chơi xổ số keno trực tuyến

{"appState":{"pageLoadApiCallsStatus":true},"categoryState":{"relatedCategories":{"headers":{"timestamp":"2025-01-31T04:01:13+00:00"},"categoryId":34076,"data":{"title":"General Psychology","slug":"general-psychology","image":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Body, Mind, & Spirit","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/34038"},"slug":"body-mind-spirit","categoryId":34038},{"name":"Emotional Health & Psychology","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/34039"},"slug":"emotional-health-psychology","categoryId":34039},{"name":"Psychology","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/34053"},"slug":"psychology","categoryId":34053},{"name":"General Psychology","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/34076"},"slug":"general-psychology","categoryId":34076}],"parentCategory":{"categoryId":34053,"title":"Psychology","slug":"psychology","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/34053"}},"childCategories":[],"description":"What can you do in a mental health crisis? Who was Erik Erikson? What is altruism? What effect does the internet have on our minds? Explore the fascinating world of human psychology.","relatedArticles":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles?category=34076&offset=0&size=5"},"hasArticle":true,"hasBook":true,"articleCount":55,"bookCount":4},"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/34076"}},"relatedCategoriesLoadedStatus":"success"},"listState":{"list":{"count":10,"total":55,"items":[{"headers":{"creationTime":"2017-03-26T14:50:48+00:00","modifiedTime":"2024-10-10T16:30:50+00:00","timestamp":"2024-10-10T18:01:03+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Body, Mind, & Spirit","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/34038"},"slug":"body-mind-spirit","categoryId":34038},{"name":"Emotional Health & Psychology","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/34039"},"slug":"emotional-health-psychology","categoryId":34039},{"name":"Psychology","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/34053"},"slug":"psychology","categoryId":34053},{"name":"General Psychology","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/34076"},"slug":"general-psychology","categoryId":34076}],"title":"Effective Ways to Cope with Stress","strippedTitle":"effective ways to cope with stress","slug":"effective-ways-to-cope-with-stress","canonicalUrl":"","浏览座舱推广":{"metaDescription":"Learn some effective ways to deal with stress, including looking at the situation logically and using problem-solving skills.","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"Stress is a constant in everyone’s life. Nobody is immune from stress-inducing events and situations. Here are few tips for dealing with stress in your life:\r\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Accept responsibility:</b> Take charge of your own part in things instead of focusing on the activities or involvement of others.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Analyze the situation logically:</b> Try looking at a situation less emotionally and more logically.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Gather information:</b> The more we know, the better we’re able to cope. Find out as much as you can about your situation and what can be done about it.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Reappraise or reframe the situation:</b> Look at a situation from a different perspective and try to see the positive side of things.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Seek guidance and support:</b> Ask for help from someone you respect or, if you’re more comfortable doing so, from a mental health professional.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Use problem-solving skills:</b> Come up with alternatives, select one, try it, and reevaluate the outcomes.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n</ul>","description":"Stress is a constant in everyone’s life. Nobody is immune from stress-inducing events and situations. Here are few tips for dealing with stress in your life:\r\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Accept responsibility:</b> Take charge of your own part in things instead of focusing on the activities or involvement of others.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Analyze the situation logically:</b> Try looking at a situation less emotionally and more logically.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Gather information:</b> The more we know, the better we’re able to cope. Find out as much as you can about your situation and what can be done about it.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Reappraise or reframe the situation:</b> Look at a situation from a different perspective and try to see the positive side of things.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Seek guidance and support:</b> Ask for help from someone you respect or, if you’re more comfortable doing so, from a mental health professional.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Use problem-solving skills:</b> Come up with alternatives, select one, try it, and reevaluate the outcomes.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n</ul>","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":9556,"name":"Adam Cash","slug":"adam-cash","description":" <p><b>Adam Cash</b> is a clinical psychologist who has practiced in a variety of settings including forensic institutions and outpatient clinics. He has taught Psychology at both the community college and university levels. He is currently in private practice specializing in psychological assessment, child psychology, and neurodevelopmental disorders. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9556"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":34076,"title":"General Psychology","slug":"general-psychology","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/34076"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":299550,"title":"Narcissism For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"narcissism-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["body-mind-spirit","emotional-health-psychology","psychology","general-psychology"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/299550"}},{"articleId":273560,"title":"Going Beyond Stress: The Psychology of 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Spirit","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/34038"},"slug":"body-mind-spirit","categoryId":34038},{"name":"Emotional Health & Psychology","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/34039"},"slug":"emotional-health-psychology","categoryId":34039},{"name":"Psychology","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/34053"},"slug":"psychology","categoryId":34053},{"name":"General Psychology","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/34076"},"slug":"general-psychology","categoryId":34076}],"title":"Tests that Measure Intelligence and Cognitive Abilities","strippedTitle":"tests that measure intelligence and cognitive abilities","slug":"2-psychological-tests-to-measure-intelligence-and-neuropsychological-and-cognitive-ability","canonicalUrl":"","浏览座舱推广":{"metaDescription":"Any number of different disciplines are involved in mental illness treatment and working with people with mental disorders. Psychological testing, however, is c","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"Any number of different disciplines are involved in mental illness treatment and working with people with mental disorders. Psychological testing, however, is considered the sole domain of psychologists.\r\n\r\nAlthough some professionals, including school counselors and learning disability specialists, conduct psychological testing, their testing is limited in scope and to a specific problem. Psychologists are thoroughly trained in all aspects of psychological testing and are the primary professionals in this area.\r\n\r\nTesting formats include surveys, pencil-and-paper tests, exercises and activities (like putting a puzzle together), interviews, and observation. Psychological testing focuses on the subject matter of psychology, behavior, and mental processes.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" >Intelligence tests</h2>\r\nIntelligence tests may be the most frequently administered type of psychological test. They measure a broad range of intellectual and cognitive abilities and often provide a general measure of intelligence, which is sometimes called an <i>IQ </i>—<i> </i>intelligence quotient.\r\n\r\nIntelligence tests are used in a wide variety of settings and applications. They can be used for diagnostic purposes to identify disabilities and cognitive disorders. They’re commonly used in academic and school settings. Intelligence tests have been around since the beginning of psychology as an established science, dating back to the work of Wilhelm Wundt — one of the founders of psychology — in the early 20th century.\r\n\r\nThe most commonly used tests of intelligence are the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, 4th Edition,<i> </i>for adults, and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th Edition, for children. Each of these tests contains several subtests designed to measure specific aspects of intelligence, such as attention, general knowledge, visual organization, and comprehension. Both tests provide individual scores for each subtest and an overall score representing overall intelligence.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab2\" >Neuropsychological and cognitive tests</h2>\r\nAlthough not a new field, tests of neuropsychological functioning and cognitive ability, related specifically to brain functioning, are rapidly becoming a standard part of a psychologist’s testing toolset. Neuropsychological tests have traditionally been used to augment neurological exams and brain imaging techniques (such as MRIs, CT scans, and PET scans) but they’re being used more widely now in psychoeducational testing and other clinical testing situations.\r\n<p class=\"Remember\">The technology of scanning techniques picks up on the presence of brain damage, but neuropsychological tests serve as a more precise measure of the actual functional impairments an individual may suffer from. Scans say, “Yep, there’s damage!” Neuropsychological tests say, “. . . and here’s the cognitive problem related to it.”</p>\r\nNeuropsychological testing is used in hospitals, clinics, private practices, and other places where psychologists work with patients who are suspected of neuropsychological impairment. People suffering head trauma, developmental disorder, or other insults to the brain may need a thorough neuropsychological examination.\r\n\r\nA popular neuropsychological test is a collection of tests called a <i>test battery. </i>The<i> </i>Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery includes tests that measure neuropsychological constructs, such as memory, attention and concentration, language ability, motor skills, auditory skill, and planning. Completing the battery requires several hours, and it’s never done in one sitting. However, when conducted by a competent professional, the testing can yield a tremendous amount of helpful information.\r\n\r\nMany neuropsychological instruments are available; some are comprehensive, like the Halstead-Reitan, and some are designed to measure a specific function such as language or attention. A neuropsychological evaluation is conducted using a comprehensive instrument or a collection of individual instruments to create a profile of neuropsychological strengths and weaknesses. The following areas of neuropsychological functioning are typically assessed:\r\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Executive Functions:</b> Focusing, planning, organizing, monitoring, inhibiting, and self-regulating</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Communication and Language:</b> Perceiving, receiving, and expressing self with language and nonverbal communication</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Memory:</b> Auditory memory, visual memory, working memory, and long-term memory</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Sensorimotor Functions:</b> Sensory and motor functions, including hearing, touch, smell, and fine and gross muscle movements</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Visual-Spatial Functions:</b> Visual perception, visual motor coordination, visual scanning, and perceptual reasoning</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Speed and Efficiency:</b> How fast and how efficient thinking is</p>\r\n</li>\r\n</ul>","description":"Any number of different disciplines are involved in mental illness treatment and working with people with mental disorders. Psychological testing, however, is considered the sole domain of psychologists.\r\n\r\nAlthough some professionals, including school counselors and learning disability specialists, conduct psychological testing, their testing is limited in scope and to a specific problem. Psychologists are thoroughly trained in all aspects of psychological testing and are the primary professionals in this area.\r\n\r\nTesting formats include surveys, pencil-and-paper tests, exercises and activities (like putting a puzzle together), interviews, and observation. Psychological testing focuses on the subject matter of psychology, behavior, and mental processes.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" >Intelligence tests</h2>\r\nIntelligence tests may be the most frequently administered type of psychological test. They measure a broad range of intellectual and cognitive abilities and often provide a general measure of intelligence, which is sometimes called an <i>IQ </i>—<i> </i>intelligence quotient.\r\n\r\nIntelligence tests are used in a wide variety of settings and applications. They can be used for diagnostic purposes to identify disabilities and cognitive disorders. They’re commonly used in academic and school settings. Intelligence tests have been around since the beginning of psychology as an established science, dating back to the work of Wilhelm Wundt — one of the founders of psychology — in the early 20th century.\r\n\r\nThe most commonly used tests of intelligence are the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, 4th Edition,<i> </i>for adults, and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th Edition, for children. Each of these tests contains several subtests designed to measure specific aspects of intelligence, such as attention, general knowledge, visual organization, and comprehension. Both tests provide individual scores for each subtest and an overall score representing overall intelligence.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab2\" >Neuropsychological and cognitive tests</h2>\r\nAlthough not a new field, tests of neuropsychological functioning and cognitive ability, related specifically to brain functioning, are rapidly becoming a standard part of a psychologist’s testing toolset. Neuropsychological tests have traditionally been used to augment neurological exams and brain imaging techniques (such as MRIs, CT scans, and PET scans) but they’re being used more widely now in psychoeducational testing and other clinical testing situations.\r\n<p class=\"Remember\">The technology of scanning techniques picks up on the presence of brain damage, but neuropsychological tests serve as a more precise measure of the actual functional impairments an individual may suffer from. Scans say, “Yep, there’s damage!” Neuropsychological tests say, “. . . and here’s the cognitive problem related to it.”</p>\r\nNeuropsychological testing is used in hospitals, clinics, private practices, and other places where psychologists work with patients who are suspected of neuropsychological impairment. People suffering head trauma, developmental disorder, or other insults to the brain may need a thorough neuropsychological examination.\r\n\r\nA popular neuropsychological test is a collection of tests called a <i>test battery. </i>The<i> </i>Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery includes tests that measure neuropsychological constructs, such as memory, attention and concentration, language ability, motor skills, auditory skill, and planning. Completing the battery requires several hours, and it’s never done in one sitting. However, when conducted by a competent professional, the testing can yield a tremendous amount of helpful information.\r\n\r\nMany neuropsychological instruments are available; some are comprehensive, like the Halstead-Reitan, and some are designed to measure a specific function such as language or attention. A neuropsychological evaluation is conducted using a comprehensive instrument or a collection of individual instruments to create a profile of neuropsychological strengths and weaknesses. The following areas of neuropsychological functioning are typically assessed:\r\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Executive Functions:</b> Focusing, planning, organizing, monitoring, inhibiting, and self-regulating</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Communication and Language:</b> Perceiving, receiving, and expressing self with language and nonverbal communication</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Memory:</b> Auditory memory, visual memory, working memory, and long-term memory</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Sensorimotor Functions:</b> Sensory and motor functions, including hearing, touch, smell, and fine and gross muscle movements</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Visual-Spatial Functions:</b> Visual perception, visual motor coordination, visual scanning, and perceptual reasoning</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Speed and Efficiency:</b> How fast and how efficient thinking is</p>\r\n</li>\r\n</ul>","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":9556,"name":"Adam Cash","slug":"adam-cash","description":" <p><b>Adam Cash</b> is a clinical psychologist who has practiced in a variety of settings including forensic institutions and outpatient clinics. He has taught Psychology at both the community college and university levels. He is currently in private practice specializing in psychological assessment, child psychology, and neurodevelopmental disorders. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9556"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":34076,"title":"General Psychology","slug":"general-psychology","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/34076"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[{"label":"Intelligence tests","target":"#tab1"},{"label":"Neuropsychological and cognitive tests","target":"#tab2"}],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[{"articleId":273560,"title":"Going Beyond Stress: The Psychology of Health","slug":"going-beyond-stress-the-psychology-of-health","categoryList":["body-mind-spirit","emotional-health-psychology","psychology","general-psychology"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/273560"}},{"articleId":273555,"title":"10 Great Psychological Movies and Shows","slug":"10-great-psychological-movies-and-shows","categoryList":["body-mind-spirit","emotional-health-psychology","psychology","general-psychology"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/273555"}},{"articleId":273547,"title":"The Organization of the Brain","slug":"the-organization-of-the-brain","categoryList":["body-mind-spirit","emotional-health-psychology","psychology","general-psychology"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/273547"}},{"articleId":273542,"title":"Biological Psychology: The Role of Cells and Chemicals","slug":"biological-psychology-the-role-of-cells-and-chemicals","categoryList":["body-mind-spirit","emotional-health-psychology","psychology","general-psychology"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/273542"}},{"articleId":207964,"title":"Psychology For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"psychology-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["body-mind-spirit","emotional-health-psychology","psychology","general-psychology"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/207964"}}],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":299550,"title":"Narcissism For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"narcissism-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["body-mind-spirit","emotional-health-psychology","psychology","general-psychology"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/299550"}},{"articleId":273560,"title":"Going Beyond Stress: The Psychology of Health","slug":"going-beyond-stress-the-psychology-of-health","categoryList":["body-mind-spirit","emotional-health-psychology","psychology","general-psychology"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/273560"}},{"articleId":273555,"title":"10 Great Psychological Movies and Shows","slug":"10-great-psychological-movies-and-shows","categoryList":["body-mind-spirit","emotional-health-psychology","psychology","general-psychology"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/273555"}},{"articleId":273547,"title":"The Organization of the Brain","slug":"the-organization-of-the-brain","categoryList":["body-mind-spirit","emotional-health-psychology","psychology","general-psychology"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/273547"}},{"articleId":273542,"title":"Biological Psychology: The Role of Cells and Chemicals","slug":"biological-psychology-the-role-of-cells-and-chemicals","categoryList":["body-mind-spirit","emotional-health-psychology","psychology","general-psychology"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/273542"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":282513,"slug":"psychology-for-dummies-3rd-edition","isbn":"9781119700296","categoryList":["body-mind-spirit","emotional-health-psychology","psychology","general-psychology"],"amazon":{"default":"//www.amazon.com/gp/product/1119700299/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","ca":"//www.amazon.ca/gp/product/1119700299/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","indigo_ca":"//www.tkqlhce.com/click-9208661-13710633?url=//www.chapters.indigo.ca/en-ca/books/product/1119700299-item.html&cjsku=978111945484","gb":"//www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/1119700299/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","de":"//www.amazon.de/gp/product/1119700299/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20"},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/psychology-for-dummies-3rd-edition-cover-9781119700296-203x255.jpg","width":203,"height":255},"title":"Psychology For Dummies","testBankPinActivationLink":"","bookOutOfPrint":true,"authorsInfo":"<p><p><b><b data-author-id=\"9556\">Adam Cash</b></b> is a clinical psychologist who has practiced in a variety of settings including forensic institutions and outpatient clinics. He has taught Psychology at both the community college and university levels. He is currently in private practice specializing in psychological assessment, child psychology, and neurodevelopmental disorders.</p>","authors":[{"authorId":9556,"name":"Adam Cash","slug":"adam-cash","description":" <p><b>Adam Cash</b> is a clinical psychologist who has practiced in a variety of settings including forensic institutions and outpatient clinics. He has taught Psychology at both the community college and university levels. He is currently in private practice specializing in psychological assessment, child psychology, and neurodevelopmental disorders. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9556"}}],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/books/"}},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;body-mind-spirit&quot;,&quot;emotional-health-psychology&quot;,&quot;psychology&quot;,&quot;general-psychology&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781119700296&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-64ac718fa807d\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;body-mind-spirit&quot;,&quot;emotional-health-psychology&quot;,&quot;psychology&quot;,&quot;general-psychology&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781119700296&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-64ac718fa89c1\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Articles","articleList":null,"content":null,"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Explore","lifeExpectancy":"Five years","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2022-12-28T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":160450},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2017-03-26T13:57:14+00:00","modifiedTime":"2024-07-10T19:25:06+00:00","timestamp":"2024-07-10T21:01:03+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Body, Mind, & Spirit","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/34038"},"slug":"body-mind-spirit","categoryId":34038},{"name":"Emotional Health & Psychology","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/34039"},"slug":"emotional-health-psychology","categoryId":34039},{"name":"Psychology","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/34053"},"slug":"psychology","categoryId":34053},{"name":"General Psychology","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/34076"},"slug":"general-psychology","categoryId":34076}],"title":"Three Types of Psychological Assessment Tests","strippedTitle":"three types of psychological assessment tests","slug":"3-psychological-tests-to-measure-abnormal-behavior-achievement-and-personality","canonicalUrl":"","浏览座舱推广":{"metaDescription":"Psychological tests are part of the entire psychological assessment process. Assessment is a set of scientific procedures used to measure and evaluate an indivi","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"Psychological tests are part of the entire psychological assessment process. <i>Assessment</i> is a set of scientific procedures used to measure and evaluate an individual’s behavior and mental processes. Psychologist Anne Anastasi (1908–2001), a past president of the American Psychological Association, defines a psychological test as an objective, standardized sample of behavior or mental processes. Nearly all topics in psychology can be measured with a test.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" >Clinical tests</h2>\r\nClinical psychologists (psychologists who work with mental disorders and abnormal behavior) typically use clinical testing as a way to clarify diagnoses and assess the scope and nature of a person’s or family’s disturbance and dysfunction. Specific tests are designed to assess the extent to which a patient may or may not be experiencing the symptoms of a particular disorder. These are <i>diagnostic tests</i>.\r\n\r\n<i>Behavioral and adaptive functioning </i>tests are two types of clinical tests that determine how well a person is doing in her everyday life and whether she exhibits specific problem behaviors. A common instrument used with children is the Child Behavior Checklist, which assesses the extent of a child’s behavior problems. Another commonly used clinical test is the Conner’s Parent Rating Scale, which detects attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms.\r\n\r\nIn addition to disorder-specific inventories and tests, a wide variety of tests designed for other purposes lend themselves to the diagnostic process. Intelligence tests are designed to measure intelligence, but they can also show signs of cognitive dysfunction and learning disabilities. Personality tests are designed to measure personality, but they can also provide helpful insight to the types of psychological problems an individual is experiencing.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab2\" >Educational and achievement tests</h2>\r\nEducational and achievement tests measure an individual’s current level of academic competence. Glen Aylward, chair of the Division of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics at the Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, identifies three major purposes of this type of testing:\r\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">Identify students who need special instruction.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">Identify the nature of a student’s difficulties in order to rule out learning disabilities.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">Assist in educational planning and approach to instruction.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n</ul>\r\nA typical educational/achievement test assesses the most common areas of school activity: reading, mathematics, spelling, and writing skills. Some tests include other areas such as science and social studies. A popular achievement test in use today is the Woodcock-Johnson Psychoeducational Battery, Revised. The test consists of nine subtests, measuring the standard areas of instruction but in more detail (mathematics is broken down into calculation and applied problems, for example).\r\n\r\nWhen a student has a hard time in school, it’s not unusual to administer an achievement test. Sometimes, students have a difficult time because they have a learning disability. Part of identifying a learning disability is assessing the student’s achievement level. Other times, a student struggles because of non-academic difficulties including emotional problems, substance abuse, or family issues. An achievement test sometimes helps to tease out these non-academic problems.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab3\" >Personality tests</h2>\r\nPersonality tests measure many different things, not just personality. Numerous tests are designed to measure emotion, motivation, and interpersonal skills as well as specific aspects of personality, according to the given theory on which a test is based. Most personality tests are known as <i>self-reports.</i> With self-reports, the person answering questions about herself, typically in a pencil-and-paper format, provides the information.\r\n\r\nPersonality tests are usually developed with a particular theory of personality in mind. A test may measure id, ego, or superego issues, for example, if it originates from a Freudian view of personality development.\r\n<h3>MMPI-2</h3>\r\nPerhaps the most widely used personality test in the United States is the<i> </i>MMPI-2, The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, 2nd Edition.<i> </i>Almost all American psychologists are trained to use the MMPI-2, which is considered to be a very reliable and valid instrument.\r\n\r\nA patient’s results from a MMPI-2 test provide rich information about the presence of psychopathology and level of severity, if present. The test’s results also reveal information about the emotional, behavioral, and social functioning of the test taker. A lot of psychologists use the MMPI-2 as a way to check the accuracy of their observations and diagnoses.\r\n\r\nThe MMPI-2 test consists of 567 individual items and produces a score on nine clinical categories or scales. If a score is over a specific cutoff, it usually gets the attention of the psychologist administering the test. Psychologists consider such scores to be of clinical significance. The MMPI-2 covers a wide variety of areas, including depression, physical complaints, anger, social contact, anxiety, and energy level.\r\n<h3>Projective personality tests</h3>\r\n<i>Projective personality tests</i> are a unique breed of test. When most people think of psychological testing, these kinds of tests come readily to mind. The stereotype involves sitting across from a psychologist, looking at a card with smeared ink or a picture of somebody doing something on it, and answering questions like “What do you see here?”\r\n\r\n(You can take a free, mock personality test at <a href=\"//coursofppt.com/education/psychology/mock-millennial-generation-personality-test/\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\">here</a>.)\r\n<p class=\"Remember\">Projective personality tests are based on the <i>projective hypothesis,</i> which states that when presented with ambiguous stimuli, people project parts of themselves and their psychological functioning that they may not reveal if asked directly The idea is that many people can’t exactly describe what’s going on mentally and emotionally because of psychological defense mechanisms. Projective tests get past the defenses and penetrate the deep recesses of the psyche.</p>\r\nPerhaps the most popular projective personality test and maybe even the most popular psychological test of all time is the Rorschach Inkblot Test (RIT).<i> </i>The RIT consists of ten cards, each with its own standard inkblot figure. None of these inkblots are a picture or representation of anything. They were created by simply pouring ink onto a sheet of paper and folding it in half. The only meaning and structure the cards have are provided by the projections of the test taker himself.","description":"Psychological tests are part of the entire psychological assessment process. <i>Assessment</i> is a set of scientific procedures used to measure and evaluate an individual’s behavior and mental processes. Psychologist Anne Anastasi (1908–2001), a past president of the American Psychological Association, defines a psychological test as an objective, standardized sample of behavior or mental processes. Nearly all topics in psychology can be measured with a test.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" >Clinical tests</h2>\r\nClinical psychologists (psychologists who work with mental disorders and abnormal behavior) typically use clinical testing as a way to clarify diagnoses and assess the scope and nature of a person’s or family’s disturbance and dysfunction. Specific tests are designed to assess the extent to which a patient may or may not be experiencing the symptoms of a particular disorder. These are <i>diagnostic tests</i>.\r\n\r\n<i>Behavioral and adaptive functioning </i>tests are two types of clinical tests that determine how well a person is doing in her everyday life and whether she exhibits specific problem behaviors. A common instrument used with children is the Child Behavior Checklist, which assesses the extent of a child’s behavior problems. Another commonly used clinical test is the Conner’s Parent Rating Scale, which detects attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms.\r\n\r\nIn addition to disorder-specific inventories and tests, a wide variety of tests designed for other purposes lend themselves to the diagnostic process. Intelligence tests are designed to measure intelligence, but they can also show signs of cognitive dysfunction and learning disabilities. Personality tests are designed to measure personality, but they can also provide helpful insight to the types of psychological problems an individual is experiencing.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab2\" >Educational and achievement tests</h2>\r\nEducational and achievement tests measure an individual’s current level of academic competence. Glen Aylward, chair of the Division of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics at the Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, identifies three major purposes of this type of testing:\r\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">Identify students who need special instruction.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">Identify the nature of a student’s difficulties in order to rule out learning disabilities.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">Assist in educational planning and approach to instruction.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n</ul>\r\nA typical educational/achievement test assesses the most common areas of school activity: reading, mathematics, spelling, and writing skills. Some tests include other areas such as science and social studies. A popular achievement test in use today is the Woodcock-Johnson Psychoeducational Battery, Revised. The test consists of nine subtests, measuring the standard areas of instruction but in more detail (mathematics is broken down into calculation and applied problems, for example).\r\n\r\nWhen a student has a hard time in school, it’s not unusual to administer an achievement test. Sometimes, students have a difficult time because they have a learning disability. Part of identifying a learning disability is assessing the student’s achievement level. Other times, a student struggles because of non-academic difficulties including emotional problems, substance abuse, or family issues. An achievement test sometimes helps to tease out these non-academic problems.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab3\" >Personality tests</h2>\r\nPersonality tests measure many different things, not just personality. Numerous tests are designed to measure emotion, motivation, and interpersonal skills as well as specific aspects of personality, according to the given theory on which a test is based. Most personality tests are known as <i>self-reports.</i> With self-reports, the person answering questions about herself, typically in a pencil-and-paper format, provides the information.\r\n\r\nPersonality tests are usually developed with a particular theory of personality in mind. A test may measure id, ego, or superego issues, for example, if it originates from a Freudian view of personality development.\r\n<h3>MMPI-2</h3>\r\nPerhaps the most widely used personality test in the United States is the<i> </i>MMPI-2, The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, 2nd Edition.<i> </i>Almost all American psychologists are trained to use the MMPI-2, which is considered to be a very reliable and valid instrument.\r\n\r\nA patient’s results from a MMPI-2 test provide rich information about the presence of psychopathology and level of severity, if present. The test’s results also reveal information about the emotional, behavioral, and social functioning of the test taker. A lot of psychologists use the MMPI-2 as a way to check the accuracy of their observations and diagnoses.\r\n\r\nThe MMPI-2 test consists of 567 individual items and produces a score on nine clinical categories or scales. If a score is over a specific cutoff, it usually gets the attention of the psychologist administering the test. Psychologists consider such scores to be of clinical significance. The MMPI-2 covers a wide variety of areas, including depression, physical complaints, anger, social contact, anxiety, and energy level.\r\n<h3>Projective personality tests</h3>\r\n<i>Projective personality tests</i> are a unique breed of test. When most people think of psychological testing, these kinds of tests come readily to mind. The stereotype involves sitting across from a psychologist, looking at a card with smeared ink or a picture of somebody doing something on it, and answering questions like “What do you see here?”\r\n\r\n(You can take a free, mock personality test at <a href=\"//coursofppt.com/education/psychology/mock-millennial-generation-personality-test/\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\">here</a>.)\r\n<p class=\"Remember\">Projective personality tests are based on the <i>projective hypothesis,</i> which states that when presented with ambiguous stimuli, people project parts of themselves and their psychological functioning that they may not reveal if asked directly The idea is that many people can’t exactly describe what’s going on mentally and emotionally because of psychological defense mechanisms. Projective tests get past the defenses and penetrate the deep recesses of the psyche.</p>\r\nPerhaps the most popular projective personality test and maybe even the most popular psychological test of all time is the Rorschach Inkblot Test (RIT).<i> </i>The RIT consists of ten cards, each with its own standard inkblot figure. None of these inkblots are a picture or representation of anything. They were created by simply pouring ink onto a sheet of paper and folding it in half. The only meaning and structure the cards have are provided by the projections of the test taker himself.","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":9556,"name":"Adam Cash","slug":"adam-cash","description":" <p><b>Adam Cash</b> is a clinical psychologist who has practiced in a variety of settings including forensic institutions and outpatient clinics. He has taught Psychology at both the community college and university levels. He is currently in private practice specializing in psychological assessment, child psychology, and neurodevelopmental disorders. 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He has taught Psychology at both the community college and university levels. He is currently in private practice specializing in psychological assessment, child psychology, and neurodevelopmental disorders.</p>","authors":[{"authorId":9556,"name":"Adam Cash","slug":"adam-cash","description":" <p><b>Adam Cash</b> is a clinical psychologist who has practiced in a variety of settings including forensic institutions and outpatient clinics. He has taught Psychology at both the community college and university levels. He is currently in private practice specializing in psychological assessment, child psychology, and neurodevelopmental disorders. 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This model assumes that human cognition is a lot like a computer and the way the human brain works is by processing information through a series of stages:\r\n<ol class=\"level-one\">\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><strong>Perception: Input stage. </strong>People need to encode information from the world in order to process it and then respond to it appropriately. In part, perception is guided by experience, which changes the way people see the world. If information is attended to, it’s transferred from perception to memory.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><strong>Memory: Storage center. </strong>Information is stored in long-term memory and processed and used by short-term memory. All knowledge is stored in long-term memory.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><strong>Thinking: A high-level cognitive function. </strong>Information from perception and memory is used to make decisions, to reason and to make deductions.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><strong>Language: A high-level output stage of cognition. </strong>Often, the results of thinking need to be acted upon in terms of speaking or writing.</p>\r\n\r\n<div class=\"imageBlock\" style=\"width: 535px;\">\r\n\r\n<img src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/504153.image0.jpg\" alt=\"The information processing model of cognition shows how information enters and leaves the mind.\" width=\"535\" height=\"209\" />\r\n<div class=\"imageCaption\">The information processing model of cognition shows how information enters and leaves the mind.</div>\r\n</div></li>\r\n</ol>","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":8958,"name":"Peter J. 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Maybe you finally get that promotion you’ve had your eye on at work, or your closest friends surprise you with a birthday bash. But narcissists feel uniquely special <em>all the time</em> and expect to be treated accordingly. This unfounded belief in their own superiority often creates distressing conflict in personal and/or professional relationships.\r\n\r\nNarcissism is a set of personality traits that lie on a continuum. In other words, some people are a little bit narcissistic while others are very much so and may be diagnosed with narcissistic personality disorder (NPD).\r\n\r\nWhen you’re dealing with a narcissist, it can be helpful to recognize the common tactics narcissists use and distance yourself from them to preserve your own emotional well-being.","description":"Everyone feels special from time to time. Maybe you finally get that promotion you’ve had your eye on at work, or your closest friends surprise you with a birthday bash. But narcissists feel uniquely special <em>all the time</em> and expect to be treated accordingly. This unfounded belief in their own superiority often creates distressing conflict in personal and/or professional relationships.\r\n\r\nNarcissism is a set of personality traits that lie on a continuum. In other words, some people are a little bit narcissistic while others are very much so and may be diagnosed with narcissistic personality disorder (NPD).\r\n\r\nWhen you’re dealing with a narcissist, it can be helpful to recognize the common tactics narcissists use and distance yourself from them to preserve your own emotional well-being.","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":9101,"name":"Laura L. Smith","slug":"laura-l-smith","description":" <p><b>Laura L. Smith, PhD,</b> is a clinical psychologist who has helped many patients with narcissistic personality disorder, as well as those suffering the effects of having a relationship with a narcissist. She is the author of <i>Anxiety & Depression For Dummies Workbook, Anger Management For Dummies, </i>and <i>Obsessive Compulsive Disorder For Dummies</i>. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9101"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":34076,"title":"General Psychology","slug":"general-psychology","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/34076"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":273560,"title":"Going Beyond Stress: The Psychology of Health","slug":"going-beyond-stress-the-psychology-of-health","categoryList":["body-mind-spirit","emotional-health-psychology","psychology","general-psychology"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/273560"}},{"articleId":273555,"title":"10 Great Psychological Movies and Shows","slug":"10-great-psychological-movies-and-shows","categoryList":["body-mind-spirit","emotional-health-psychology","psychology","general-psychology"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/273555"}},{"articleId":273547,"title":"The Organization of the Brain","slug":"the-organization-of-the-brain","categoryList":["body-mind-spirit","emotional-health-psychology","psychology","general-psychology"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/273547"}},{"articleId":273542,"title":"Biological Psychology: The Role of Cells and Chemicals","slug":"biological-psychology-the-role-of-cells-and-chemicals","categoryList":["body-mind-spirit","emotional-health-psychology","psychology","general-psychology"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/273542"}},{"articleId":208951,"title":"Positive Psychology For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"positive-psychology-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["body-mind-spirit","emotional-health-psychology","psychology","general-psychology"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/208951"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":299523,"slug":"narcissism-for-dummies","isbn":"9781394182350","categoryList":["body-mind-spirit","emotional-health-psychology","psychology","general-psychology"],"amazon":{"default":"//www.amazon.com/gp/product/139418235X/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","ca":"//www.amazon.ca/gp/product/139418235X/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","indigo_ca":"//www.tkqlhce.com/click-9208661-13710633?url=//www.chapters.indigo.ca/en-ca/books/product/139418235X-item.html&cjsku=978111945484","gb":"//www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/139418235X/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","de":"//www.amazon.de/gp/product/139418235X/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20"},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/narcissism-for-dummies-cover-9781394182350-203x255.jpg","width":203,"height":255},"title":"Narcissism For Dummies","testBankPinActivationLink":"","bookOutOfPrint":true,"authorsInfo":"<p><p><b><b data-author-id=\"9101\">Laura L. Smith</b>, PhD,</b> is a clinical psychologist who has helped many patients with narcissistic personality disorder, as well as those suffering the effects of having a relationship with a narcissist. She is the author of <i>Anxiety & Depression For Dummies Workbook, Anger Management For Dummies, </i>and <i>Obsessive Compulsive Disorder For Dummies</i>.</p>","authors":[{"authorId":9101,"name":"Laura L. Smith","slug":"laura-l-smith","description":" <p><b>Laura L. Smith, PhD,</b> is a clinical psychologist who has helped many patients with narcissistic personality disorder, as well as those suffering the effects of having a relationship with a narcissist. She is the author of <i>Anxiety & Depression For Dummies Workbook, Anger Management For Dummies, </i>and <i>Obsessive Compulsive Disorder For Dummies</i>. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9101"}}],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/books/"}},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;body-mind-spirit&quot;,&quot;emotional-health-psychology&quot;,&quot;psychology&quot;,&quot;general-psychology&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781394182350&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-64a3370f7e502\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;body-mind-spirit&quot;,&quot;emotional-health-psychology&quot;,&quot;psychology&quot;,&quot;general-psychology&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781394182350&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-64a3370f7eb99\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Cheat Sheet","articleList":[{"articleId":0,"title":"","slug":null,"categoryList":[],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/"}}],"content":[{"title":"Just how narcissistic are you? A quiz","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Do you wonder where you, or someone you know, lies on the continuum of narcissism? The following short quiz helps give you an idea. Read the following statements, answer Yes or No to each one, and then tally your answers.</p>\n<p>The more you answer Yes to the statements, the more narcissistic you’re likely to be. If you or your loved one answers Yes to most or all of these statements, and you are experiencing problems in your everyday life, then consider being evaluated for narcissism by a mental health professional.</p>\n<p>I know that I am a special person.</p>\n<p>I can almost always get myself out of trouble.</p>\n<p>I make an excellent leader in all situations.</p>\n<p>I deserve to have the best things in life.</p>\n<p>I like to show off.</p>\n<p>When I’m in charge, things get done.</p>\n<p>I can make people do what I want.</p>\n<p>My future will be extraordinary.</p>\n<p>I like it when people notice how good I look.</p>\n<p>I can manipulate just about anyone.</p>\n<p>When I talk, people listen. I am a powerful influencer.</p>\n<p>I’m great at entertaining people with my stories.</p>\n<p>I feel best when I am in control.</p>\n<p>If something goes wrong, it’s usually someone else’s fault.</p>\n<p>I always make the best decisions.</p>\n"},{"title":"Signs you may be getting gaslighted","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Gaslighting is a form of emotional abuse in which the victim becomes unsure of their own reality. The abuser lies, exaggerates, blames, misrepresents, and may deny their own actions.</p>\n<p>Narcissists use gaslighting to manipulate others and distort the truth to their advantage. If you are being gaslighted, you may experience some of the following:</p>\n<ul>\n<li>You start to doubt yourself and believe you might be paranoid.</li>\n<li>You have an uneasy feeling that something is wrong, but you can’t put your finger on it.</li>\n<li>Your gut tells you that you are right, but you can’t be sure.</li>\n<li>You worry all the time about doing something wrong.</li>\n<li>You hear gossip about you from some of your friends that isn’t true.</li>\n<li>You begin to think that maybe you do have serious emotional problems.</li>\n<li>You start to feel inadequate and unable to function as well as you should.</li>\n<li>You have a bad feeling that you’re being cheated on but can’t be sure.</li>\n<li>The gaslighter seems so sure of themself that it feels like they must be telling the truth.</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"A few important terms related to narcissism","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Following is a list of terms and their meanings as they pertain to narcissism and narcissistic traits.</p>\n<ul>\n<li><strong>Gray rock:</strong> If you have to interact with a narcissist because they are a coworker or family member, going gray rock is one method. Gray rocking involves acting polite, but not interested. Stay focused on being unemotional and neutral.</li>\n<li><strong>Love bombing:</strong> This is the pattern of over-the-top seduction that narcissists use to begin a relationship or when they believe the relationship is in trouble. Narcissists bombard their targets with flowers, gifts, praise, and passionate love.</li>\n<li><strong>Mirroring:</strong> This is the uncanny ability a narcissist has to become the perfect person to another. They can reflect back all the aspects that someone is looking for in a potential partner.</li>\n<li><strong>Hoovering:</strong> This strategy occurs after a breakup or argument. The narcissist may start up love bombing again, or stalking can occur. Basically, they do whatever they think is needed to “suck” you back in.</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"Tips for leaving a narcissistic relationship","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Sometimes being in a relationship with a narcissist is too toxic to justify staying in the relationship. But breaking up with a narcissist is especially difficult because narcissists don’t take rejection lightly!</p>\n<p>Following, are some tips to make it go as safely and smoothly as possible.</p>\n<ul>\n<li>Plan ahead. Narcissists don’t like to be abandoned, and their behavior sometimes escalates when they feel like you’re rejecting them.</li>\n<li>If you are in a legal partnership such as a marriage or sharing property, consult an attorney for financial implications and other legal considerations.</li>\n<li>Don’t threaten or tell the person your intentions ahead of time. When you are ready, just do it.</li>\n<li>Get a support system in place. Tell trusted friends, family members, and if you have one, your therapist about your plans. Get feedback.</li>\n<li>Be careful. Have a safety plan if you are worried about the potential of abuse.</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"Dispelling common myths about narcissism","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Ask people if they know what a narcissist is, and most will answer yes. They may also tell you about a narcissist they know. However, there are many misconceptions and myths about narcissism. Here are few common ones:</p>\n<p><strong>Myth 1: Narcissism is the same as having high self-esteem. </strong></p>\n<p>Reality: Genuine high self-esteem comes from real accomplishments. Narcissists think highly of themselves regardless of their accomplishments. More importantly, people with high self-esteem do not assume that others lack skills. Narcissists believe that they are superior to others.</p>\n<p><strong>Myth 2: All narcissists feel great about themselves.</strong></p>\n<p>Reality: Narcissists do feel pretty terrific about themselves most of the time. However, some narcissists have thin skins and are easily insulted. Their overblown confidence can be easily punctured. When their superiority is threatened, they react with rage or despair.</p>\n<p><strong>Myth 3: Narcissists can change.</strong></p>\n<p>Reality: Narcissists almost never believe there is anything wrong with them so they rarely seek help or try to change their behavior. If they are convinced to go to therapy, they often drop out early or resist treatment. However, there is always hope, just not much.</p>\n<p><strong>Myth 4: Narcissism is a mental health disorder.</strong></p>\n<p>Reality: Narcissism is a pattern of personality traits. Someone can have a small amount of narcissism and otherwise be well adjusted. They can get through life without narcissism having a significant effect on their daily lives.</p>\n<p>However, as the severity of symptoms increases, the likelihood of a mental health disorder increases. Narcissistic personality disorder is a serious mental illness that impacts adequate functioning in many areas of life.</p>\n<p><strong>Myth 5: Narcissists are always charming.</strong></p>\n<p>Most narcissists are initially charming and entertaining. However, over time, their grandiose stories become predictably all about them. After the first impression, narcissists often become self-centered bores.</p>\n"}],"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Explore","lifeExpectancy":"Five years","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2024-07-03T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":299550},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2017-03-26T22:40:38+00:00","modifiedTime":"2023-08-08T15:23:02+00:00","timestamp":"2023-09-14T18:19:52+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Body, Mind, & Spirit","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/34038"},"slug":"body-mind-spirit","categoryId":34038},{"name":"Emotional Health & Psychology","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/34039"},"slug":"emotional-health-psychology","categoryId":34039},{"name":"Psychology","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/34053"},"slug":"psychology","categoryId":34053},{"name":"General Psychology","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/34076"},"slug":"general-psychology","categoryId":34076}],"title":"Understanding the Id, Ego, and Superego in Psychology","strippedTitle":"understanding the id, ego, and superego in psychology","slug":"understanding-the-id-ego-and-superego-in-psychology","canonicalUrl":"","浏览座舱推广":{"metaDescription":"Learn about the three key elements of Signmund Freud's model of the human personality, and how they interact in the drama of our lives.","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"In Sigmund Freud's model of the human personality, each of us behaves according to these three key elements:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><b>Id:</b> The seat of our impulses</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><b>Ego:</b> Negotiates with the id, pleases the superego</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><b>Superego:</b> Keeps us on the straight and narrow</li>\r\n</ul>\r\nFreud, the founder of psychoanalysis in <a href=\"//coursofppt.com/article/body-mind-spirit/emotional-health-psychology/psychology/general-psychology/psychology-for-dummies-cheat-sheet-207964/\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\">psychology</a>, would have been a great Hollywood screenwriter. His \"story\" of personality is one of desire, power, control, and freedom. The plot is complex and the characters compete. Our personalities represent a drama of sorts, acted out in our minds. \"You\" are a product of how these competing mental forces and structures interact.\r\n\r\nThe ancient Greeks thought that all people were actors in the drama of the gods above. For Freud, we are simply actors in the drama of our minds, pushed by desire, pulled by conscience. Underneath the surface, our personalities represent the power struggles going on deep within us.\r\n<p class=\"Remember\">The id, ego, and superego each have their own idea of what the outcome of this drama should be. Their struggles are fueled by powerful motives, and each one is out for itself.</p>\r\n\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" >I want, therefore I am</h2>\r\nThe initial structural component and first character in Freud's drama of personality is the id. Have you ever felt overpowered by an incredibly strong urge, impulse, or desire? A new car, sexual desire, a dream job? The answer is probably a resounding \"Yes!\"\r\n\r\nWhere does such desire come from? According to Freud, desire comes from the part of your personality called the <i>id,</i> located in the expanses of our mind. So look around, and look deep within. Look at your co-workers, look at your boss. It's in all of us, even the quiet elderly man at the bus stop. Underneath that quiet, grandfatherly demeanor lurks a seething cauldron of desire.\r\n\r\nThe id contains all of our most basic animal and primitive impulses that demand satisfaction. It's the Mr. Hyde emerging from the restrained Dr. Jekyll. It's that little devil that sits on your shoulder, whispering temptations and spurring you on. Whenever you see a selfish, spoiled child in the grocery store demanding a toy and throwing a tantrum if he doesn't get his way, you'll know that's the id in action!\r\n\r\nThe id is a type of \"container\" that holds our desires. Relentlessly driven by a force Freud called the <i>libido,</i> the collective energy of life's instincts and will to survive, the id must be satisfied! We're all born with the id in full force. It's unregulated and untouched by the constraints of the world outside of our minds. When a baby gets hungry, does she sit quietly and wait until someone remembers to feed her? Anyone who's ever gotten out of bed in the middle of the night to feed a baby knows the answer to that.\r\n<p class=\"Tip\">But don't give the id a bad rap. Where would you be without desire? Your desire pushes you through life; it leads you to seek the things you need to survive. Without it we'd die, or at the very least, we'd be really boring. So keep in mind that a large part of your personality consists of your desires and your attempts to satisfy them.</p>\r\n\r\n<h2 id=\"tab2\" >Enter the ego</h2>\r\nWouldn't it be nice if you could get everything you wanted, whenever and however you wanted it? Unfortunately, most of us know otherwise. We all know how frustrating it can be when a desire goes unmet or gets stifled. Well, you can blame your ego for that. The <i>ego</i> is Freud's second mental apparatus of personality. The ego's main function is to mediate between the id's demands and the external world around us — reality, in other words. Does the Rolling Stones' song \"You Can't Always Get What You Want\" come to mind?\r\n\r\nSo far, it seems that, if it wasn't for reality, we would be a lot more satisfied. Even though the ego finds itself in conflict with the id, satisfaction is not abandoned.\r\n\r\nThe ego is like a sports agent for a really talented athlete. Even though the athlete may demand a multimillion-dollar contract, the agent reminds him that he could price himself out of a job. So the ego negotiates with the id in order to get it what it wants without costing it too much in the long run. The ego accomplishes this important task by converting, diverting, and transforming the powerful forces of the id into more useful and realistic modes of satisfaction. It attempts to harness the id's power, regulating it in order to achieve satisfaction despite the limits of reality.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab3\" >The final judgment</h2>\r\nAs if the ego's job wasn't hard enough, playing referee between the id and reality, its performance is under constant scrutiny by a relentless judge, the superego. While the ego negotiates with the id, trying to prevent another tantrum, the superego judges the performance. <i>Superego</i> is another name for your conscience. It expects your ego to be strong and effective in its struggles against the libido's force.\r\n\r\nUsually, our conscience comes from our parents or a parental figure. As we grow, we internalize their standards, those same standards that make us feel so guilty when we tell a lie or cheat on our taxes.\r\n\r\nBut does everyone have a conscience? There are certain people throughout history who have committed such horrible acts of violence that we sometimes wonder if they are void of conscience. How can serial killers such as Ted Bundy or Wayne Williams commit such horrible crimes? A strong bet is that they lack the basic capacity to feel guilt, so nothing really prevents them from acting out their violent fantasies.\r\n<p class=\"Remember\">A famous psychiatrist once said that evil men do what good men only dream of.</p>","description":"In Sigmund Freud's model of the human personality, each of us behaves according to these three key elements:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><b>Id:</b> The seat of our impulses</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><b>Ego:</b> Negotiates with the id, pleases the superego</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><b>Superego:</b> Keeps us on the straight and narrow</li>\r\n</ul>\r\nFreud, the founder of psychoanalysis in <a href=\"//coursofppt.com/article/body-mind-spirit/emotional-health-psychology/psychology/general-psychology/psychology-for-dummies-cheat-sheet-207964/\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\">psychology</a>, would have been a great Hollywood screenwriter. His \"story\" of personality is one of desire, power, control, and freedom. The plot is complex and the characters compete. Our personalities represent a drama of sorts, acted out in our minds. \"You\" are a product of how these competing mental forces and structures interact.\r\n\r\nThe ancient Greeks thought that all people were actors in the drama of the gods above. For Freud, we are simply actors in the drama of our minds, pushed by desire, pulled by conscience. Underneath the surface, our personalities represent the power struggles going on deep within us.\r\n<p class=\"Remember\">The id, ego, and superego each have their own idea of what the outcome of this drama should be. Their struggles are fueled by powerful motives, and each one is out for itself.</p>\r\n\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" >I want, therefore I am</h2>\r\nThe initial structural component and first character in Freud's drama of personality is the id. Have you ever felt overpowered by an incredibly strong urge, impulse, or desire? A new car, sexual desire, a dream job? The answer is probably a resounding \"Yes!\"\r\n\r\nWhere does such desire come from? According to Freud, desire comes from the part of your personality called the <i>id,</i> located in the expanses of our mind. So look around, and look deep within. Look at your co-workers, look at your boss. It's in all of us, even the quiet elderly man at the bus stop. Underneath that quiet, grandfatherly demeanor lurks a seething cauldron of desire.\r\n\r\nThe id contains all of our most basic animal and primitive impulses that demand satisfaction. It's the Mr. Hyde emerging from the restrained Dr. Jekyll. It's that little devil that sits on your shoulder, whispering temptations and spurring you on. Whenever you see a selfish, spoiled child in the grocery store demanding a toy and throwing a tantrum if he doesn't get his way, you'll know that's the id in action!\r\n\r\nThe id is a type of \"container\" that holds our desires. Relentlessly driven by a force Freud called the <i>libido,</i> the collective energy of life's instincts and will to survive, the id must be satisfied! We're all born with the id in full force. It's unregulated and untouched by the constraints of the world outside of our minds. When a baby gets hungry, does she sit quietly and wait until someone remembers to feed her? Anyone who's ever gotten out of bed in the middle of the night to feed a baby knows the answer to that.\r\n<p class=\"Tip\">But don't give the id a bad rap. Where would you be without desire? Your desire pushes you through life; it leads you to seek the things you need to survive. Without it we'd die, or at the very least, we'd be really boring. So keep in mind that a large part of your personality consists of your desires and your attempts to satisfy them.</p>\r\n\r\n<h2 id=\"tab2\" >Enter the ego</h2>\r\nWouldn't it be nice if you could get everything you wanted, whenever and however you wanted it? Unfortunately, most of us know otherwise. We all know how frustrating it can be when a desire goes unmet or gets stifled. Well, you can blame your ego for that. The <i>ego</i> is Freud's second mental apparatus of personality. The ego's main function is to mediate between the id's demands and the external world around us — reality, in other words. Does the Rolling Stones' song \"You Can't Always Get What You Want\" come to mind?\r\n\r\nSo far, it seems that, if it wasn't for reality, we would be a lot more satisfied. Even though the ego finds itself in conflict with the id, satisfaction is not abandoned.\r\n\r\nThe ego is like a sports agent for a really talented athlete. Even though the athlete may demand a multimillion-dollar contract, the agent reminds him that he could price himself out of a job. So the ego negotiates with the id in order to get it what it wants without costing it too much in the long run. The ego accomplishes this important task by converting, diverting, and transforming the powerful forces of the id into more useful and realistic modes of satisfaction. It attempts to harness the id's power, regulating it in order to achieve satisfaction despite the limits of reality.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab3\" >The final judgment</h2>\r\nAs if the ego's job wasn't hard enough, playing referee between the id and reality, its performance is under constant scrutiny by a relentless judge, the superego. While the ego negotiates with the id, trying to prevent another tantrum, the superego judges the performance. <i>Superego</i> is another name for your conscience. It expects your ego to be strong and effective in its struggles against the libido's force.\r\n\r\nUsually, our conscience comes from our parents or a parental figure. As we grow, we internalize their standards, those same standards that make us feel so guilty when we tell a lie or cheat on our taxes.\r\n\r\nBut does everyone have a conscience? There are certain people throughout history who have committed such horrible acts of violence that we sometimes wonder if they are void of conscience. How can serial killers such as Ted Bundy or Wayne Williams commit such horrible crimes? A strong bet is that they lack the basic capacity to feel guilt, so nothing really prevents them from acting out their violent fantasies.\r\n<p class=\"Remember\">A famous psychiatrist once said that evil men do what good men only dream of.</p>","blurb":"","authors":[],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":34076,"title":"General Psychology","slug":"general-psychology","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/34076"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[{"label":"I want, therefore I am","target":"#tab1"},{"label":"Enter the ego","target":"#tab2"},{"label":"The final judgment","target":"#tab3"}],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":273560,"title":"Going Beyond Stress: The Psychology of Health","slug":"going-beyond-stress-the-psychology-of-health","categoryList":["body-mind-spirit","emotional-health-psychology","psychology","general-psychology"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/273560"}},{"articleId":273555,"title":"10 Great Psychological Movies and Shows","slug":"10-great-psychological-movies-and-shows","categoryList":["body-mind-spirit","emotional-health-psychology","psychology","general-psychology"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/273555"}},{"articleId":273547,"title":"The Organization of the Brain","slug":"the-organization-of-the-brain","categoryList":["body-mind-spirit","emotional-health-psychology","psychology","general-psychology"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/273547"}},{"articleId":273542,"title":"Biological Psychology: The Role of Cells and 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Whatever sport you compete in, the ability to focus is essential to success. You can improve your focus by following these tips:</p>\n<ul>\n<li><strong>Know what you need to focus on.</strong> The clearer you are about what you want to focus on, the more likely you’ll be to stay focused on the factors that contribute to your success.</li>\n<li><strong>Focus on what you can control.</strong> You have control over yourself and your own actions and attitudes — nothing more. Keep your focus here. If you focus on outcomes (things you have no control over), you’re creating unnecessary anxiety. Focus on the process and you increase the likelihood of positive results happening.</li>\n<li><strong>Stay relaxed under pressure. </strong>When you’re stressed and anxious, your focus drops. Find ways to stay calm in high-pressure situations, such as taking deep breaths, stretching muscles to loosen them, engaging in effective routines to keep your focus where it needs to be, or listening to music that keeps you centered.</li>\n<li><strong>Use cue words. </strong>Cue words are simple words and phrases that remind you of your focus points. Repeating words and phrases such as <em>relax,</em> <em>play hard,</em> or <em>quick feet</em> will remind you to focus on what you need to do. If your mind is focused on your cue words, your body will follow.</li>\n<li><strong>Develop effective routines.</strong> A routine is like a funnel — it channels your focus and gets you ready to compete. Your routines help you maintain your focus on the right things and prevent many potential distractions from entering your mind. For example, listen to three or four songs before games to get yourself ready, or eat a certain meal, arrive at the playing field in enough time to get prepared, or go through a specific type of warm-up.</li>\n<li><strong>Use mental imagery. </strong>Practice seeing yourself perform exactly as you want to perform, focusing exactly as you want to focus. The more your train your mind to focus on the right things, the more it will respond. Mental imagery is simply seeing yourself perform as you desire long before you even step on the field of play.</li>\n<li><strong>Rate your focus daily. </strong>Keep a journal in which you rate your level of focus before and after each practice or competition. Simple daily evaluations are critical to improving your focus. By consistently being consciously aware of improving and evaluating your focus, you’ll automatically do so.</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"Building confidence in sports ","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Sports psychology can help athletes looking to improve their confidence. You may be the strongest, tallest, most powerful athlete on the field, court, or track, but if you aren’t confident in your abilities, you’ll have trouble reaching your goals. Work on improving your confidence just as you work on developing your sport-specific skills, and your performance will soar.</p>\n<ul>\n<li><strong>Realize that confidence fluctuates.</strong> Confidence for all athletes — even at the highest level — ebbs and flows. Confidence is not all or nothing. It’s a state of mind that fluctuates, so don’t beat yourself up when your confidence is lower. Just focus on improving, and your confidence will follow suit.</li>\n<li><strong>Focus on yourself, not on others.</strong> Instead of thinking about how well your teammates or opponents are doing, think about your own performance and how you can improve. This is <em>your</em> athletic career, so you need to focus on what <em>you</em> need to do to improve as an athlete. And when you improve as an athlete, your confidence will increase.</li>\n<li><strong>Focus on day-to-day success.</strong> When you have success every day in training — even the smallest of successes — your confidence rises. If your confidence rises a small amount each day, just think where you’ll be in one month, six months, or a year!</li>\n<li><strong>Concentrate on the process, not outcomes. </strong>When you focus on improving your performance — the process of improving — you become more confident because you’re focusing on something you have control over. You can’t control outcomes; you may play your best game ever and still lose. If you’re focused on process, sure, you’ll be disappointed when you lose, but your confidence will remain high, because you’ll know you performed your best.</li>\n<li><strong>Focus on what you’re doing right.</strong> Learning from your mistakes is important, but you don’t want to linger on them. If you spend too much time thinking about your mistakes, your confidence will wane. When you focus on what you’re doing right and correct your errors, your confidence will rise.</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"Using sports psychology as a coach ","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>As a coach, you can run drills with your athletes day and night, but if you ignore your athletes’ minds, you’ll only tap into a fraction of what they can do. Here are some ways you can use sports psychology to help your athletes reach their goals:</p>\n<ul>\n<li><strong>Use mental imagery. </strong>Make sure your athletes engage in some form of mental imagery — visualization techniques, journaling, or discussion. They’ll become more focused in practice, which will lead to improvement, greater confidence, and more success.</li>\n<li><strong>Build a “we” mentality, not a “me” mentality.</strong> Simple, daily exercises can take a team of average athletes working together to accomplish the success of a championship-caliber team. For example, engage in social activities, such as team dinners, video-game tournaments, or bowling, as a way for your athletes to get to know each other off the field.Create athletic drills where teamwork is critical for success. Show famous movies that involve sports and teamwork as a way to keep the importance of teamwork in the forefront of your athletes’ minds. Seek out a good sports psychologist to come out and help to create numerous team-building activities that help emphasize the “we” mentality.</li>\n<li><strong>Motivate your athletes. </strong>One of the best ways to motivate your athletes is to get to know them personally and show that you care about them, not just for their sport skills. If you notice a drop in motivation, ask them about it. Share stories of famous athletes who fought through hard times when motivation was low.Bring in guest speakers, such as elite athletes or former alumni, to inspire your athletes to be the best they can be. Keep them focused on getting better every day. Set short-term goals and help them accomplish them. Help them connect to the reason they’re playing the sport in the first place.</li>\n<li><strong>Build awareness.</strong> Journaling and mindfulness drills build awareness of the power of thoughts and emotions. These are simple exercises and great tools for the mental game.</li>\n<li><strong>Teach parents how to best work with their kids.</strong> Remind parents to have a good time because when they have fun and keep sports in perspective, their kids can relax and perform better. Tell them that life skills are the most important ways they can help their kids — being prepared for practice, working hard, establishing good habits, eating well and getting enough rest, having integrity, displaying teamwork, and bouncing back after a mistake. These concepts will help parents assist <em>you</em> in teaching their kids and your athletes good habits.</li>\n</ul>\n"}],"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Advance","lifeExpectancy":"Two years","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2022-06-25T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":208727},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2017-03-27T16:48:13+00:00","modifiedTime":"2023-04-19T18:58:20+00:00","timestamp":"2023-09-14T18:19:38+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Body, Mind, & Spirit","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/34038"},"slug":"body-mind-spirit","categoryId":34038},{"name":"Emotional Health & Psychology","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/34039"},"slug":"emotional-health-psychology","categoryId":34039},{"name":"Psychology","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/34053"},"slug":"psychology","categoryId":34053},{"name":"General Psychology","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/34076"},"slug":"general-psychology","categoryId":34076}],"title":"Dream Dictionary For Dummies Cheat Sheet","strippedTitle":"dream dictionary for dummies cheat sheet","slug":"dream-dictionary-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","canonicalUrl":"","浏览座舱推广":{"metaDescription":"Your dreams are trying to tell you something! Learn how to interpret your dreams by keeping a dream diary and discovering common symbols.","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"Your dreams are trying to tell you something. If you can interpret your dreams, they offer you greater self-awareness, knowledge, and success. Don't overlook the details in your dreams — messages may be lurking there. Keep a dream diary to uncover themes and insight in your dreams. Study the meanings of common dreams, because they represent situations most people experience at some point in life.","description":"Your dreams are trying to tell you something. If you can interpret your dreams, they offer you greater self-awareness, knowledge, and success. Don't overlook the details in your dreams — messages may be lurking there. Keep a dream diary to uncover themes and insight in your dreams. Study the meanings of common dreams, because they represent situations most people experience at some point in life.","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":9115,"name":"Penney Peirce","slug":"penney-peirce","description":" \t <p><b>Penney Peirce</b> is a gifted intuitive, visionary, and trainer specializing in developing and applying intuition in personal and business life. She has coached executives, psychologists, and those seeking spiritual enlightenment. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9115"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":34076,"title":"General Psychology","slug":"general-psychology","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/34076"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":273560,"title":"Going Beyond Stress: The Psychology of Health","slug":"going-beyond-stress-the-psychology-of-health","categoryList":["body-mind-spirit","emotional-health-psychology","psychology","general-psychology"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/273560"}},{"articleId":273555,"title":"10 Great Psychological Movies and Shows","slug":"10-great-psychological-movies-and-shows","categoryList":["body-mind-spirit","emotional-health-psychology","psychology","general-psychology"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/273555"}},{"articleId":273547,"title":"The Organization of the Brain","slug":"the-organization-of-the-brain","categoryList":["body-mind-spirit","emotional-health-psychology","psychology","general-psychology"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/273547"}},{"articleId":273542,"title":"Biological Psychology: The Role of Cells and Chemicals","slug":"biological-psychology-the-role-of-cells-and-chemicals","categoryList":["body-mind-spirit","emotional-health-psychology","psychology","general-psychology"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/273542"}},{"articleId":208951,"title":"Positive Psychology For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"positive-psychology-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["body-mind-spirit","emotional-health-psychology","psychology","general-psychology"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/208951"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":0,"slug":null,"isbn":null,"categoryList":null,"amazon":null,"image":null,"title":null,"testBankPinActivationLink":null,"bookOutOfPrint":false,"authorsInfo":null,"authors":null,"_links":null},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;body-mind-spirit&quot;,&quot;emotional-health-psychology&quot;,&quot;psychology&quot;,&quot;general-psychology&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[null]}]\" id=\"du-slot-63221b3a8811c\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;body-mind-spirit&quot;,&quot;emotional-health-psychology&quot;,&quot;psychology&quot;,&quot;general-psychology&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[null]}]\" id=\"du-slot-63221b3a88ba4\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Cheat Sheet","articleList":[{"articleId":154652,"title":"The Importance of Detail in Your Dreams","slug":"the-importance-of-detail-in-your-dreams","categoryList":[],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/154652"}},{"articleId":154653,"title":"How to Keep a Dream Diary","slug":"how-to-keep-a-dream-diary","categoryList":[],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/154653"}},{"articleId":154654,"title":"10 Common Dreams and Their Meanings","slug":"10-common-dreams-and-their-meanings","categoryList":[],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/154654"}}],"content":[{"title":"The importance of detail in your dreams","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Be conscious of the details in your dreams. Recording them in your dream diary can trigger insights into what problems your brain is trying to resolve and make the meaning of your dreams more evident.</p>\n<p>Look for the following details in your dreams that you may otherwise gloss over:</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">What are the key elements of the dream?</p>\n<ul class=\"level-two\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">How would you describe the dream structure?</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">What were the main scenes and settings in the dream?</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Was there a sense of time or direction?</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">How was the dream lit?</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">What was your viewpoint?</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">What characters were present?</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">What were the primary images, objects, symbols, or patterns?</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Did numbers occur in the dream?</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">What are the motivations?</p>\n<ul class=\"level-two\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">What actions were taken, and by whom?</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">What choices or decisions were made, and by whom?</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">What outcomes were reached?</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">At what speed was the action occurring?</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">What statements were made?</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">What was left incomplete?</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">What impressions did you have about the dream while dreaming?</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">What are the feelings?</p>\n<ul class=\"level-two\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">What feelings did you or other characters have?</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">What senses were you using to perceive?</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">How is each part about you?</p>\n<ul class=\"level-two\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">What do you have in common with each symbol and character?</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">How do the emotions, decisions, and actions parallel something in your own life?</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"How to keep a dream diary","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>A dream diary helps you monitor your dreams and discover themes or how your dreams have become true or insightful. Make the most of your dreams by following these tips for an insightful dream journal:</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Personalize your diary:</b> It can be neat and tidy, a large sketchbook with no lines, a simple spiral-bound book, or even a computer.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Use your diary effectively:</b> Your diary is a record of what&#8217;s going on in the hidden dimensions of your life. You can use it for more than just recording dreams:</p>\n<ul class=\"level-two\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Write about your dream goals and your dream-sabotaging ideas.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Examine your sleep pattern and cycles.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Collect images from magazines, books, flyers, and so on that trigger dreams and make collages, diagrams, and illustrations with those images.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Write or copy inspirational quotes, poetry, and prayers.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Write about waking dreams, dream fragments, and single symbols.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Write the date of each dream and put a star next to important dreams.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Write in the present tense, recording as many details as you can.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Document your dream incubation statements.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Write about dream images that have carried over from the previous day and what happens in the days after an important dream.</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Write even if no dreams come:</b> Commit to writing something every day to make your diary more effective. Here are some ideas:</p>\n<ul class=\"level-two\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Write about your emotional state.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Invent a dream character, dream locale, and a dream theme.</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"10 common dreams and their meanings","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>You&#8217;ve probably experienced one of these ten dreams in your life; they focus on themes universal to most of us. By working with the inner messages in common dreams, you can maximize your confidence, creativity, and effectiveness in waking life.</p>\n<h2>My teeth are falling out!</h2>\n<p>If your teeth are dirty, diseased, disintegrating, or falling out in your dreams, you&#8217;re probably worrying about how pleasing and attractive you are to others and to sexual and romantic partners. You may be afraid of getting old. Teeth also relate to self-expression and effective communication, so losing teeth can mean you&#8217;re embarrassed about something you&#8217;ve said, or you&#8217;re having trouble saying what you really mean.</p>\n<p>The real essence of teeth is their ability to bite through, to cut, tear, and grind. As human animals, you retain a vestige of snarling — showing teeth as a &#8220;stay back&#8221; warning — in our disarming smile. If your teeth fall out, you lose personal power and your ability to be assertive, decisive, and self-protective.</p>\n<p><b>You might ask yourself:</b> Where do I lack confidence or feel powerless? With whom do I feel self-conscious or insecure? How am I angry or frustrated? Where should I take action to &#8220;bite through&#8221; something, or chew something thoroughly so I understand it?</p>\n<h2>I&#8217;m naked in public!</h2>\n<p>You&#8217;re going about your business and suddenly realize you&#8217;re naked or in your underwear at work or at the grocery store. Exposure dreams bring to light the things you don&#8217;t want others to know about you and places where you feel vulnerable. Suddenly everyone sees through you. Being naked in front of others also implies being caught off guard or being unprepared, uninformed, uneducated, or unpracticed.</p>\n<p><b>Try asking yourself: </b>What have I been hiding? Where do I feel like a phony? What&#8217;s wrong with being seen for whom I really am? Where do I feel invisible? Can I tolerate, or even love, my imperfections? Who am I afraid will reject me? What am I telling myself I need to be prepared for — for my own sake?</p>\n<h2>A monster is chasing me!</h2>\n<p>You&#8217;re running, trying to outpace or outwit your pursuer, and he/she/it&#8217;s gaining on you! Suddenly your legs are paralyzed! Chase dreams often represent fears of facing up to something you&#8217;ve judged negatively, like your own rage, shame, or irresponsibility, for example.</p>\n<p>Or, you may feel threatened by someone or by a possible failure. If you become paralyzed, you probably need to stand still and meet your pursuer to receive an important message. Or, you may be experiencing the normal &#8220;paralysis&#8221; that occurs in the REM (rapid eye movement) sleep state.</p>\n<p><b>Try asking yourself:</b> What do I feel threatened by? What am I avoiding? Who have I given my power to? Where have I surrendered my right to &#8220;take up space&#8221;? Where do I feel helpless or unsupported? How do I deal with conflict?</p>\n<h2>I&#8217;m in my childhood home; it has new rooms!</h2>\n<p>Houses are symbols of the self, so returning to an old house means you are looking back at an old way of being, past habits, identities you&#8217;ve held, and outdated concepts you&#8217;ve been operating from. Perhaps you need to bring repressed memories to the surface to be healed.</p>\n<p>Trying to live in an old house that might be too small for you now, or seeing things that need repair, means you&#8217;re becoming conscious of how much you&#8217;ve grown and what you&#8217;re renovating in yourself. When your old house has new rooms, you&#8217;ve added new talents, experiences, people, and components to your life.</p>\n<p><b>You might ask yourself:</b> What parts of my house need refurbishing? Am I comfortable in this space? Which room is my favorite? What do the new rooms symbolize?</p>\n<h2>I&#8217;m making love with a movie star!</h2>\n<p>Sex dreams are often about merging several aspects of yourself together, or loving a part of yourself you&#8217;ve judged or rejected. Sex with a celebrity can mean you want more visibility, self-worth, and recognition, or you are activating qualities in yourself represented by the famous person.</p>\n<p>Sex with an authority figure like a professor, doctor, or boss, can show how it feels to have greater power and knowledge so you can be more effective in the world. Sex with a foreigner or someone of another race might mean you are integrating the character traits of that culture or racial consciousness into your personality. Sex with someone of your own gender may simply show you how to better accept and love yourself.</p>\n<p><b>You might ask yourself:</b> What quality or experience am I activating in myself? What do I admire about this lover that is a key to a new ability of mine?</p>\n<h2>I lost my wallet and keys!</h2>\n<p>Dreams of loss point to areas where you are too attached to something; you are telling yourself, &#8220;Let go and see what comes next when you don&#8217;t have it all locked down.&#8221; Losing your wallet can indicate it&#8217;s time to reexamine your identity. Losing your car may mean you need to look at your need for movement, freedom, and independence as you&#8217;ve defined it. Losing keys points to a fear of losing authority or access to an opportunity. Losing money can mean you&#8217;re letting go of what&#8217;s been valuable to you so you can revalue your core self.</p>\n<p><b>Ask yourself:</b> How have I outgrown ideas of who I am? Where do I need to let go and trust the unknown part of myself to provide for me? Where do I need to experience space and emptiness instead of clutter?</p>\n<h2>I&#8217;m taking a test and didn&#8217;t study!</h2>\n<p>You have an exam and can&#8217;t find the room, you are late, or haven&#8217;t studied. You&#8217;re in a play and forgot your lines. Performance anxiety dreams point to areas in your life where you feel judged by others or unprepared for a challenge. You fear if you don&#8217;t do well, you&#8217;ll be rejected and ridiculed.</p>\n<p>If the setting is academic, you probably need to pay attention to new knowledge or to a lesson that&#8217;s part of your personal growth process. If it&#8217;s a play or a keynote lecture, you may be ready to express yourself more fully, to be more articulate and confident in the world.</p>\n<p><b>You might ask yourself:</b> What new opportunity do I want but don&#8217;t feel ready for? How could I feel adequately prepared? How do I feel I might let others down? Who has expectations of me and who am I afraid of not pleasing?</p>\n<h2>I found money or jewels!</h2>\n<p>Dreams about finding valuables operate on several levels. You may be awash in debt, fear that you&#8217;ll never have enough, or that you&#8217;ll lose what you have. You want to feel lucky, abundant, influential, and rich, so you try it out in your dreams.</p>\n<p>Under these worries often lurks a deeper fear — that you don&#8217;t deserve to be loved, supported, or cared for. Your deep self is showing you what it feels like to be blessed. Gaining money or valuables really means you&#8217;re gaining in emotional well-being, confidence, and power. You may be preparing to increase your creativity and abundance level, to feel that having more is normal.</p>\n<p><b>Try asking yourself:</b> Who gave me the money or valuables? What or who does this person represent to me? Where did I find the valuables and what do the place and kind of item represent to me? What&#8217;s my attitude as I receive: greedy, worried, egocentric? How do I act after I&#8217;ve received: powerful, generous, relaxed?</p>\n<h2>I&#8217;m having surgery on my eyes, brain, heart, or . . . !</h2>\n<p>Hospital and surgery dreams are often symbolic of a fundamental change you&#8217;re making in the way you live, the way you work with energy and run your body, and how you construct your identity and world view. On rare occasions, they are warnings about actual health problems, or they indicate you&#8217;re exhausted and need to rest and be cared for so you can shift to a new phase of self-expression.</p>\n<p>You may need to get something out of your system, change your habits, move to a new location, or release a person from your life. You may need to open yourself to emotional healing and new experiences. If you experience anesthesia in the dream, you&#8217;re probably avoiding your feelings, worries, or responsibilities. If you&#8217;re bleeding profusely in the dream or feel actual pain, you are telling your conscious mind that part of you feels out of control, severely drained, and mortally wounded by trauma or cruelty.</p>\n<p><b>Try asking yourself: </b>What or who has caused me to feel so wounded and helpless? Why am I focusing on this particular area of my body? What are the surgeons doing to help me? Is there a change occurring in my subtle energy body? After I heal, what will I be capable of doing? How is the pattern of my awareness changing?</p>\n<h2>My car won&#8217;t stop or go!</h2>\n<p>&#8220;Difficulty with your vehicle&#8221; dreams usually arise when events in your waking life seem out of control, you feel powerless over something, or are afraid you&#8217;re about to fail or &#8220;crash.&#8221; Your car is rolling backwards, the brakes won&#8217;t work, you&#8217;re trying to steer from the back seat, the tires are flat, the ignition doesn&#8217;t catch. Vehicles are symbols for the way you move through experiences in your life. Cars, motorcycles, bicycles, buses, or trains represent physical experience and your body; boats signify emotional experience; planes connect you to mental experience; and rockets and UFOs represent spiritual levels.</p>\n<p>Once you see what level of yourself you&#8217;re focusing on, determine whether you are the driver or passenger. This shows how you feel about being able to direct your own life. Driving from the back seat means you need to step up and be more responsible. Someone else driving means you&#8217;ve given your authority away. Next, look at how the vehicle is functioning. Problems indicate problems you may have in real life. The steering or brakes don&#8217;t work: you&#8217;re going too fast and are about to make a big mistake. The tires on the right side are flat: you&#8217;re afraid to move forward and take new actions. The starter won&#8217;t work: you need to renew your motivation and passion.</p>\n<p><b>Try asking yourself:</b> In what area do I feel disabled or powerless? Who did I give power to? How am I out of control? What in my life needs to work properly? What can I do to move freely?</p>\n"}],"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Explore","lifeExpectancy":"Five years","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2023-04-19T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":207721},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2017-03-27T16:46:40+00:00","modifiedTime":"2023-02-28T16:59:40+00:00","timestamp":"2023-09-14T18:19:18+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Body, Mind, & Spirit","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/34038"},"slug":"body-mind-spirit","categoryId":34038},{"name":"Emotional Health & Psychology","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/34039"},"slug":"emotional-health-psychology","categoryId":34039},{"name":"Psychology","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/34053"},"slug":"psychology","categoryId":34053},{"name":"General Psychology","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/34076"},"slug":"general-psychology","categoryId":34076}],"title":"Cognitive Psychology For Dummies Cheat Sheet","strippedTitle":"cognitive psychology for dummies cheat sheet","slug":"cognitive-psychology-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","canonicalUrl":"","浏览座舱推广":{"metaDescription":"Discover the fascinating field of cognitive psychology, including short- and long-term memory, problem-solving, and inventing new words.","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"Cognitive psychology is the study of all things to do with thinking. It’s the part of psychology that covers perception, attention, memory, knowledge, thinking, reasoning, decision-making and language. To study it, cognitive psychologists develop ingenious experiments that manipulate a small part of the cognitive system.","description":"Cognitive psychology is the study of all things to do with thinking. It’s the part of psychology that covers perception, attention, memory, knowledge, thinking, reasoning, decision-making and language. To study it, cognitive psychologists develop ingenious experiments that manipulate a small part of the cognitive system.","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":8958,"name":"Peter J. Hills","slug":"peter-j-hills","description":" <p><b>Dr Peter J. Hills, PhD,</b> is a principal lecturer and Head of Education in psychology at Bournemouth University. <b>Dr J Michael Pake</b> is a senior lecturer in Psychology at Anglia Ruskin University. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/8958"}},{"authorId":8959,"name":"Michael Pake","slug":"michael-pake","description":" <p><b>Dr Peter J. Hills, PhD,</b> is a principal lecturer and Head of Education in psychology at Bournemouth University. <b>Dr J Michael Pake</b> is a senior lecturer in Psychology at Anglia Ruskin University. 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Hills, PhD,</b> is a principal lecturer and Head of Education in psychology at Bournemouth University. <b data-author-id=\"8959\">Dr J Michael Pake</b> is a senior lecturer in Psychology at Anglia Ruskin University. </p>","authors":[{"authorId":8958,"name":"Peter J. Hills","slug":"peter-j-hills","description":" <p><b>Dr Peter J. Hills, PhD,</b> is a principal lecturer and Head of Education in psychology at Bournemouth University. <b>Dr J Michael Pake</b> is a senior lecturer in Psychology at Anglia Ruskin University. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/8958"}},{"authorId":8959,"name":"Michael Pake","slug":"michael-pake","description":" <p><b>Dr Peter J. Hills, PhD,</b> is a principal lecturer and Head of Education in psychology at Bournemouth University. <b>Dr J Michael Pake</b> is a senior lecturer in Psychology at Anglia Ruskin University. 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This model assumes that human cognition is a lot like a computer and the way the human brain works is by processing information through a series of stages:</p>\n<ol class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Perception: Input stage.</p>\n<p class=\"child-para\">People need to encode information from the world in order to process it and then respond to it appropriately. In part, perception is guided by experience, which changes the way people see the world. If information is attended to, it’s transferred from perception to memory.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Memory: Storage centre.</p>\n<p class=\"child-para\">Information is stored in long-term memory and processed and used by short-term memory. All knowledge is stored in long-term memory.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Thinking: A high-level cognitive function.</p>\n<p class=\"child-para\">Information from perception and memory is used to make decisions, to reason and to make deductions.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Language: A high-level output stage of cognition.</p>\n<p class=\"child-para\">Often, the results of thinking need to be acted upon in terms of speaking or writing.</p>\n<div class=\"imageBlock\" style=\"width: 535px;\">\n<p><img loading=\"lazy\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/504153.image0.jpg\" alt=\"The information processing model of cognition shows how information enters and leaves the mind.\" width=\"535\" height=\"209\" /></p>\n<div class=\"imageCaption\">The information processing model of cognition shows how information enters and leaves the mind.</div>\n</div>\n</li>\n</ol>\n"},{"title":"Cognitive Psychology: Working Short-Term Memory","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Short-term memory is memory for things currently in mind. It’s the active state of memory in cognitive psychology, like the RAM on a computer. According to the <i>working memory model</i> of British psychologists Alan Baddeley and Graham Hitch, different types of short-term memory exist:</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Phonological loop:</b> The inner ear. This system comprises the<i> phonological store, </i>a short-term store for sounds, and an<i> articulatory rehearsal mechanism</i><i>,</i> which is where sounds are repeated for a short time to keep them active in memory.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Visuospatial sketchpad:</b> The inner eye. This system comprises the<i> visual cache, </i>a store for mental images, and an <i>inner scribe</i><i>,</i> which is a mechanism that plans sequences of actions.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Episodic buffer:</b> This system binds and integrates information into discrete pieces. The brain stores new discoveries and information by linking together how something looks with other sensory information and anything already known about it.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Central executive:</b> Like a computer’s central processing unit. It directs the resources of the remaining parts of working memory. It focuses attention on a particular task, switches attention between tasks and divides attention between tasks.</p>\n<div class=\"imageBlock\" style=\"width: 535px;\">\n<p><img loading=\"lazy\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/504155.image0.jpg\" alt=\"The working memory model of short-term memory.\" width=\"535\" height=\"311\" /></p>\n<div class=\"imageCaption\">The working memory model of short-term memory.</div>\n</div>\n</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"Cognitive psychology: Classifying long-term memory","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Understanding long-term memory is essential in cognitive psychology. Long-term memory isn’t a unitary structure ‒ many different types of memory exist, which can independently be damaged due to brain injury. Research suggests the existence of the following different types of memory:</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Episodic memory:</b> A conscious <i>declarative</i> (verbalisable) memory store for recent events that have occurred.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Autobiographic memory:</b> A declarative memory for all life events that have happened to you, usually important ones that are highly personal and emotional.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Semantic memory:</b> A declarative memory for all facts that you’ve accumulated throughout your lifetime.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Procedural memory:</b> An unconscious non-declarative memory for every skill or behaviour that you have.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Priming:</b> A non-declarative memory store due to the repetition of information and its effect on behaviour and perception.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Associative learning:</b> A non-declarative memory for unconscious associations formed between things and <i>conditioned</i><i> learning</i> (learning based on linking two stimuli ‒ such as light and sound ‒ together sometimes with a reward).</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Non-associative learning:</b> A non-declarative memory store for habits.</p>\n<div class=\"imageBlock\" style=\"width: 535px;\">\n<p><img loading=\"lazy\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/504157.image0.jpg\" alt=\"The different types of long-term memory.\" width=\"535\" height=\"175\" /></p>\n<div class=\"imageCaption\">The different types of long-term memory.</div>\n</div>\n</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"Cognitive psychology and creating new words","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Cognitive psychology can provide insight in how people create new words. Language is a human form of communication ‒ it’s highly complex, creative, spontaneous and constantly changing. When people create new words, they usually do so in a consistent way such that new words fit with the grammatical structure. The following rules and findings apply to how new words and phrases (see figure for how to generate new insults!) are created:</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Inflectional morphology:</b> In English, adding an ‘-s’ to the end of a word automatically makes it plural, even if the word is new or has never been pluralised before: for example, the made-up animal ‘wug’ would be pluralised to ‘wugs’.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Derivational morphology:</b> When words are created taking the name of someone or something and using that to describe something similar: for example ‘Corbynistas’ to represent followers of the politician Jeremy Corbyn.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Combining words:</b> Two words can be linked together that have never previously been linked together in order to form a new concept: for example ‘keyboard’ is the combination of ‘key’ and ‘board’.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Creating new open-class words:</b><i> Open-class words</i> are nouns, verbs and adjectives, which people can easily create when the need arises. For example, ‘tweeting’ is a new word created from the social media device Twitter.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Creating new closed-class words:</b> <i>Closed-class words</i> are functional words, such as articles and pronouns. People can’t easily add new ones to language: for example, ‘Peh’ as a singular but gender-neutral form of ‘he’ or ‘she’.</p>\n<div class=\"imageBlock\" style=\"width: 337px;\">\n<p><img loading=\"lazy\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/504159.image0.jpg\" alt=\"Insult generator for 10 million insults.\" width=\"337\" height=\"400\" /></p>\n<div class=\"imageCaption\">Insult generator for 10 million insults.</div>\n</div>\n</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"Cognitive psychology and deciding to solve problems","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Humans are thinking animals and cognitive psychologists are aware that people make decisions all the time. These decisions can be trivial (what should I have as a snack?) or much more life-changing (should I marry my current boyfriend?). Humans don’t appear to be that rational and use a number of mental shortcuts (called <i>heuristics</i>) to help them make decisions (quite often badly):</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Availability heuristic:</b> People make decisions based on how easy they find thinking of examples or outcomes, which leads to poor decisions if only certain information is easily available.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Anchoring:</b> People often make decisions based on the piece of information they’re presented with first.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Ignoring the base-rate:</b> People tend to ignore <i>base-rate statistical</i><i> information</i> (that is, information about the frequency of particular events occurring), because it complicates the decision-making process.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Familiarity heuristic:</b> People’s decisions are biased due to past experience. These experiences influence how they make decisions, instead of focusing on the novelty of the current situation (see figure for an example where familiarity and experience can impact people’s ability to solve a problem).</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Recognition heuristic:</b> People make decisions based on their recognition memory. When they see something they recognise, they’re likely to believe that it’s better or more common than something they don’t recognise.</p>\n<div class=\"imageBlock\" style=\"width: 486px;\">\n<p><img loading=\"lazy\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/504161.image0.jpg\" alt=\"A problem to solve that’s often affected by people’s familiarity with the objects. You&amp;\" width=\"486\" height=\"400\" /></p>\n<div class=\"imageCaption\">A problem to solve that’s often affected by people’s familiarity with the objects. You’re given a box of drawing pins (thumb tacks), a candle and a book of matches. Your task is to fix the candle to a wall. Tip: think beyond your assumptions about these items’ normal uses.</div>\n</div>\n</li>\n</ul>\n"}],"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Advance","lifeExpectancy":"Five years","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2022-06-28T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":207388},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2017-03-27T16:55:58+00:00","modifiedTime":"2023-02-14T20:56:26+00:00","timestamp":"2023-09-14T18:19:06+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Body, Mind, & Spirit","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/34038"},"slug":"body-mind-spirit","categoryId":34038},{"name":"Emotional Health & Psychology","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/34039"},"slug":"emotional-health-psychology","categoryId":34039},{"name":"Psychology","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/34053"},"slug":"psychology","categoryId":34053},{"name":"General Psychology","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/34076"},"slug":"general-psychology","categoryId":34076}],"title":"Positive Psychology For Dummies Cheat Sheet","strippedTitle":"positive psychology for dummies cheat sheet","slug":"positive-psychology-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","canonicalUrl":"","浏览座舱推广":{"metaDescription":"This Cheat Sheet summarizes some of the ways positive psychology helps improve people's lives, including resilience, and much more.","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"In positive psychology, science tries to answer questions about what makes people happy, what a good life is, and how to increase life satisfaction. 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They are covered by the acronym <b>AIM</b>:</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>A</b>ttending: Pay attention to the genuinely good stuff that happens to you. Don’t just filter it out.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>I</b>nterpreting: Don’t always view experiences in a negative light. See the positive wherever you can.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>M</b>emorizing: Remember positive events and paint positive mental pictures of your experiences.</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"Learning resilience through positive psychology","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>There are seven main skills that can help you bounce back from any adverse experiences you may go through. Keep them handy to stay resilient.</p>\n<table>\n<tbody>\n<tr>\n<th>Learnable Skill of Resilience</th>\n<th>Applying the Skill</th>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Emotional awareness /Regulation</td>\n<td>Identifying what you’re feeling.<br />\nControlling your emotions.</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Impulse control</td>\n<td>Tolerating uncertainty.<br />\nTaking time to think about decisions/actions.</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Optimism</td>\n<td>Having a realistically optimistic explanatory style.</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Causal analysis</td>\n<td>Looking at problems from all angles.<br />\nConsidering all the factors.</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Empathy</td>\n<td>Recognizing and understanding the emotions of others.<br />\nBuilding social support through well-maintained relationships.</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Self-efficacy</td>\n<td>Knowing your own strengths.<br />\nUsing those strengths to cope with adversity.</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Reaching out</td>\n<td>Taking appropriate risks.<br />\nTrying new things.<br />\nAccepting failure.</td>\n</tr>\n</tbody>\n</table>\n"},{"title":"Using positive psychology to respond in healthy ways","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Remember that harmful repetitive habits are the bane of the well-lived life. Taking the steps in this table can help you to tackle bad habits head-on.</p>\n<table>\n<tbody>\n<tr>\n<th>Habit</th>\n<th>Healthy Response</th>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Stop being angry.</td>\n<td>Anger is a primitive emotion geared to the fight or flight<br />\nstress reaction. Cut down the amount of time you spend feeling<br />\nhostile.</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Cheer up, it may never happen.</td>\n<td>Start looking on the bright side of life. Find the joy in<br />\nordinary things. Don’t waste time on negativity.</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Get a life.</td>\n<td>Engaging in activities with other people is good for you. Having a variety of activities to fall back on can reduce the negative impact of challenging times.</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Cut back on harmful habits.</td>\n<td>Habits like drinking too much or smoking, especially when they’re connected to feeling low, are really destructive. 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