal by the British now became a somewhat disorderly retreat. “We retired for 15 miles under incessant fire,” a British officer recounted, “which like a moving circle surrounded us wherever we went.”\r\n\r\nShooting from behind rocks and inside houses, the American militia killed or wounded more than 250 of the king’s soldiers, while suffering about 90 casualties themselves.\r\n\r\nThe battle was immortalized in an 1836 poem written by Ralph Waldo Emerson, called “Concord Hymn:\"\r\n<blockquote><em>“By the rude bridge that arched the flood, / Their flag to April’s breeze unfurled, / Here once the embattled farmers stood, / And fired the shot heard ’round the world.”</em></blockquote>\r\n \r\n\r\nStirring poetics aside, the long war of words between Mother Britain and her American children was over. The war of blood and death had begun.","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":9116,"name":"Steve Wiegand","slug":"steve-wiegand","description":" <p><b>Steve Wiegand</b> is an award&#45;winning political journalist and history writer. Over a 35&#45;year career, he worked as a reporter and columnist at the <i>San Diego Evening Tribune, San Francisco Chronicle</i>, and <i>Sacramento Bee</i>. He is the author or coauthor of seven books dealing with various aspects of U.S. and world history. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9116"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33672,"title":"American History","slug":"american","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33672"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[{"label":"Getting down to business","target":"#tab1"},{"label":"A serious boycott","target":"#tab2"},{"label":"'Let it begin here'","target":"#tab3"},{"label":"Squirreling away supplies","target":"#tab4"},{"label":"Riding with Revere","target":"#tab5"},{"label":"The 'shot heard round the world'","target":"#tab6"}],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[{"articleId":265932,"title":"Women in the American Revolution","slug":"women-in-the-american-revolution","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","history","american"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/265932"}},{"articleId":265926,"title":"Native Americans in the Revolutionary War","slug":"native-americans-in-the-revolutionary-war","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","history","american"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/265926"}},{"articleId":265923,"title":"Slavery and the American Revolution","slug":"slavery-and-the-american-revolution","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","history","american"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/265923"}},{"articleId":265917,"title":"The Aftereffects of the American Revolution","slug":"the-impact-of-the-american-revolution-on-the-home-front","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","history","american"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/265917"}},{"articleId":265911,"title":"The Lack of Unity in Early American Colonies","slug":"the-lack-of-unity-in-early-american-colonies","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","history","american"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/265911"}}],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":288783,"title":"First Ladies For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"50-key-dates-in-us-first-lady-history","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","history","american"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/288783"}},{"articleId":269903,"title":"U.S. Presidential Duties in Modern Times","slug":"performing-many-roles-the-presidents-duties-in-modern-times","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","history","american"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/269903"}},{"articleId":269900,"title":"The Controversial Style of Trump's Presidency","slug":"president-donald-trump-controversies-at-home-and-abroad","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","history","american"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/269900"}},{"articleId":269894,"title":"Scandals: Defining Donald Trump’s Presidency","slug":"scandals-defining-donald-trumps-presidency","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","history","american"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/269894"}},{"articleId":269891,"title":"The 10 Worst Presidents","slug":"the-10-worst-presidents","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","history","american"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/269891"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":281944,"slug":"american-revolution-for-dummies","isbn":"9781119593492","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","history","american"],"amazon":{"default":"//www.amazon.com/gp/product/1119593492/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","ca":"//www.amazon.ca/gp/product/1119593492/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","indigo_ca":"//www.tkqlhce.com/click-9208661-13710633?url=//www.chapters.indigo.ca/en-ca/books/product/1119593492-item.html&cjsku=978111945484","gb":"//www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/1119593492/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","de":"//www.amazon.de/gp/product/1119593492/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20"},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/american-revolution-for-dummies-cover-9781119593492-203x255.jpg","width":203,"height":255},"title":"American Revolution For Dummies","testBankPinActivationLink":"","bookOutOfPrint":true,"authorsInfo":"<p><p><b><b data-author-id=\"9116\">Steve Wiegand</b></b> is an award&#45;winning political journalist and history writer. Over a 35&#45;year career, he worked as a reporter and columnist at the <i>San Diego Evening Tribune, San Francisco Chronicle</i>, and <i>Sacramento Bee</i>. He is the author or coauthor of seven books dealing with various aspects of U.S. and world history.</p>","authors":[{"authorId":9116,"name":"Steve Wiegand","slug":"steve-wiegand","description":" <p><b>Steve Wiegand</b> is an award&#45;winning political journalist and history writer. Over a 35&#45;year career, he worked as a reporter and columnist at the <i>San Diego Evening Tribune, San Francisco Chronicle</i>, and <i>Sacramento Bee</i>. He is the author or coauthor of seven books dealing with various aspects of U.S. and world history. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9116"}}],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/books/"}},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;history&quot;,&quot;american&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781119593492&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-64cd3cdeb2934\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;history&quot;,&quot;american&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781119593492&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-64cd3cdeb31e0\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Articles","articleList":null,"content":null,"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Explore","lifeExpectancy":"Five years","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2024-06-14T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":299292},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2017-03-27T16:47:58+00:00","modifiedTime":"2024-07-21T13:04:45+00:00","timestamp":"2024-07-21T15:01:23+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Academics & The Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"History","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33670"},"slug":"history","categoryId":33670},{"name":"Scottish History","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33682"},"slug":"scottish","categoryId":33682}],"title":"Scottish History For Dummies Cheat Sheet","strippedTitle":"scottish history for dummies cheat sheet","slug":"scottish-history-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","canonicalUrl":"","浏览领头羊改善":{"metaDescription":"Learn some of the important events, rulers, and historical periods of Scottish history with this handy reference Cheat Sheet.","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"Scottish history is full of wonderful characters — some good, some not so good — and exciting events, from the bloodthirsty to scientific discovery. This Cheat Sheet gives you the lay of the land, and identifies the leaders and the turning points that made Scotland what it is today.","description":"Scottish history is full of wonderful characters — some good, some not so good — and exciting events, from the bloodthirsty to scientific discovery. This Cheat Sheet gives you the lay of the land, and identifies the leaders and the turning points that made Scotland what it is today.","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":9425,"name":"William Knox","slug":"william-knox","description":" <p><b>William Knox, PhD,</b> is a Senior Lecturer of History at the University of St Andrews, Scotland&#8217;s first university.</p>","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9425"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33682,"title":"Scottish History","slug":"scottish","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33682"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[{"articleId":151985,"title":"Scottish Conservatives: A Story of 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History","slug":"major-events-and-battles-in-scottish-history","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","history","scottish"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/151975"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":281600,"slug":"scottish-history-for-dummies","isbn":"9781118676158","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","history","scottish"],"amazon":{"default":"//www.amazon.com/gp/product/1118676157/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","ca":"//www.amazon.ca/gp/product/1118676157/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","indigo_ca":"//www.tkqlhce.com/click-9208661-13710633?url=//www.chapters.indigo.ca/en-ca/books/product/1118676157-item.html&cjsku=978111945484","gb":"//www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/1118676157/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","de":"//www.amazon.de/gp/product/1118676157/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20"},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/scottish-history-for-dummies-cover-9781118676158-203x255.jpg","width":203,"height":255},"title":"Scottish History For Dummies","testBankPinActivationLink":"","bookOutOfPrint":false,"authorsInfo":"<p><b data-author-id=\"9425\">William Knox, PhD,</b> is a Senior Lecturer of History at the University of St Andrews, Scotland’s first university.</p>","authors":[{"authorId":9425,"name":"William Knox","slug":"william-knox","description":" <p><b>William Knox, PhD,</b> is a Senior Lecturer of History at the University of St Andrews, Scotland&#8217;s first university.</p>","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9425"}}],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/books/"}},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = 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Here is a rundown of some highlights of different periods of Scottish history.</p>\n<h3>Ancient Scotland</h3>\n<ul>\n<li><b>Neolithic Scotland:</b> c.12,000 BCE to c. 2,750 BCE</li>\n<li><b>The Beaker people and the Bronze Age:</b> c. 2,750 BCE to 750 BCE</li>\n<li><b>The Iron Age and La Tène culture:</b> c. 750 BC to 43 CE</li>\n<li><b>Roman Britain:</b> 43 CE to 410 CE</li>\n<li><b>The spread of Christianity:</b> c. 400 to c. 600</li>\n</ul>\n<h3>The Middle Ages</h3>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li><b>The first of the Viking Raids:</b> c. 795 to c. 825</li>\n<li><b>The disappearance of the Picts:</b> c. 843</li>\n<li><b>The MacAlpin Dynasty:</b> c. 843 to 1290</li>\n<li><b>The spread of feudalism:</b> c. 1050 to 1150</li>\n<li><b>The Wars of Independence:</b> 1296 to 1357</li>\n</ul>\n<h3>Early Modern Scotland</h3>\n<ul>\n<li><b>The Scottish Reformation:</b> 1560</li>\n<li><b>The</b> <b>Union of Crowns:</b> 1603</li>\n<li><b>The National Covenant: </b>1638</li>\n<li><b>The Wars of the Three Kingdoms:</b> 1638 to 1688</li>\n<li><b>The Union of Parliaments:</b> 1707</li>\n</ul>\n<h3>The Modern Age</h3>\n<ul>\n<li><b>Jacobite Rebellions:</b> 1689 to 1745</li>\n<li><b>Industrialization: </b>c. 1750 to 1850</li>\n<li><b>The Highland Clearances: </b>c. 1780 to 1854</li>\n<li><b>The Great War:</b> 1914 to 1918</li>\n<li><b>The Second World War: </b>1939 to 1945</li>\n<li><b>The Restoration of the Scottish Parliament:</b> 1999</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"Rulers of Scotland","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Kenneth MacAlpin is reckoned to be the first king of Scotland, but his rule extended only to the south and west of the country; great swaths of territory were still in the hands of the Anglo-Saxons and Vikings.</p>\n<p>Not until 1460 did what is known today as Scotland exist territorially. The last king of a separate Scotland was James VI, who died in 1625. By that time, he was also king of England and Scotland thanks to the Union of Crowns in 1603. From that point, England and Scotland shared a monarch but not a parliament; they were both independent countries until 1707.</p>\n<h3>House of MacAlpin</h3>\n<ul>\n<li><b>Kenneth MacAlpin: </b>c. 843 to c. 858</li>\n<li><b>Donald I:</b> 859 to 862</li>\n<li><b>Constantine I:</b> 862 to 876</li>\n</ul>\n<h3>Interregnum</h3>\n<ul>\n<li><b>Interregnum (no overall king):</b> 876 to 877</li>\n</ul>\n<h3>House of MacAlpin</h3>\n<ul>\n<li><b>Aed:</b> c. 877 to 878</li>\n<li><b>Eochaid and Giric (probably shared the throne): </b>878 to 889</li>\n<li><b>Donald II:</b> 889 to 900</li>\n<li><b>Constantine II:</b> 900 to c. 943</li>\n<li><b>Malcolm I MacDonald:</b> c. 943 to 954</li>\n<li><b>Indulf:</b> 954 to 962</li>\n<li><b>Dubh ‘the Black’:</b> 962 to 966</li>\n<li><b>Culen:</b> 966 to 971</li>\n<li><b>Kenneth II:</b> 971 to 995</li>\n<li><b>Constantine III ‘the Bald’:</b> 995 to 997</li>\n<li><b>Kenneth III: </b>997 to 1005</li>\n<li><b>Malcolm II: </b>1005 to 1034</li>\n<li><b>Duncan I:</b> 1034 to 1040</li>\n</ul>\n<h3>House of Moray</h3>\n<ul>\n<li><b>Macbeth:</b> 1040 to 1057</li>\n<li><b>Lulach:</b> 1057 to 1058</li>\n</ul>\n<h3>House of MacAlpin</h3>\n<ul>\n<li><b>Malcolm III Canmore: </b>1058 to 1093</li>\n<li><b>Donald III Bane:</b> 1093 to 1094</li>\n<li><b>Duncan II: </b>1094</li>\n<li><b>Donald III Bane (resumed the throne):</b> 1094 to 1097</li>\n<li><b>Edgar:</b> 1097 to 1107</li>\n<li><b>Alexander I:</b> 1107 to 1124</li>\n<li><b>David I:</b> 1124 to 1153</li>\n<li><b>Malcolm IV ‘the Maiden’:</b> 1153 to 1165</li>\n<li><b>William ‘the Lion’:</b> 1165 to 1214</li>\n<li><b>Alexander II:</b> 1214 to 1249</li>\n<li><b>Alexander III:</b> 1249 to 1286</li>\n<li><b>Margaret, ‘the Maid of Norway’:</b> 1286 to 1290</li>\n</ul>\n<h3>Interregnum</h3>\n<ul>\n<li><b>English Overlordship (Edward I):</b> 1290 to 1292</li>\n</ul>\n<h3>House of MacAlpin</h3>\n<ul>\n<li><b>John Balliol:</b> 1292 to 1296 (abdicated)</li>\n</ul>\n<h3>English Invasion and Occupation</h3>\n<ul>\n<li><b>Edward I of England:</b> 1296 to 1306</li>\n</ul>\n<h3>House of Bruce</h3>\n<ul>\n<li><b>Robert I de Brus (Bruce):</b> 1306 to 1329</li>\n<li><b>David II:</b> 1329 to 1371</li>\n</ul>\n<h3>House of Stewart</h3>\n<ul>\n<li><b>Robert II ‘the Steward’: </b>1371 to 1390</li>\n<li><b>Robert III (John Stewart):</b> 1390 to 1406</li>\n<li><b>James I:</b> 1406 to 1437</li>\n<li><b>James II:</b> 1437 to 1460</li>\n<li><b>James III:</b> 1460 to 1488</li>\n<li><b>James IV:</b> 1488 to 1513</li>\n<li><b>James V:</b> 1513 to 1542</li>\n<li><b>Mary, Queen of Scots:</b> 1542 to 1567</li>\n<li><b>James VI:</b> 1567 to 1625 (became James I of England in 1603)</li>\n</ul>\n<p>The Stewart dynasty continued to hold the throne until 1689, when James III and VI was defeated at the Battle of the Boyne in Ireland. The throne of Britain was given to William of Orange and his wife Mary. They were succeeded by Anne, who died childless, and she was in turn succeeded by George, Elector of Hanover.</p>\n"},{"title":"Major events and battles in Scottish history","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Following is a list of the main events and battles that played a decisive role in Scottish history, from the arrival of the Romans to the Industrial Revolution and beyond:</p>\n<ul>\n<li><b>84 AD:</b> Battle of Mons Graupius, the earliest recorded battle in Scottish history, in which the Romans, under Agricola, defeated the Caledones.</li>\n<li><b>121 to 129:</b> Construction of Hadrian’s Wall.</li>\n<li><b>410:</b> The Romans leave Britain.</li>\n<li><b>563:</b> St Columba arrives from Ireland to Argyll to found a monastery on the Island of Iona.</li>\n<li><b>685:</b> Battle of Nechtansmere; the Picts under King Bridei defeated the Angles and established Scotland’s southern border.</li>\n<li><b>795:</b> The first Viking raids.</li>\n<li><b>843:</b> Kenneth MacAlpin unites the Scots and Picts as one nation under his rule.</li>\n<li><b>1018:</b> The Battle of Carham. The Scots defeated the Anglo-Saxons and claimed Strathclyde.</li>\n<li><b>1040:</b> Macbeth slays Duncan in battle and begins a 17-year rule, becoming the first Scottish king to make a pilgrimage to Rome.</li>\n<li><b>1069:</b> Marriage of Malcolm Ceanmore (Malcolm III) to Margaret, a union that ushered in a golden age that ended with the canonization of Margaret as Scotland’s only royal saint.</li>\n<li><b>1124:</b> David I ascends the throne and is principally known for initiating the spread of feudalism in Scotland, which led to the settlement of Anglo-Norman families like the Bruces.</li>\n<li><b>1263:</b> The Battle of Largs. The Scots defeat Haaken of Norway and obtain the Hebrides.</li>\n<li><b>1286:</b> Alexander III dies after falling from his horse. The only heir is child ‘Margaret, Maid of Norway’. Scotland plunges into chaos.</li>\n<li><b>1292:</b> Edward I of England selects John Balliol as the King of Scotland and kicks off the wars of independence.</li>\n<li><b>1305:</b> The leader of the Scottish resistance to English rule, William Wallace, is captured and executed.</li>\n<li><b>1314:</b> The Battle of Bannockburn. Scots under Robert the Bruce, with an army half the size of the English one, inflicted the worst defeat suffered by England in the medieval period, resulting in Scottish independence.</li>\n<li><b>1320:</b> The Declaration of Arbroath is drawn up to recognize Scottish independence from England and sent to the Pope.</li>\n<li><b>1332:</b> The Second War of Independence begins.</li>\n<li><b>1371:</b> Robert II, the first of the Stewart kings, accedes to the throne.</li>\n<li><b>1412: </b>St Andrews University is founded by Bishop Wardlaw. It was followed by Glasgow in 1451, Aberdeen in 1495, and Edinburgh in 1582.</li>\n<li><b>1469:</b> Orkney and Shetland Islands acquired by Scotland from Norway.<b> </b>Finalization of the boundaries of Scotland.</li>\n<li><b>1512:</b> Under the terms of a treaty with France, the ‘Auld Alliance’ is established.</li>\n<li><b>1513:</b> The Battle of Flodden. James IV is killed in the battle along with much of the aristocracy and thousands of Scottish soldiers.</li>\n<li><b>1559:</b> John Knox’s sermon at Perth, regarded as the start of the Reformation in Scotland.</li>\n<li><b>1561:</b> Mary, Queen of Scots, returns to Scotland and is executed in 1587.</li>\n<li><b>1603:</b> The Union of Crowns. James VI becomes James I of England, Scotland, France, and Ireland.</li>\n<li><b>1638:</b> The National Covenant is signed at Greyfriars Church in Edinburgh, an event that plunges the whole of Britain into civil war.</li>\n<li><b>1649:</b> Charles I is executed.</li>\n<li><b>1653:</b> Scotland is incorporated into the Cromwellian Protectorate.</li>\n<li><b>1660:</b> The restoration of the monarchy. Charles II is crowned king and immediately destroys the covenanting movement in Scotland.</li>\n<li><b>1689:</b> The Glorious Revolution. Presbyterianism is recognized as the official faith of Scotland, but it was also the year of the first unsuccessful Jacobite Rebellion led by John Graham of Claverhouse, also known as ‘Bonnie Dundee’.</li>\n<li><b>1692:</b> The Massacre of Glencoe. Thirty-eight members of the MacDonald Clan are slaughtered by government forces under the cover of darkness.</li>\n<li><b>1698:</b> The first expedition in the Darien scheme, a disaster that almost ruins the governing classes in Scotland.</li>\n<li><b>1707:</b> The Union of Parliaments. A new country called Great Britain is created as the Scots vote to give up their sovereignty.</li>\n<li><b>1715:</b> The Second Jacobite Rebellion. The Jacobites, led by the Earl of Mar, sought to set James Stewart (James VIII), the ‘Old Pretender’, on the throne of Britain but were defeated at the Battle of Sheriffmuir.</li>\n<li><b>1719:</b> The Third Jacobite Rebellion took place with assistance from Spain, but it resulted in defeat at the Battle of Glenshiel. The aftermath of the rebellion marks the beginning of the British government’s policy to pacify the Highlands.</li>\n<li><b>1745:</b> The final Jacobite Rebellion, which culminated in 1746 at the Battle of Culloden – the last battle to be fought on British soil – and defeat of Charles Edward Stewart, ‘Bonnie Prince Charlie’.</li>\n<li><b>1776:</b> Adam Smith’s <i>The Wealth of Nations</i> is published; along with other thinkers and scientists, the Scots invent the modern world.</li>\n<li><b>1793:</b> Thomas Muir and other radicals are arrested and transported to Australia for their fight to end the old system of political corruption and replace it with universal male suffrage.</li>\n<li><b>1807:</b> The Highland Clearances, a systematic policy of clearing people from the Sutherland estates to make way for sheep.</li>\n<li><b>1832:</b> The First Reform Act, which enfranchised the middle classes and increased the size of the electorate by 5,200 per cent. It was followed by further reforms in 1868 and 1884.</li>\n<li><b>1843:</b> The Disruption. The Church of Scotland split over the question of patronage and led to the formation of the Free Church of Scotland.</li>\n<li><b>1859:</b> The first Open Golf Championship is held at Prestwick, Ayrshire.</li>\n<li><b>1873:</b> The Scottish Football Association formed, beginning a national obsession with the round ball.</li>\n<li><b>1884:</b> The Crofters’ War. Crofters conduct land seizures and clash with police forces on islands like Skye. It led to reforms favorable to the crofters in 1886.</li>\n<li><b>1888:</b> The founding of the Scottish Labour Party by Keir Hardie. The Scottish Labour Party was the forerunner of the British Labour Party, founded in 1906.</li>\n<li><b>1912:</b> ‘The Outrages’. Suffragettes in Scotland step up their campaign in Scotland for votes for women by acts of civil disobedience. Windows are broken, and houses and railway stations are burnt down.</li>\n<li><b>1912:</b> The formation of the Scottish Conservative and Unionist Party, formed as a combination of Tories and Liberal Unionists. It became known as the Unionist Party in Scotland.</li>\n<li><b>1914:</b> The First World War and industrial unrest in Glasgow creating the image of ‘Red Clydeside’.</li>\n<li><b>1918:</b> The Reform Act grants the vote to women over the age of 30 – but it took another ten years to lower the voting age to 21.</li>\n<li><b>1922:</b> The General Election sees the successful return of ten Labour candidates in Glasgow and creates a political sensation but also coincides with the beginning of the worst economic recession on record.</li>\n<li><b>1924:</b> Ramsay MacDonald is Labour’s first prime minister. His government lasted only nine months, but he was re-elected in 1929.</li>\n<li><b>1931:</b> The fall of the second Labour government. The general election saw the Labour vote almost wiped out in Scotland, but it recovered in 1935.</li>\n<li><b>1934:</b> The founding of the Scottish National Party. Although at this time it was small and insignificant, the party grew into a major political party in the 1970s.</li>\n<li><b>1939–1945:</b> The Second World War. Clydeside becomes a major target for German bombers.</li>\n<li><b>1947:</b> The First Edinburgh Festival of Drama and Music. It went on to become the largest arts festival in the world.</li>\n<li><b>1967:</b> Scottish Nationalist Winnie Ewing wins Hamilton in a by-election. This was Labour’s safest parliamentary seat in Scotland. It sparked off a nationalist revival, and the Scottish National Party won 11 seats in the 1974 general election.</li>\n<li><b>1975:</b> The first oil is piped ashore from the North Sea.</li>\n<li><b>1978:</b> Referendum on a Scottish Assembly. It proved a disaster for the ‘Yes’ campaign, and in the general election that followed, the Scottish National Party lost ten of its parliamentary seats.</li>\n<li><b>1997:</b> The Second Referendum on a Scottish Assembly leads to a 75 per cent majority in favor.</li>\n<li><b>1999:</b> The Scottish Parliament sits for the first time in 300 years.</li>\n</ul>\n"}],"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Explore","lifeExpectancy":"Five years","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2024-07-18T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":207669},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2017-03-27T16:54:22+00:00","modifiedTime":"2024-07-19T12:20:44+00:00","timestamp":"2024-07-19T15:01:02+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Academics & The Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"History","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33670"},"slug":"history","categoryId":33670},{"name":"Ancient Egyptian History","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33673"},"slug":"ancient-egyptian","categoryId":33673}],"title":"Ancient Egyptians For Dummies Cheat Sheet","strippedTitle":"ancient egyptians for dummies cheat sheet","slug":"ancient-egyptians-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","canonicalUrl":"","浏览领头羊改善":{"metaDescription":"Ancient Egypt is famous for its history, architecture, religion . . . the list goes on! Here you’ll find a timeline detailing important periods that shaped this","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"<p>Ancient Egypt is famous for its history, architecture, religion . . . the list goes on! Here you’ll find a timeline detailing important periods that shaped this fascinating civilization. </p>\r\n","description":"<p>Ancient Egypt is famous for its history, architecture, religion . . . the list goes on! Here you’ll find a timeline detailing important periods that shaped this fascinating civilization. </p>\r\n","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":10197,"name":"Charlotte Booth","slug":"charlotte-booth","description":" <b>Charlotte Booth</b>, MA, is an Egyptologist, lecturer, and founder of the Essex Egyptology Group.","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/10197"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33673,"title":"Ancient Egyptian History","slug":"ancient-egyptian","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33673"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[{"articleId":188549,"title":"Ancient Egypt Timeline","slug":"ancient-egypt-timeline","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","history","ancient-egyptian"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/188549"}}],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":188549,"title":"Ancient Egypt Timeline","slug":"ancient-egypt-timeline","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","history","ancient-egyptian"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/188549"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":281543,"slug":"the-ancient-egyptians-for-dummies","isbn":"9780470065440","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","history","ancient-egyptian"],"amazon":{"default":"//www.amazon.com/gp/product/0470065443/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","ca":"//www.amazon.ca/gp/product/0470065443/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","indigo_ca":"//www.tkqlhce.com/click-9208661-13710633?url=//www.chapters.indigo.ca/en-ca/books/product/0470065443-item.html&cjsku=978111945484","gb":"//www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/0470065443/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","de":"//www.amazon.de/gp/product/0470065443/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20"},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/the-ancient-egyptians-for-dummies-cover-9780470065440-201x255.jpg","width":201,"height":255},"title":"The Ancient Egyptians For Dummies","testBankPinActivationLink":"","bookOutOfPrint":false,"authorsInfo":"<b data-author-id=\"10197\">Charlotte Booth</b>, MA, is an Egyptologist, lecturer, and founder of the Essex Egyptology Group.","authors":[{"authorId":10197,"name":"Charlotte Booth","slug":"charlotte-booth","description":" <b>Charlotte Booth</b>, MA, is an Egyptologist, lecturer, and founder of the Essex Egyptology Group.","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/10197"}}],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/books/"}},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;history&quot;,&quot;ancient-egyptian&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9780470065440&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-64b7faaeddfb6\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;history&quot;,&quot;ancient-egyptian&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9780470065440&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-64b7faaede8a8\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Cheat Sheet","articleList":[{"articleId":0,"title":"","slug":null,"categoryList":[],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/"}}],"content":[{"title":"Ancient Egypt Timeline","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Here&#8217;s an overview of periods of Egyptian history. Some of the dates and dynasties overlap, especially during the Intermediate Periods, because different kings ruled different parts of Egypt at the same time &#8211; all holding the title of king. </p>\n<h2>Predynastic Period </h2>\n<p>The Badarian period: 4400&#8211;4000 BC</p>\n<p>Maadian period: 4000&#8211;3300 BC</p>\n<p>The Amratian period: 4000&#8211;3500 BC</p>\n<p>The Gerzean period: 3500&#8211;3200 BC</p>\n<p>The Negada III period: 3200&#8211;3050 BC</p>\n<h2>Early Dynastic Period</h2>\n<p>Dynasty 0: 3150&#8211;3050 BC</p>\n<p>Dynasty 1: 3050&#8211;2890 BC</p>\n<p>Dynasty 2: 2890 &#8211;2686 BC</p>\n<h2>Old Kingdom</h2>\n<p>Dynasty 3: 2686&#8211;2613 BC</p>\n<p>Dynasty 4: 2613&#8211;2500 BC</p>\n<p>Dynasty 5: 2498&#8211;2345 BC </p>\n<p>Dynasty 6: 2345&#8211;2333 BC</p>\n<h2>First Intermediate Period</h2>\n<p>Dynasty 7 and 8: 2180&#8211;2160 BC</p>\n<p>Dynasty 9 and 10: 2160&#8211;2040 BC</p>\n<h2>Middle Kingdom</h2>\n<p>Dynasty 11: 2134&#8211;1991 BC</p>\n<p>Dynasty 12: 1991&#8211;1782 BC</p>\n<h2>Second Intermediate Period</h2>\n<p>Dynasty 13: 1782 &#8211;1650 BC</p>\n<p>Dynasty 14: Dates unknown. This dynasty is characterised by a few chieftains ruling one town, calling themselves kings.</p>\n<p>Dynasty 15: 1663&#8211;1555 BC</p>\n<p>Dynasty 16: 1663&#8211;1555 BC</p>\n<p>Dynasty 17: 1663&#8211;1570 BC</p>\n<h2>New Kingdom </h2>\n<p>Dynasty 18: 1570&#8211;1293 BC</p>\n<p>Dynasty 19: 1293&#8211;1185 BC</p>\n<p>Dynasty 20: 1185&#8211;1070 BC</p>\n<h2>Third Intermediate Period</h2>\n<p>High Priests (Thebes): 1080&#8211;945 BC</p>\n<p>Dynasty 21 (Tanis): 1069&#8211;945 BC</p>\n<p>Dynasty 22 (Tanis): 945&#8211;715 BC</p>\n<p>Dynasty 23 (Leontopolis): 818&#8211;715 BC</p>\n<p>Dynasty 24 (Sais): 727&#8211;715 BC </p>\n<p>Dynasty 25 (Nubians): 747&#8211;656 BC</p>\n<p>Dynasty 26 (Sais): 664&#8211;525 BC</p>\n<h2>Late Period</h2>\n<p>Dynasty 27 (Persian): 525&#8211;404 BC</p>\n<p>Dynasty 28: 404&#8211;399 BC</p>\n<p>Dynasty 29: 399&#8211;380 BC</p>\n<p>Dynasty 30: 380&#8211;343 BC</p>\n<p>Dynasty 31: 343&#8211;332 BC</p>\n<h2>Graeco-Roman Period</h2>\n<p>Macedonian Kings: 332&#8211;305 BC</p>\n<p>Ptolemaic Period: 305&#8211;30 BC</p>\n"}],"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Advance","lifeExpectancy":"Five years","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2024-07-19T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":208682},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2017-03-26T20:42:02+00:00","modifiedTime":"2024-07-19T12:20:26+00:00","timestamp":"2024-07-19T15:01:02+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Academics & The Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"History","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33670"},"slug":"history","categoryId":33670},{"name":"Ancient Egyptian History","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33673"},"slug":"ancient-egyptian","categoryId":33673}],"title":"Ancient Egypt Timeline","strippedTitle":"ancient egypt timeline","slug":"ancient-egypt-timeline","canonicalUrl":"//coursofppt.com/article/academics-the-arts/history/ancient-egyptian/ancient-egyptians-for-dummies-cheat-sheet-208682/","浏览领头羊改善":{"metaDescription":"Here’s an overview of periods of Egyptian history. Some of the dates and dynasties overlap, especially during the Intermediate Periods, because different kings ","noIndex":1,"noFollow":0},"content":"<p>Here’s an overview of periods of Egyptian history. Some of the dates and dynasties overlap, especially during the Intermediate Periods, because different kings ruled different parts of Egypt at the same time – all holding the title of king. </p>\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" >Predynastic Period </h2>\r\n<p>The Badarian period: 4400–4000 BC</p>\r\n<p>Maadian period: 4000–3300 BC</p>\r\n<p>The Amratian period: 4000–3500 BC</p>\r\n<p>The Gerzean period: 3500–3200 BC</p>\r\n<p>The Negada III period: 3200–3050 BC</p>\r\n<h2 id=\"tab2\" >Early Dynastic Period</h2>\r\n<p>Dynasty 0: 3150–3050 BC</p>\r\n<p>Dynasty 1: 3050–2890 BC</p>\r\n<p>Dynasty 2: 2890 –2686 BC</p>\r\n<h2 id=\"tab3\" >Old Kingdom</h2>\r\n<p>Dynasty 3: 2686–2613 BC</p>\r\n<p>Dynasty 4: 2613–2500 BC</p>\r\n<p>Dynasty 5: 2498–2345 BC </p>\r\n<p>Dynasty 6: 2345–2333 BC</p>\r\n<h2 id=\"tab4\" >First Intermediate Period</h2>\r\n<p>Dynasty 7 and 8: 2180–2160 BC</p>\r\n<p>Dynasty 9 and 10: 2160–2040 BC</p>\r\n<h2 id=\"tab5\" >Middle Kingdom</h2>\r\n<p>Dynasty 11: 2134–1991 BC</p>\r\n<p>Dynasty 12: 1991–1782 BC</p>\r\n<h2 id=\"tab6\" >Second Intermediate Period</h2>\r\n<p>Dynasty 13: 1782 –1650 BC</p>\r\n<p>Dynasty 14: Dates unknown. This dynasty is characterised by a few chieftains ruling one town, calling themselves kings.</p>\r\n<p>Dynasty 15: 1663–1555 BC</p>\r\n<p>Dynasty 16: 1663–1555 BC</p>\r\n<p>Dynasty 17: 1663–1570 BC</p>\r\n<h2 id=\"tab7\" >New Kingdom </h2>\r\n<p>Dynasty 18: 1570–1293 BC</p>\r\n<p>Dynasty 19: 1293–1185 BC</p>\r\n<p>Dynasty 20: 1185–1070 BC</p>\r\n<h2 id=\"tab8\" >Third Intermediate Period</h2>\r\n<p>High Priests (Thebes): 1080–945 BC</p>\r\n<p>Dynasty 21 (Tanis): 1069–945 BC</p>\r\n<p>Dynasty 22 (Tanis): 945–715 BC</p>\r\n<p>Dynasty 23 (Leontopolis): 818–715 BC</p>\r\n<p>Dynasty 24 (Sais): 727–715 BC </p>\r\n<p>Dynasty 25 (Nubians): 747–656 BC</p>\r\n<p>Dynasty 26 (Sais): 664–525 BC</p>\r\n<h2 id=\"tab9\" >Late Period</h2>\r\n<p>Dynasty 27 (Persian): 525–404 BC</p>\r\n<p>Dynasty 28: 404–399 BC</p>\r\n<p>Dynasty 29: 399–380 BC</p>\r\n<p>Dynasty 30: 380–343 BC</p>\r\n<p>Dynasty 31: 343–332 BC</p>\r\n<h2 id=\"tab10\" >Graeco-Roman Period</h2>\r\n<p>Macedonian Kings: 332–305 BC</p>\r\n<p>Ptolemaic Period: 305–30 BC</p>","description":"<p>Here’s an overview of periods of Egyptian history. Some of the dates and dynasties overlap, especially during the Intermediate Periods, because different kings ruled different parts of Egypt at the same time – all holding the title of king. </p>\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" >Predynastic Period </h2>\r\n<p>The Badarian period: 4400–4000 BC</p>\r\n<p>Maadian period: 4000–3300 BC</p>\r\n<p>The Amratian period: 4000–3500 BC</p>\r\n<p>The Gerzean period: 3500–3200 BC</p>\r\n<p>The Negada III period: 3200–3050 BC</p>\r\n<h2 id=\"tab2\" >Early Dynastic Period</h2>\r\n<p>Dynasty 0: 3150–3050 BC</p>\r\n<p>Dynasty 1: 3050–2890 BC</p>\r\n<p>Dynasty 2: 2890 –2686 BC</p>\r\n<h2 id=\"tab3\" >Old Kingdom</h2>\r\n<p>Dynasty 3: 2686–2613 BC</p>\r\n<p>Dynasty 4: 2613–2500 BC</p>\r\n<p>Dynasty 5: 2498–2345 BC </p>\r\n<p>Dynasty 6: 2345–2333 BC</p>\r\n<h2 id=\"tab4\" >First Intermediate Period</h2>\r\n<p>Dynasty 7 and 8: 2180–2160 BC</p>\r\n<p>Dynasty 9 and 10: 2160–2040 BC</p>\r\n<h2 id=\"tab5\" >Middle Kingdom</h2>\r\n<p>Dynasty 11: 2134–1991 BC</p>\r\n<p>Dynasty 12: 1991–1782 BC</p>\r\n<h2 id=\"tab6\" >Second Intermediate Period</h2>\r\n<p>Dynasty 13: 1782 –1650 BC</p>\r\n<p>Dynasty 14: Dates unknown. This dynasty is characterised by a few chieftains ruling one town, calling themselves kings.</p>\r\n<p>Dynasty 15: 1663–1555 BC</p>\r\n<p>Dynasty 16: 1663–1555 BC</p>\r\n<p>Dynasty 17: 1663–1570 BC</p>\r\n<h2 id=\"tab7\" >New Kingdom </h2>\r\n<p>Dynasty 18: 1570–1293 BC</p>\r\n<p>Dynasty 19: 1293–1185 BC</p>\r\n<p>Dynasty 20: 1185–1070 BC</p>\r\n<h2 id=\"tab8\" >Third Intermediate Period</h2>\r\n<p>High Priests (Thebes): 1080–945 BC</p>\r\n<p>Dynasty 21 (Tanis): 1069–945 BC</p>\r\n<p>Dynasty 22 (Tanis): 945–715 BC</p>\r\n<p>Dynasty 23 (Leontopolis): 818–715 BC</p>\r\n<p>Dynasty 24 (Sais): 727–715 BC </p>\r\n<p>Dynasty 25 (Nubians): 747–656 BC</p>\r\n<p>Dynasty 26 (Sais): 664–525 BC</p>\r\n<h2 id=\"tab9\" >Late Period</h2>\r\n<p>Dynasty 27 (Persian): 525–404 BC</p>\r\n<p>Dynasty 28: 404–399 BC</p>\r\n<p>Dynasty 29: 399–380 BC</p>\r\n<p>Dynasty 30: 380–343 BC</p>\r\n<p>Dynasty 31: 343–332 BC</p>\r\n<h2 id=\"tab10\" >Graeco-Roman Period</h2>\r\n<p>Macedonian Kings: 332–305 BC</p>\r\n<p>Ptolemaic Period: 305–30 BC</p>","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":10197,"name":"Charlotte Booth","slug":"charlotte-booth","description":" <b>Charlotte Booth</b>, MA, is an Egyptologist, lecturer, and founder of the Essex Egyptology Group.","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/10197"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33673,"title":"Ancient Egyptian History","slug":"ancient-egyptian","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33673"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[{"label":"Predynastic Period ","target":"#tab1"},{"label":"Early Dynastic Period","target":"#tab2"},{"label":"Old Kingdom","target":"#tab3"},{"label":"First Intermediate Period","target":"#tab4"},{"label":"Middle Kingdom","target":"#tab5"},{"label":"Second Intermediate Period","target":"#tab6"},{"label":"New Kingdom ","target":"#tab7"},{"label":"Third Intermediate Period","target":"#tab8"},{"label":"Late Period","target":"#tab9"},{"label":"Graeco-Roman Period","target":"#tab10"}],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[{"articleId":208682,"title":"Ancient Egyptians For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"ancient-egyptians-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","history","ancient-egyptian"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/208682"}}],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":208682,"title":"Ancient Egyptians For Dummies Cheat 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Ancient Egyptians For Dummies","testBankPinActivationLink":"","bookOutOfPrint":false,"authorsInfo":"<b data-author-id=\"10197\">Charlotte Booth</b>, MA, is an Egyptologist, lecturer, and founder of the Essex Egyptology Group.","authors":[{"authorId":10197,"name":"Charlotte Booth","slug":"charlotte-booth","description":" <b>Charlotte Booth</b>, MA, is an Egyptologist, lecturer, and founder of the Essex Egyptology Group.","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/10197"}}],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/books/"}},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = 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Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"History","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33670"},"slug":"history","categoryId":33670},{"name":"Ancient Greek History","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33674"},"slug":"ancient-greek","categoryId":33674}],"title":"Mythology For Dummies Cheat Sheet","strippedTitle":"mythology for dummies cheat sheet","slug":"mythology-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","canonicalUrl":"","浏览领头羊改善":{"metaDescription":"Do you know the difference between Aphrodite and Venus? Learn about the Greek and Roman gods and goddesses and their places in history.","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"Many cultures create a mythology to help explain the workings of the world. Western civilization is most familiar with the gods and goddesses of Greek and Roman mythology, who have comparable powers, but different names. And mythology is created often in response to human history, so a historical timeline can be a good reference to have.","description":"Many cultures create a mythology to help explain the workings of the world. Western civilization is most familiar with the gods and goddesses of Greek and Roman mythology, who have comparable powers, but different names. And mythology is created often in response to human history, so a historical timeline can be a good reference to have.","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":9388,"name":"Amy Hackney Blackwell","slug":"amy-hackney-blackwell","description":"<span class=\"a-text-bold\"><strong>Amy Hackney Blackwell</strong>, PhD,</span> has spent her career producing educational content on science, history, and the law.","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9388"}},{"authorId":35308,"name":"Christopher Blackwell","slug":"christopher-blackwell","description":"<strong>Christopher W. Blackwell</strong>, PhD, is the Louis G. Forgione University Professor of Classics at Furman University.","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/35308"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33674,"title":"Ancient Greek History","slug":"ancient-greek","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33674"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":209247,"title":"Ancient Greeks For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"ancient-greeks-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","history","ancient-greek"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/209247"}},{"articleId":198907,"title":"Understanding the Origin of the Greek Gods","slug":"understanding-the-origin-of-the-greek-gods","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","history","ancient-greek"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/198907"}},{"articleId":194095,"title":"Greek and Roman Mythology Names","slug":"gods-and-goddesses-of-greek-and-roman-mythology","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","history","ancient-greek"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/194095"}},{"articleId":194088,"title":"Ancient Greece Timeline","slug":"ancient-greece-timeline","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","history","ancient-greek"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/194088"}},{"articleId":194087,"title":"Map of Ancient Greece","slug":"map-of-ancient-greece","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","history","ancient-greek"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/194087"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":299522,"slug":"mythology-for-dummies","isbn":"9781394187935","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","history","ancient-greek"],"amazon":{"default":"//www.amazon.com/gp/product/1394187939/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","ca":"//www.amazon.ca/gp/product/1394187939/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","indigo_ca":"//www.tkqlhce.com/click-9208661-13710633?url=//www.chapters.indigo.ca/en-ca/books/product/1394187939-item.html&cjsku=978111945484","gb":"//www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/1394187939/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","de":"//www.amazon.de/gp/product/1394187939/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20"},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/mythology-for-dummies-cover-9781394187935-202x255.jpg","width":202,"height":255},"title":"Mythology For Dummies","testBankPinActivationLink":"","bookOutOfPrint":true,"authorsInfo":"<p><span class=\"a-text-bold\"><strong><b data-author-id=\"9388\">Amy Hackney Blackwell</b></strong>, PhD,</span> has spent her career producing educational content on science, history, and the law. <strong>Christopher W. Blackwell</strong>, PhD, is the Louis G. Forgione University Professor of Classics at Furman University.</p>","authors":[{"authorId":9388,"name":"Amy Hackney Blackwell","slug":"amy-hackney-blackwell","description":"<span class=\"a-text-bold\"><strong>Amy Hackney Blackwell</strong>, PhD,</span> has spent her career producing educational content on science, history, and the law.","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9388"}},{"authorId":35308,"name":"Christopher Blackwell","slug":"christopher-blackwell","description":"<strong>Christopher W. Blackwell</strong>, PhD, is the Louis G. Forgione University Professor of Classics at Furman University.","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/35308"}}],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/books/"}},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;history&quot;,&quot;ancient-greek&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781394187935&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-64a5afdf434ba\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;history&quot;,&quot;ancient-greek&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781394187935&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-64a5afdf43ba3\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Cheat Sheet","articleList":[{"articleId":194095,"title":"Greek and Roman Mythology Names","slug":"gods-and-goddesses-of-greek-and-roman-mythology","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","history","ancient-greek"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/194095"}},{"articleId":194099,"title":"A Timeline of World Civilizations for Mythology","slug":"a-timeline-of-world-civilizations-for-mythology","categoryList":[],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/194099"}}],"content":[{"title":"Comparing Greek and Roman deities","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Even though <a href=\"//dummies-wp-admin.coursofppt.com/education/history/world-history/understanding-the-origin-of-the-greek-gods/\">Greek</a> and <a href=\"//dummies-wp-admin.coursofppt.com/education/history/world-history/figuring-out-how-roman-mythology-got-so-darned-mixed-up/\">Roman</a>  mythologies are just a small part of all the world’s mythologies, they tend to show up a lot in the world of art, business, and technology today. Both of these cultures include gods and goddesses who interact with humans, with good, bad, and indifferent motives.</p>\n<p class=\"SortTitle\">The Greek names of the gods and goddesses varied from the Roman names, although each culture attributed comparable powers and spheres of influence to the deities. The following table shows those areas and the names of the important deities in each mythology.</p>\n<div class=\"figure-container\"><figure id=\"attachment_243788\" aria-labelledby=\"figcaption_attachment_243788\" class=\"wp-caption alignnone\" style=\"width: 510px\"><a href=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/greek-mythology-names.jpg\"><img loading=\"lazy\" class=\"size-full wp-image-243788\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/greek-mythology-names.jpg\" alt=\"greek-mythology-names\" width=\"500\" height=\"400\" /></a><figcaption id=\"figcaption_attachment_243788\" class=\"wp-caption-text\">© Vuk Kostic / Shutterstock<br />Zeus throwing lightning</figcaption></figure></div><div class=\"clearfix\"></div>\n<h3>Greek and Roman Mythology Names</h3>\n<table>\n<tbody>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"208\"><strong>Greek Name</strong></td>\n<td width=\"208\"><strong>Roman Name</strong></td>\n<td width=\"208\"><strong>Description</strong></td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"208\">Zeus</td>\n<td width=\"208\">Jupiter</td>\n<td width=\"208\">King of gods</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"208\">Hera</td>\n<td width=\"208\">Juno</td>\n<td width=\"208\">Goddess of marriage</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"208\">Poseidon</td>\n<td width=\"208\">Neptune</td>\n<td width=\"208\">God of the sea</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"208\">Cronos</td>\n<td width=\"208\">Saturn</td>\n<td width=\"208\">Youngest son of Uranus, father of Zeus/Jupiter. His son took over being king of the gods, but he kept his job as a sky-god who presided over agricultural harvests.</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"208\">Aphrodite</td>\n<td width=\"208\">Venus</td>\n<td width=\"208\">Goddess of love</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"208\">Hades</td>\n<td width=\"208\">Pluto</td>\n<td width=\"208\">God of the underworld</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"208\">Hephaistos</td>\n<td width=\"208\">Vulcan</td>\n<td width=\"208\">God of the forge</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"208\">Demeter</td>\n<td width=\"208\">Ceres</td>\n<td width=\"208\">Goddess of the harvest</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"208\">Apollo</td>\n<td width=\"208\">Apollo</td>\n<td width=\"208\">God of music and medicine</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"208\">Athena</td>\n<td width=\"208\">Minerva</td>\n<td width=\"208\">Goddess of wisdom</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"208\">Artemis</td>\n<td width=\"208\">Diana</td>\n<td width=\"208\">Goddess of the hunt</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"208\">Ares</td>\n<td width=\"208\">Mars</td>\n<td width=\"208\">God of war</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"208\">Hermes</td>\n<td width=\"208\">Mercury</td>\n<td width=\"208\">Messenger of the gods</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"208\">Dionysus</td>\n<td width=\"208\">Bacchus</td>\n<td width=\"208\">God of wine</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"208\">Persephone</td>\n<td width=\"208\">Proserpine</td>\n<td width=\"208\">Goddess of underworld</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"208\">Eros</td>\n<td width=\"208\">Cupid</td>\n<td width=\"208\">God of love</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"208\">Gaia</td>\n<td width=\"208\">Gaea</td>\n<td width=\"208\">Goddess of earth</td>\n</tr>\n</tbody>\n</table>\n<p>&nbsp;</p>\n<p>Besides these gods and goddesses, Greek mythology in particular has many other gods and immortals.</p>\n<p>Like the Christian god, Jehovah, Zeus or Jupiter was considered the almighty father. But instead of being the father of humans, he was the father of the lesser gods.</p>\n"},{"title":"Gods as teachers","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Although people today think of these Greek gods and goddesses as creatures of mythology, remember that to the ancient Greeks, they were no less real than current beliefs in deities like God or legendary spiritual leaders like Buddha.</p>\n<p>Modern society has come to see the stories of the gods as metaphors for teaching lessons about behaviors and actions, even though the gods and goddesses in Greek (and Roman) mythology exhibit many of the weaknesses, such as pettiness, that you may not associate with deities.</p>\n<p>Around the world, the figures of mythology play the role of teacher. The Egyptian goddess Sheshat taught people wisdom and how to write. The Armenian god Tir taught humans writing and other academic subjects.</p>\n<p>Here are some of other gods that function as teachers:</p>\n<ul>\n<li>Quetzalcoatl (among the Aztecs)</li>\n<li>Ogma (among the Scots and Irish)</li>\n<li>Wénchāng Wáng (among the ancient Chinese)</li>\n<li>Athena (the Greeks, also Minerva for the Romans and Menrva for the Etruscans)</li>\n<li>Saraswati (the Hindu people of India)</li>\n<li>Benzaiten and Tenjin (in ancient Japan)</li>\n<li>Nabu (the Babylonian god of writing)</li>\n<li>Hnašká (who taught humans medicine, according to the Lakota of North America)</li>\n<li>Odin (the northern European god who was always searching for knowledge)</li>\n<li>Anansi (the spidergod of West Africa who taught humans agriculture).</li>\n</ul>\n<p>We might of course include the prophets and teachers of religions practiced by many people today</p>\n<ul>\n<li>The Buddha</li>\n<li>Moses</li>\n<li>Jesus Christ</li>\n<li>Muhammad</li>\n<li>Confucius</li>\n</ul>\n<p>One lesson the Greek myths loved to teach was the lesson of <em>hubris,</em> or pride. Whenever a mortal displays hubris, thinking they’re better than the gods, they inevitably experience a resulting tragedy.</p>\n<p>If one of the lesser gods starts thinking they’re more powerful than Zeus, they, too, get knocked down a peg. This type of metaphorical lesson also shows up in the stories of the Bible, Shakespearian tragedies, and even in modern literature and art.</p>\n<p>Many myths also explain various aspects of the world, from how the world was created to the changing of the seasons and beyond. For example, Persephone (Zeus and Demeter’s daughter) was stolen by Hades to be his queen in the underworld.</p>\n<p>Her mother, the earth goddess, refused to fulfill her duties until a compromise allowed Persephone to spend four to six months (depending on the version of the myth) with her mother; that’s spring and summer. She spends the rest of the year in the underworld, during which time the earth goddess still goes on strike, resulting in fall and winter.</p>\n"},{"title":"Seeing connections between ancient myths and modern religions","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Every religion has a creation “myth,” although those who currently practice a religion would argue that it isn’t myth. The Judeo-Christian story tells of God creating the heavens and the earth and of the first man and woman in the Garden of Eden.</p>\n<p>The Greeks actually had several creation myths, including one involving an egg that hatched all planets, the earth, and all creatures.</p>\n<p>Here are some other interesting parallels:</p>\n<ul>\n<li>Eve, the first woman in Judeo-Christian religions, was tempted into sin by the serpent and ate from the tree of knowledge of good and evil. As a punishment, Adam (the first man) and Eve are kicked out of the Garden of Eden, where they had everything they wanted. Similarly, the first woman in Greek mythology, Pandora, is tempted to open a forbidden box (or, in some versions, a jar) and brings chaos by releasing all the ills of the world.</li>\n<li>Ancient Greeks believed the first humans were destroyed in a great flood sent by Zeus. The only survivors were Deucalion and his wife. This myth parallels the story of Noah and his ark.</li>\n<li>Mount Olympus itself is often considered to be the Ancient Greeks’ version of heaven, and Hades, named for the god who ruled the underworld, is the equivalent of the Christian hell.</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"Tracking mythology and civilization","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Mythology tries to explain the world and therefore reflects the culture, events, and history of the societies that create the stories handed down as myths. Here are a few examples:</p>\n<ul>\n<li>Egypt’s Nile River routinely overflowed its banks, leaving fertile ground as it receded. This cycle became the basis for Egyptian religion, which demanded the people help the gods prevent anything from interfering with the cycle.</li>\n<li>Myths form around the founding of cities and civilizations, including the creation myths passed down in virtually every culture.</li>\n<li>Myths account for astrological occurrences as well as for more earthbound events.</li>\n<li>The Dogon people of Mali explain why humans come in male and female forms with their creation myth, and that all creatures have female and masculine energies.</li>\n<li>Famous poems, such as <em>Beowulf</em> and the <em>Saga of the Volsungs,</em> are combinations of history and legend. The stories of the mythical Br’er Rabbit, who wins every encounter against his adversaries despite his subservient position, inspired hope in Africans who were enslaved in the United States during the Civil War era.</li>\n</ul>\n<p>And don’t assume all myths are hundreds or thousands of years old. The “mythical” city of Brigadoon, a Scottish village that appears once every hundred years, was essentially the invention of Alan Jay Lerner and Frederick Loewe, who wrote a play about it in 1947.</p>\n"}],"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Explore","lifeExpectancy":"Five 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