chơi xổ số keno trực tuyến

{"appState":{"pageLoadApiCallsStatus":true},"categoryState":{"relatedCategories":{"headers":{"timestamp":"2025-03-04T08:01:09+00:00"},"categoryId":33666,"data":{"title":"Drawing","slug":"drawing","image":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Academics & The Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"Art & Architecture","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33663"},"slug":"art-architecture","categoryId":33663},{"name":"Drawing","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33666"},"slug":"drawing","categoryId":33666}],"parentCategory":{"categoryId":33663,"title":"Art & Architecture","slug":"art-architecture","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33663"}},"childCategories":[{"categoryId":33667,"title":"Fashion Drawing","slug":"fashion-drawing","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33667"},"image":{"src":"/img/background-image-2.fabfbd5c.png","width":0,"height":0},"hasArticle":true,"hasBook":true,"articleCount":94,"bookCount":1},{"categoryId":33668,"title":"General Drawing","slug":"general-drawing","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33668"},"image":{"src":"/img/background-image-1.daf74cf0.png","width":0,"height":0},"hasArticle":true,"hasBook":true,"articleCount":20,"bookCount":3},{"categoryId":34350,"title":"Manga","slug":"manga","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/34350"},"image":{"src":"/img/background-image-2.fabfbd5c.png","width":0,"height":0},"hasArticle":true,"hasBook":true,"articleCount":5,"bookCount":1}],"description":"Drawing a blank? We're here to help. Master realistic perspective, cool manga characters, and everything in between.","relatedArticles":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles?category=33666&offset=0&size=5"},"hasArticle":true,"hasBook":true,"articleCount":119,"bookCount":5},"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33666"}},"relatedCategoriesLoadedStatus":"success"},"listState":{"list":{"count":10,"total":119,"items":[{"headers":{"creationTime":"2017-03-26T22:47:12+00:00","modifiedTime":"2024-10-24T20:58:08+00:00","timestamp":"2024-10-24T21:01:03+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Academics & The Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"Art & Architecture","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33663"},"slug":"art-architecture","categoryId":33663},{"name":"Drawing","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33666"},"slug":"drawing","categoryId":33666},{"name":"General Drawing","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33668"},"slug":"general-drawing","categoryId":33668}],"title":"The Design Elements of Composing a Drawing","strippedTitle":"the design elements of composing a drawing","slug":"the-design-elements-of-composing-a-drawing","canonicalUrl":"","搜所刹车系统改善方案":{"metaDescription":"Learn the design rules and terms for art composition, including focal point, negative space, lines, balance, contrast, and more.","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"<em>Composition</em> refers to the organization, arrangement, and combination of objects within the borders of a drawing space. For a great drawing, you want to bring the eyes of the viewer toward your center of interest within an aesthetically pleasing composition.\r\n\r\nComposing a drawing well engages your viewers. Many \"rules\" define a good composition, but these rules are only guidelines. Your personal preferences and natural instincts are also important.\r\n\r\nWhen planning the overall appearance of a drawing, you need to be familiar with the following:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Focal point:</strong> A primary center of interest (or focus) in a drawing.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Overlapping:</strong> The visual separation of a drawing into foreground, middle ground, and distant space by overlapping (or layering) objects.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Negative space: </strong> The space within your drawing not occupied by a focal point, important subject, or area of interest.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Lines:</strong> Navigation tools used to guide the viewer through the different elements of a drawing.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Balance: </strong> A stable arrangement of subjects within a composition.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Contrast: </strong> Extremes of light and dark values that create shapes and patterns in your composition.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Proportion: </strong> The amount of space allocated to the various components of a drawing.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" >Emphasizing the focal point</h2>\r\nA drawing becomes much more interesting when it has <em>a focal point</em> — a specific area where you want your viewer to focus the majority of their attention when looking at your drawing.\r\n<p class=\"Remember\">Your drawings illustrate your choice of subjects from your own unique perspective. Think about what you want your drawing to say and choose a focal point that helps you express that message.</p>\r\nIn a portrait, the focal point may be the eyes, and in a landscape it may be one specific tree or flower. You may choose to have more than one area of focus in your drawing; in this case, you have a <em>primary focal point</em> and <em>secondary focal point(s).</em>\r\n\r\nAfter you choose your main point (or points) of interest, you can use many artistic devices and techniques to highlight the point. In Figure 1, the Headde Family illustrates the following tips for emphasizing your focal point:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Always place your focal point off-center in your composition.</strong> Stay away from the bull's eye. A focal point placed in the very center of your drawing space is a big NO unless you have a specific expressive or artistic reason to do so. Any object that you place dead center commands the viewer's full attention. All the other important elements of your drawing may be ignored, and the drawing loses its impact. In Figure 1, the main member of the Headde family appears right of center. Your eye may go to this figure intuitively at first, but you still register the other members of the family off to the left.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Make good use of secondary focal points.</strong> Drawing less interesting objects close to the primary focal point helps direct the viewer's eye toward your center of interest. In Figure 1, the small cluster of family members off to the left draws your eye, but then the eyes on these figures direct you straight back to the main figure on the right.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Use objects within your drawing space to point to your focal point.</strong> The lines of the two steps on the platform in Figure 1 lead the view's eye to the focal point.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Define the focal point with more detail and a stronger contrast in values than other aspects of your drawing. </strong> The shading of the hair, eyes, and nose is more detailed in the focal point. Also, a very dark value is used to shade the pupils of his eyes and for the shadows under him.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n[caption id=\"attachment_78137\" align=\"aligncenter\" width=\"525\"]<img class=\"size-full wp-image-78137\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/0-7645-5476-X_1001.jpg\" alt=\"\" width=\"525\" height=\"375\" /> <strong>Figure 1:</strong> In the Headde family, a primary focal point out-stages the secondary focal points.[/caption]\r\n<h2 id=\"tab2\" >Overlapping for unity and depth</h2>\r\n<em>Overlapping</em> objects, or placing some objects over (or in front of) others, unifies a drawing, enhances depth of field, and creates an aesthetically pleasing composition.\r\n\r\nObserve your subject carefully before you begin your drawing and plan for places where you can utilize overlapping. To overlap subjects in a drawing, you simply draw closer objects in front of those farther away. For example, if two trees appear side-by-side in a scene, consider drawing them in such a way that one is slightly in front of the other. When you overlap objects, you create a strong three-dimensional illusion.\r\n\r\nIn Figure 2, the larger child (with lots of hair) is in the <em>foreground</em> (the front), the light haired adult and the baby are in the <em>middle ground,</em> and the dark haired adult (with the grumpy facial expression) is in the <em>distant space</em> (behind the others).\r\n\r\n[caption id=\"attachment_78130\" align=\"aligncenter\" width=\"525\"]<img class=\"size-full wp-image-78130\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/0-7645-5476-X_1002.jpg\" alt=\"\" width=\"525\" height=\"402\" /> <strong>Figure 2:</strong> Creating depth by overlapping your subjects.[/caption]\r\n<h2 id=\"tab3\" >Using lines to your advantage</h2>\r\nIn the cartoon drawing in Figure 1, the lines outlining the family members and objects are <em>actual lines. </em>The lines of the steps, on which the largest character is standing, point toward him. But of course, bold black lines, like in this cartoon or a coloring book drawing, do not outline objects in the real world around us.\r\n\r\nRepresentational drawings that include realistic three-dimensional subjects can use <em>implied lines </em>to strengthen a composition. This means lines that are not really there but are formed (or implied) by the edges of the shapes of the objects in your drawing.\r\n<h3>Following the leading line</h3>\r\nEffective <em>leading lines</em> can invite and encourage the viewer to enter the drawing space, explore the focal point, and linger to investigate the many facets of the composition.\r\n\r\nEither actual lines or implied lines can be used to navigate the viewer around a nonrepresentational drawing. However, in a representational drawing, leading lines are usually implied, rather than actual. For example, in a realistic landscape drawing, a leading line can be a pathway, a river, a row of trees, or a fence. When properly rendered, the eye follows this line (or lines) directly into and through the drawing.\r\n<p class=\"Tip\">Most viewers begin looking at a drawing in the lower-left hand corner, making this corner the best location for a leading line.</p>\r\nPlacing leading lines on the right side of your drawing may take the viewer's eye out of your composition. Also, don't put leading lines exactly in a corner. When a leading line points directly to a corner it forms the shape of an arrowhead, pointing the viewer directly out of the drawing, just as effectively as a big bold neon EXIT sign.\r\n<h3>Lining up emotions with composition lines</h3>\r\nVarious types of lines put diverse emotions and moods in your compositions. Remain conscious of the following effects lines can have in your drawings:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>Curved lines reflect beauty, gentleness, and calmness. The S-curve denotes balance and grace.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>Horizontal lines create stability, peace, and serenity.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>Vertical lines reflect strength, grandeur, and dignity.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>Diagonal lines offer a sense of movement and power. When diagonal lines meet to form an arrow, they can direct the viewer's eye.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<!-- break -->\r\n<h2 id=\"tab4\" >Balancing subjects in a composition</h2>\r\nMost good drawings result from carefully planning the balance of the various subjects. A balanced drawing is more aesthetically pleasing and harmonious. When creating this balancing act, you must take the sizes, placements, and values of the subjects into account.\r\n<h3>Playing with the teeter-totter principle</h3>\r\nThink of your drawing subjects on a teeter-totter. If your subjects are the same size, then they balance perfectly with both the same distance from the center point, as in the first drawing in Figure 3. On the other hand, a tiny object on one side balances a larger object on the other end, by being farther away from the center point, as in the second drawing in Figure 3.\r\n\r\n[caption id=\"attachment_78123\" align=\"aligncenter\" width=\"294\"]<img class=\"size-full wp-image-78123\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/0-7645-5476-X_1003.jpg\" alt=\"\" width=\"294\" height=\"303\" /> <strong>Figure 3:</strong> Balancing subjects of the same and differing masses.[/caption]\r\n\r\nWithout balance, your drawings may end up visually lopsided and inharmonious. Of course, if you want a particular drawing subject to appear distressing and jarring, using an unbalanced composition can help.\r\n<p class=\"Tip\">Arrange your objects asymmetrically. Taller objects usually look better off to one side.</p>\r\n\r\n<h3>Balancing values and shapes</h3>\r\nMasses of light and dark values become shapes. These shapes need to be identified and planned before you begin to draw.\r\n\r\nBalance dark and light values in your drawing space, in much the same way as objects. Grouping all the dark objects or all the light objects on one side of your drawing space can create a visually lopsided composition. Sometimes simply moving objects slightly to the right or left in your drawing space, or making them lighter or darker than their actual values, can balance the composition.\r\n<p class=\"Tip\">Placing an odd number of objects into a grouping (rather than an even number) makes a composition more artistically pleasing. Balancing three objects on one side of a composition and five on the other is much more interesting than a static arrangement of four on either side</p>\r\n\r\n<h2 id=\"tab5\" >Delegating proportions to your subjects</h2>\r\nWhen you plan a drawing, you have to decide how big to make each object in the composition. The proportion of each element relative to the others depends on what you want to emphasize in your composition.\r\n\r\nIt's completely up to you to call upon your creative mind to help you make decisions about the proportions in your composition. Ask yourself the following questions:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>What do I consider to be the most important subject within this composition?</strong> The answer to this question may decide what your focal point (center of interest) should be.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Where should I put my focal point and how much of my total drawing space should my focal point occupy?</strong> Many beginners choose to make their focal point the largest object in the drawing.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>How much of my drawing format should be background (negative space)?</strong> Negative space is sometimes thought of as a resting place for the viewer's eyes.</li>\r\n</ul>","description":"<em>Composition</em> refers to the organization, arrangement, and combination of objects within the borders of a drawing space. For a great drawing, you want to bring the eyes of the viewer toward your center of interest within an aesthetically pleasing composition.\r\n\r\nComposing a drawing well engages your viewers. Many \"rules\" define a good composition, but these rules are only guidelines. Your personal preferences and natural instincts are also important.\r\n\r\nWhen planning the overall appearance of a drawing, you need to be familiar with the following:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Focal point:</strong> A primary center of interest (or focus) in a drawing.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Overlapping:</strong> The visual separation of a drawing into foreground, middle ground, and distant space by overlapping (or layering) objects.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Negative space: </strong> The space within your drawing not occupied by a focal point, important subject, or area of interest.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Lines:</strong> Navigation tools used to guide the viewer through the different elements of a drawing.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Balance: </strong> A stable arrangement of subjects within a composition.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Contrast: </strong> Extremes of light and dark values that create shapes and patterns in your composition.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Proportion: </strong> The amount of space allocated to the various components of a drawing.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" >Emphasizing the focal point</h2>\r\nA drawing becomes much more interesting when it has <em>a focal point</em> — a specific area where you want your viewer to focus the majority of their attention when looking at your drawing.\r\n<p class=\"Remember\">Your drawings illustrate your choice of subjects from your own unique perspective. Think about what you want your drawing to say and choose a focal point that helps you express that message.</p>\r\nIn a portrait, the focal point may be the eyes, and in a landscape it may be one specific tree or flower. You may choose to have more than one area of focus in your drawing; in this case, you have a <em>primary focal point</em> and <em>secondary focal point(s).</em>\r\n\r\nAfter you choose your main point (or points) of interest, you can use many artistic devices and techniques to highlight the point. In Figure 1, the Headde Family illustrates the following tips for emphasizing your focal point:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Always place your focal point off-center in your composition.</strong> Stay away from the bull's eye. A focal point placed in the very center of your drawing space is a big NO unless you have a specific expressive or artistic reason to do so. Any object that you place dead center commands the viewer's full attention. All the other important elements of your drawing may be ignored, and the drawing loses its impact. In Figure 1, the main member of the Headde family appears right of center. Your eye may go to this figure intuitively at first, but you still register the other members of the family off to the left.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Make good use of secondary focal points.</strong> Drawing less interesting objects close to the primary focal point helps direct the viewer's eye toward your center of interest. In Figure 1, the small cluster of family members off to the left draws your eye, but then the eyes on these figures direct you straight back to the main figure on the right.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Use objects within your drawing space to point to your focal point.</strong> The lines of the two steps on the platform in Figure 1 lead the view's eye to the focal point.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Define the focal point with more detail and a stronger contrast in values than other aspects of your drawing. </strong> The shading of the hair, eyes, and nose is more detailed in the focal point. Also, a very dark value is used to shade the pupils of his eyes and for the shadows under him.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n[caption id=\"attachment_78137\" align=\"aligncenter\" width=\"525\"]<img class=\"size-full wp-image-78137\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/0-7645-5476-X_1001.jpg\" alt=\"\" width=\"525\" height=\"375\" /> <strong>Figure 1:</strong> In the Headde family, a primary focal point out-stages the secondary focal points.[/caption]\r\n<h2 id=\"tab2\" >Overlapping for unity and depth</h2>\r\n<em>Overlapping</em> objects, or placing some objects over (or in front of) others, unifies a drawing, enhances depth of field, and creates an aesthetically pleasing composition.\r\n\r\nObserve your subject carefully before you begin your drawing and plan for places where you can utilize overlapping. To overlap subjects in a drawing, you simply draw closer objects in front of those farther away. For example, if two trees appear side-by-side in a scene, consider drawing them in such a way that one is slightly in front of the other. When you overlap objects, you create a strong three-dimensional illusion.\r\n\r\nIn Figure 2, the larger child (with lots of hair) is in the <em>foreground</em> (the front), the light haired adult and the baby are in the <em>middle ground,</em> and the dark haired adult (with the grumpy facial expression) is in the <em>distant space</em> (behind the others).\r\n\r\n[caption id=\"attachment_78130\" align=\"aligncenter\" width=\"525\"]<img class=\"size-full wp-image-78130\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/0-7645-5476-X_1002.jpg\" alt=\"\" width=\"525\" height=\"402\" /> <strong>Figure 2:</strong> Creating depth by overlapping your subjects.[/caption]\r\n<h2 id=\"tab3\" >Using lines to your advantage</h2>\r\nIn the cartoon drawing in Figure 1, the lines outlining the family members and objects are <em>actual lines. </em>The lines of the steps, on which the largest character is standing, point toward him. But of course, bold black lines, like in this cartoon or a coloring book drawing, do not outline objects in the real world around us.\r\n\r\nRepresentational drawings that include realistic three-dimensional subjects can use <em>implied lines </em>to strengthen a composition. This means lines that are not really there but are formed (or implied) by the edges of the shapes of the objects in your drawing.\r\n<h3>Following the leading line</h3>\r\nEffective <em>leading lines</em> can invite and encourage the viewer to enter the drawing space, explore the focal point, and linger to investigate the many facets of the composition.\r\n\r\nEither actual lines or implied lines can be used to navigate the viewer around a nonrepresentational drawing. However, in a representational drawing, leading lines are usually implied, rather than actual. For example, in a realistic landscape drawing, a leading line can be a pathway, a river, a row of trees, or a fence. When properly rendered, the eye follows this line (or lines) directly into and through the drawing.\r\n<p class=\"Tip\">Most viewers begin looking at a drawing in the lower-left hand corner, making this corner the best location for a leading line.</p>\r\nPlacing leading lines on the right side of your drawing may take the viewer's eye out of your composition. Also, don't put leading lines exactly in a corner. When a leading line points directly to a corner it forms the shape of an arrowhead, pointing the viewer directly out of the drawing, just as effectively as a big bold neon EXIT sign.\r\n<h3>Lining up emotions with composition lines</h3>\r\nVarious types of lines put diverse emotions and moods in your compositions. Remain conscious of the following effects lines can have in your drawings:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>Curved lines reflect beauty, gentleness, and calmness. The S-curve denotes balance and grace.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>Horizontal lines create stability, peace, and serenity.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>Vertical lines reflect strength, grandeur, and dignity.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>Diagonal lines offer a sense of movement and power. When diagonal lines meet to form an arrow, they can direct the viewer's eye.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<!-- break -->\r\n<h2 id=\"tab4\" >Balancing subjects in a composition</h2>\r\nMost good drawings result from carefully planning the balance of the various subjects. A balanced drawing is more aesthetically pleasing and harmonious. When creating this balancing act, you must take the sizes, placements, and values of the subjects into account.\r\n<h3>Playing with the teeter-totter principle</h3>\r\nThink of your drawing subjects on a teeter-totter. If your subjects are the same size, then they balance perfectly with both the same distance from the center point, as in the first drawing in Figure 3. On the other hand, a tiny object on one side balances a larger object on the other end, by being farther away from the center point, as in the second drawing in Figure 3.\r\n\r\n[caption id=\"attachment_78123\" align=\"aligncenter\" width=\"294\"]<img class=\"size-full wp-image-78123\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/0-7645-5476-X_1003.jpg\" alt=\"\" width=\"294\" height=\"303\" /> <strong>Figure 3:</strong> Balancing subjects of the same and differing masses.[/caption]\r\n\r\nWithout balance, your drawings may end up visually lopsided and inharmonious. Of course, if you want a particular drawing subject to appear distressing and jarring, using an unbalanced composition can help.\r\n<p class=\"Tip\">Arrange your objects asymmetrically. Taller objects usually look better off to one side.</p>\r\n\r\n<h3>Balancing values and shapes</h3>\r\nMasses of light and dark values become shapes. These shapes need to be identified and planned before you begin to draw.\r\n\r\nBalance dark and light values in your drawing space, in much the same way as objects. Grouping all the dark objects or all the light objects on one side of your drawing space can create a visually lopsided composition. Sometimes simply moving objects slightly to the right or left in your drawing space, or making them lighter or darker than their actual values, can balance the composition.\r\n<p class=\"Tip\">Placing an odd number of objects into a grouping (rather than an even number) makes a composition more artistically pleasing. Balancing three objects on one side of a composition and five on the other is much more interesting than a static arrangement of four on either side</p>\r\n\r\n<h2 id=\"tab5\" >Delegating proportions to your subjects</h2>\r\nWhen you plan a drawing, you have to decide how big to make each object in the composition. The proportion of each element relative to the others depends on what you want to emphasize in your composition.\r\n\r\nIt's completely up to you to call upon your creative mind to help you make decisions about the proportions in your composition. Ask yourself the following questions:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>What do I consider to be the most important subject within this composition?</strong> The answer to this question may decide what your focal point (center of interest) should be.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Where should I put my focal point and how much of my total drawing space should my focal point occupy?</strong> Many beginners choose to make their focal point the largest object in the drawing.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>How much of my drawing format should be background (negative space)?</strong> Negative space is sometimes thought of as a resting place for the viewer's eyes.</li>\r\n</ul>","blurb":"","authors":[],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33668,"title":"General Drawing","slug":"general-drawing","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33668"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[{"label":"Emphasizing the focal point","target":"#tab1"},{"label":"Overlapping for unity and depth","target":"#tab2"},{"label":"Using lines to your advantage","target":"#tab3"},{"label":"Balancing subjects in a composition","target":"#tab4"},{"label":"Delegating proportions to your subjects","target":"#tab5"}],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":208791,"title":"Figure Drawing For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"figure-drawing-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","art-architecture","drawing","general-drawing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/208791"}},{"articleId":208723,"title":"Drawing For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"drawing-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","art-architecture","drawing","general-drawing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/208723"}},{"articleId":203238,"title":"Five Coloring Pages Suitable for Adults","slug":"5-coloring-pages-suitable-for-adults","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","art-architecture","drawing","general-drawing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/203238"}},{"articleId":203191,"title":"Five Mandalas to Color","slug":"5-mandalas-to-color","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","art-architecture","drawing","general-drawing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/203191"}},{"articleId":200446,"title":"Light and Shadows in Your Figure Drawings","slug":"drawing-light-and-shadows","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","art-architecture","drawing","general-drawing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/200446"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":0,"slug":null,"isbn":null,"categoryList":null,"amazon":null,"image":null,"title":null,"testBankPinActivationLink":null,"bookOutOfPrint":false,"authorsInfo":null,"authors":null,"_links":null},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;art-architecture&quot;,&quot;drawing&quot;,&quot;general-drawing&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[null]}]\" id=\"du-slot-6538308f18888\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;art-architecture&quot;,&quot;drawing&quot;,&quot;general-drawing&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[null]}]\" id=\"du-slot-6538308f190c2\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Articles","articleList":null,"content":null,"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Explore","lifeExpectancy":"Two years","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2022-11-11T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":200083},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2017-03-26T22:49:58+00:00","modifiedTime":"2024-10-24T20:55:31+00:00","timestamp":"2024-10-24T21:01:03+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Academics & The Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"Art & Architecture","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33663"},"slug":"art-architecture","categoryId":33663},{"name":"Drawing","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33666"},"slug":"drawing","categoryId":33666},{"name":"General Drawing","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33668"},"slug":"general-drawing","categoryId":33668}],"title":"Drawing Geometric Perspective","strippedTitle":"drawing geometric perspective","slug":"drawing-geometric-perspective","canonicalUrl":"","搜所刹车系统改善方案":{"metaDescription":"Knowing geometric perspective is critical if you want your drawings of objects within a space to look three dimensional and realistic.","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"<i>Geometric perspective</i> (sometimes called <i>linear</i> perspective) makes subjects in a drawing look like they recede into distant space, appearing smaller the farther they are away from you.\r\n\r\nGeometric perspective can also create the illusion that you are either above or below the subject of a drawing. Using geometric perspective makes your drawings appear three-dimensional (rather than flat), and more realistic.\r\n\r\nTo get started with geometric perspective, you first need to acquaint yourself with the following:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><b>Horizon line:</b> An imaginary horizontal line, sometimes referred to as <i>eye level,</i> which divides your line of vision when you look straight ahead.Objects below this line are below your eye level, and objects above this line are above your eye level. Artists draw horizon lines to accurately establish perspective in their drawings.</li>\r\n \t<li><b>Perspective lines:</b> Straight lines, drawn at an angle from the edges of objects, back into perceived distant space, until they finally converge at a point on the horizon line. These lines establish guidelines for drawing objects in proper perspective.</li>\r\n \t<li><b>Angular lines:</b> Straight lines that are neither parallel nor perpendicular to the horizon line.</li>\r\n \t<li><b>Vanishing point:</b> The point on the horizon line where the angular perspective lines of an object visually continue past its edges and eventually converge. Objects become smaller and smaller the closer they are to the vanishing point and, at this point, seem to completely disappear (or vanish). Some objects can even have more than one vanishing point.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<p class=\"Remember\">Lines of objects that are parallel or perpendicular (at a right angle) to the horizon line don't appear to go back in space (such as the top, bottom, and side edges of a building from a frontal view) and therefore don't meet the vanishing point.</p>\r\n<!-- break -->\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" >Creating a drawing's horizon line</h2>\r\nAlways draw your horizon line parallel to the top and bottom of a square or rectangular drawing space. You determine the viewer's eye level by choosing the position of the horizon line. You control whether you want viewers to feel like they're above, below, or at eye level with the objects in your drawing.\r\n\r\nIn the first drawing in Figure 1, the horizon line is close to the top of the drawing space, higher than the cubes. Imagine that you are standing on the top of a high cliff, or floating in a hot air balloon. The perspective lines of objects below you angle upward toward the horizon line and converge at the vanishing point.\r\n<div class=\"figure\"><img src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/0-7645-5476-X_0901.jpg\" border=\"0\" /></div>\r\n<span class=\"caption\"><b>Figure 1:</b> Observing cubes from two different perspectives, below and above the horizon line.</span>\r\n\r\nIf you want viewers of your drawings to feel like they are looking downward, draw the subjects below the horizon line.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab2\" >Looking upward</h2>\r\nThe horizon line is below the cubes in the second drawing in Figure 1. You sense that you are below the cubes — maybe looking up into the sky or standing in a valley looking upward. The perspective lines of the objects all lead downward to the same vanishing point. The cubes almost look like helium-filled balloons, and the perspective lines seem to hold them anchored at the vanishing point.\r\nTo create the illusion that the viewer is looking upward, draw your subjects above the horizon line.\r\n\r\nYou are at eye level as you look into Figure 2. The horizon line is the first horizontal line, almost halfway down from the top of the drawing space.\r\n\r\nLook at the angular lines (neither horizontal nor vertical) that define the edges of the objects, and visually follow them to the vanishing point on the horizon line. You should notice the following:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>Angular lines of objects at your eye level (touching the horizon line) converge both downward and upward.</li>\r\n \t<li>The lines of objects above your eye level (above the horizon line) converge downward.</li>\r\n \t<li>Angular lines of objects below your eye level (below the horizon line) converge upward.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<div class=\"figure\"><img src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/0-7645-5476-X_0902.jpg\" border=\"0\" /></div>\r\n<span class=\"caption\"><b>Figure 2: </b>An eye-level perspective — all angular lines converge at the same vanishing point.</span>\r\n<!-- break -->\r\n<h2 id=\"tab3\" >Finding vanishing points</h2>\r\nWhen an object's perspective lines recede into a properly placed vanishing point, your drawings appear more three-dimensional and visually correct. Finding and properly placing a vanishing point allows you to draw your subjects more realistically and in proper perspective.\r\n\r\nMany artists work from photos, without realizing that a camera lens can sometimes visually distort a scene. This may not be a problem when drawing landscapes. However, if you have human-made objects in your scene, such as buildings, stairs, or other objects with horizontal lines, you need to find the vanishing point and use geometric perspective to make them look visually correct.\r\n\r\nThe following steps explain how you can find a vanishing point in a photograph or sketch. These basic principles also apply to rendering a final drawing from one of your rough sketches.\r\n\r\nFind an image that includes a level, man-made object with horizontal lines, such as a railing, deck, or wharf; or the roof, horizontal siding, or steps of a building. Then, follow these steps:\r\n<ol>\r\n \t<li>Find an object in the image that you know is level and has more than one horizontal line. In Figure 3, the horizontal lines on the edge of the railing and the wooden planks in the deck are level.</li>\r\n \t<li>Tape a piece of tracing paper over the entire image.</li>\r\n \t<li>With a pencil and a ruler, outline the upper and lower horizontal edges of this object, as well as any other lines that you know to be parallel, such as railings, decks, or the upper and lower edges of doors and windows. Look at the outlines of the upper and lower edges of the railing and some of the spaces between the boards in the second drawing in Figure 3.<img src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/0-7645-5476-X_0903.jpg\" border=\"0\" /><span class=\"caption\"><b>\r\nFigure 3: </b>Tracing the outlines to find the vanishing point.</span></li>\r\n \t<li class=\"number\">Tape your traced drawing to a larger sheet of drawing paper, leaving room to extend the horizontal lines of the object.\r\nRefer to the lines on your tracing and take note of the direction in which they point. You can visually identify which lines are going to eventually converge.\r\nTape only the outer edges so that the tape doesn't tear the center area of your drawing paper when you remove it.</li>\r\n \t<li class=\"number\">Use your ruler and a pencil to extend all of the horizontal lines until they meet.\r\nKeep your lines light, so you can erase them later. Note the point where most lines converge. This is your vanishing point, which is located on the horizon line.\r\nWhen an object has only one vanishing point, its perspective is referred to as one-point perspective.</li>\r\n \t<li class=\"number\">Draw a straight line (the horizon line) through the vanishing point, horizontal to the top and bottom of your drawing paper.\r\nFigure 4 shows the location of the vanishing point and the horizon line (Line AB).</li>\r\n \t<li class=\"number\">Remove your tracing, redraw the lines of the object using the vanishing point as a guide, and complete your drawing.</li>\r\n</ol>\r\n<div class=\"figure\"><img src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/0-7645-5476-X_0904.jpg\" border=\"0\" /></div>\r\n<span class=\"caption\"><b>Figure 4: </b>Extending the horizontal lines until they converge at the vanishing point.</span>\r\n\r\nSometimes you can see more than one side of an object, such as a building. If the angle (or corner end) of the building is closer to you than one of its sides, you need to use this same method to locate the second vanishing point (this is called <i>two-point perspective</i>). Horizontal lines on other visible sides of this object also converge at vanishing points somewhere on the same horizon line.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab4\" >Finding a horizon line and vanishing point in real life</h2>\r\nTo identify the horizon line in an actual scene, mark it with your eye level. Remember — your eye level and the horizon line are one and the same. Look straight ahead, and the horizon line is in front of you.\r\nSome clues for finding a vanishing point in a real setting include the following:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>A building or object with horizontal lines provides a perfect clue. Follow the same procedure as in \"Finding the vanishing point in a photograph or sketch\" earlier in this article. However, instead of drawing the lines, you simply eyeball them to find the approximate position of your vanishing point. Then you mark it in your drawing.</li>\r\n \t<li>Two parallel lines of the edges of straight roads, railway tracks, and fences can lead you to the vanishing point.</li>\r\n</ul>","description":"<i>Geometric perspective</i> (sometimes called <i>linear</i> perspective) makes subjects in a drawing look like they recede into distant space, appearing smaller the farther they are away from you.\r\n\r\nGeometric perspective can also create the illusion that you are either above or below the subject of a drawing. Using geometric perspective makes your drawings appear three-dimensional (rather than flat), and more realistic.\r\n\r\nTo get started with geometric perspective, you first need to acquaint yourself with the following:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><b>Horizon line:</b> An imaginary horizontal line, sometimes referred to as <i>eye level,</i> which divides your line of vision when you look straight ahead.Objects below this line are below your eye level, and objects above this line are above your eye level. Artists draw horizon lines to accurately establish perspective in their drawings.</li>\r\n \t<li><b>Perspective lines:</b> Straight lines, drawn at an angle from the edges of objects, back into perceived distant space, until they finally converge at a point on the horizon line. These lines establish guidelines for drawing objects in proper perspective.</li>\r\n \t<li><b>Angular lines:</b> Straight lines that are neither parallel nor perpendicular to the horizon line.</li>\r\n \t<li><b>Vanishing point:</b> The point on the horizon line where the angular perspective lines of an object visually continue past its edges and eventually converge. Objects become smaller and smaller the closer they are to the vanishing point and, at this point, seem to completely disappear (or vanish). Some objects can even have more than one vanishing point.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<p class=\"Remember\">Lines of objects that are parallel or perpendicular (at a right angle) to the horizon line don't appear to go back in space (such as the top, bottom, and side edges of a building from a frontal view) and therefore don't meet the vanishing point.</p>\r\n<!-- break -->\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" >Creating a drawing's horizon line</h2>\r\nAlways draw your horizon line parallel to the top and bottom of a square or rectangular drawing space. You determine the viewer's eye level by choosing the position of the horizon line. You control whether you want viewers to feel like they're above, below, or at eye level with the objects in your drawing.\r\n\r\nIn the first drawing in Figure 1, the horizon line is close to the top of the drawing space, higher than the cubes. Imagine that you are standing on the top of a high cliff, or floating in a hot air balloon. The perspective lines of objects below you angle upward toward the horizon line and converge at the vanishing point.\r\n<div class=\"figure\"><img src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/0-7645-5476-X_0901.jpg\" border=\"0\" /></div>\r\n<span class=\"caption\"><b>Figure 1:</b> Observing cubes from two different perspectives, below and above the horizon line.</span>\r\n\r\nIf you want viewers of your drawings to feel like they are looking downward, draw the subjects below the horizon line.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab2\" >Looking upward</h2>\r\nThe horizon line is below the cubes in the second drawing in Figure 1. You sense that you are below the cubes — maybe looking up into the sky or standing in a valley looking upward. The perspective lines of the objects all lead downward to the same vanishing point. The cubes almost look like helium-filled balloons, and the perspective lines seem to hold them anchored at the vanishing point.\r\nTo create the illusion that the viewer is looking upward, draw your subjects above the horizon line.\r\n\r\nYou are at eye level as you look into Figure 2. The horizon line is the first horizontal line, almost halfway down from the top of the drawing space.\r\n\r\nLook at the angular lines (neither horizontal nor vertical) that define the edges of the objects, and visually follow them to the vanishing point on the horizon line. You should notice the following:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>Angular lines of objects at your eye level (touching the horizon line) converge both downward and upward.</li>\r\n \t<li>The lines of objects above your eye level (above the horizon line) converge downward.</li>\r\n \t<li>Angular lines of objects below your eye level (below the horizon line) converge upward.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<div class=\"figure\"><img src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/0-7645-5476-X_0902.jpg\" border=\"0\" /></div>\r\n<span class=\"caption\"><b>Figure 2: </b>An eye-level perspective — all angular lines converge at the same vanishing point.</span>\r\n<!-- break -->\r\n<h2 id=\"tab3\" >Finding vanishing points</h2>\r\nWhen an object's perspective lines recede into a properly placed vanishing point, your drawings appear more three-dimensional and visually correct. Finding and properly placing a vanishing point allows you to draw your subjects more realistically and in proper perspective.\r\n\r\nMany artists work from photos, without realizing that a camera lens can sometimes visually distort a scene. This may not be a problem when drawing landscapes. However, if you have human-made objects in your scene, such as buildings, stairs, or other objects with horizontal lines, you need to find the vanishing point and use geometric perspective to make them look visually correct.\r\n\r\nThe following steps explain how you can find a vanishing point in a photograph or sketch. These basic principles also apply to rendering a final drawing from one of your rough sketches.\r\n\r\nFind an image that includes a level, man-made object with horizontal lines, such as a railing, deck, or wharf; or the roof, horizontal siding, or steps of a building. Then, follow these steps:\r\n<ol>\r\n \t<li>Find an object in the image that you know is level and has more than one horizontal line. In Figure 3, the horizontal lines on the edge of the railing and the wooden planks in the deck are level.</li>\r\n \t<li>Tape a piece of tracing paper over the entire image.</li>\r\n \t<li>With a pencil and a ruler, outline the upper and lower horizontal edges of this object, as well as any other lines that you know to be parallel, such as railings, decks, or the upper and lower edges of doors and windows. Look at the outlines of the upper and lower edges of the railing and some of the spaces between the boards in the second drawing in Figure 3.<img src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/0-7645-5476-X_0903.jpg\" border=\"0\" /><span class=\"caption\"><b>\r\nFigure 3: </b>Tracing the outlines to find the vanishing point.</span></li>\r\n \t<li class=\"number\">Tape your traced drawing to a larger sheet of drawing paper, leaving room to extend the horizontal lines of the object.\r\nRefer to the lines on your tracing and take note of the direction in which they point. You can visually identify which lines are going to eventually converge.\r\nTape only the outer edges so that the tape doesn't tear the center area of your drawing paper when you remove it.</li>\r\n \t<li class=\"number\">Use your ruler and a pencil to extend all of the horizontal lines until they meet.\r\nKeep your lines light, so you can erase them later. Note the point where most lines converge. This is your vanishing point, which is located on the horizon line.\r\nWhen an object has only one vanishing point, its perspective is referred to as one-point perspective.</li>\r\n \t<li class=\"number\">Draw a straight line (the horizon line) through the vanishing point, horizontal to the top and bottom of your drawing paper.\r\nFigure 4 shows the location of the vanishing point and the horizon line (Line AB).</li>\r\n \t<li class=\"number\">Remove your tracing, redraw the lines of the object using the vanishing point as a guide, and complete your drawing.</li>\r\n</ol>\r\n<div class=\"figure\"><img src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/0-7645-5476-X_0904.jpg\" border=\"0\" /></div>\r\n<span class=\"caption\"><b>Figure 4: </b>Extending the horizontal lines until they converge at the vanishing point.</span>\r\n\r\nSometimes you can see more than one side of an object, such as a building. If the angle (or corner end) of the building is closer to you than one of its sides, you need to use this same method to locate the second vanishing point (this is called <i>two-point perspective</i>). Horizontal lines on other visible sides of this object also converge at vanishing points somewhere on the same horizon line.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab4\" >Finding a horizon line and vanishing point in real life</h2>\r\nTo identify the horizon line in an actual scene, mark it with your eye level. Remember — your eye level and the horizon line are one and the same. Look straight ahead, and the horizon line is in front of you.\r\nSome clues for finding a vanishing point in a real setting include the following:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>A building or object with horizontal lines provides a perfect clue. Follow the same procedure as in \"Finding the vanishing point in a photograph or sketch\" earlier in this article. However, instead of drawing the lines, you simply eyeball them to find the approximate position of your vanishing point. Then you mark it in your drawing.</li>\r\n \t<li>Two parallel lines of the edges of straight roads, railway tracks, and fences can lead you to the vanishing point.</li>\r\n</ul>","blurb":"","authors":[],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33668,"title":"General Drawing","slug":"general-drawing","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33668"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[{"label":"Creating a drawing's horizon line","target":"#tab1"},{"label":"Looking upward","target":"#tab2"},{"label":"Finding vanishing points","target":"#tab3"},{"label":"Finding a horizon line and vanishing point in real life","target":"#tab4"}],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":208791,"title":"Figure Drawing For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"figure-drawing-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","art-architecture","drawing","general-drawing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/208791"}},{"articleId":208723,"title":"Drawing For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"drawing-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","art-architecture","drawing","general-drawing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/208723"}},{"articleId":203238,"title":"Five Coloring Pages Suitable for Adults","slug":"5-coloring-pages-suitable-for-adults","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","art-architecture","drawing","general-drawing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/203238"}},{"articleId":203191,"title":"Five Mandalas to Color","slug":"5-mandalas-to-color","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","art-architecture","drawing","general-drawing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/203191"}},{"articleId":200446,"title":"Light and Shadows in Your Figure Drawings","slug":"drawing-light-and-shadows","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","art-architecture","drawing","general-drawing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/200446"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":0,"slug":null,"isbn":null,"categoryList":null,"amazon":null,"image":null,"title":null,"testBankPinActivationLink":null,"bookOutOfPrint":false,"authorsInfo":null,"authors":null,"_links":null},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;art-architecture&quot;,&quot;drawing&quot;,&quot;general-drawing&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[null]}]\" id=\"du-slot-6538308f1145d\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;art-architecture&quot;,&quot;drawing&quot;,&quot;general-drawing&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[null]}]\" id=\"du-slot-6538308f11cb9\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Articles","articleList":null,"content":null,"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Explore","lifeExpectancy":"Two years","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2022-11-12T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":200447},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2017-03-26T22:42:23+00:00","modifiedTime":"2024-10-24T14:58:45+00:00","timestamp":"2024-10-24T15:01:03+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Academics & The Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"Art & Architecture","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33663"},"slug":"art-architecture","categoryId":33663},{"name":"Drawing","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33666"},"slug":"drawing","categoryId":33666},{"name":"General Drawing","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33668"},"slug":"general-drawing","categoryId":33668}],"title":"Drawing the Furry, Fluffy, and Feathered","strippedTitle":"drawing the furry, fluffy, and feathered","slug":"drawing-the-furry-fluffy-and-feathered","canonicalUrl":"","搜所刹车系统改善方案":{"metaDescription":"Drawing animals is challenging because of their hair and fur, but there are several strategies for getting a realistic look.","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"Drawing animals brings with it its own set of artistic difficulties. Most animals are always fully dressed. Their fashion statements vary from critter to critter, come in a variety of fashionable patterns, and sometimes change with the seasons, and you must take this all into consideration if you want to draw them well.\r\n\r\nSome points to keep in mind when drawing fur or feathers include the following:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>Observe closely the direction in which the fur or feathers grow and draw your shading lines to follow these directions.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>Fur and feathers look much more realistic when the shading lines are different lengths and sizes.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>Use curved shading lines to define the form of a bird or animal.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>Pay special attention to light and shadows, as well as texture, when shading fur or feathers.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" >Identifying the long and short of fur</h2>\r\nThe furry coats of animals can be straight, curly, soft, coarse, shiny, matte, spotted, or striped! Keep the following guidelines in mind when drawing either short or long fur:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>To make fur look short, you draw short (mostly curved) hatching lines. Use long, curved hatching lines to create the illusion of long fur.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>Hatching is the perfect shading technique for rendering the texture of most types of fur.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>Bold, thick lines give the illusion of coarse fur, and gentle, thin lines help fur to look soft.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<h3>Short fur</h3>\r\nIn Figure 1, meet Shadow. Shadow's fur is short, soft, and shiny. She sheds enough fur in one month to make a spotted fur coat for a bald Chihuahua!\r\n<div class=\"figure\"><img src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/0-7645-5476-X_1601.jpg\" border=\"0\" /></div>\r\n<span class=\"caption\"><b>Figure 1:</b> Drawing spotted fur involves lots of shading and a full range of values.</span>\r\n\r\nLook at how the shading of Shadow's short fur clearly defines the bone structure of her head and face. Observe the close-ups of the patterns of black spots on white fur, and white spots on black fur in Figure 1. The fur grows in many different directions. Look at all the different values, from white to medium, used to represent the light fur. A range of values from medium to black depicts the black fur.\r\n\r\nIn Figure 2, you see a combination of fur and feline facial features in a caricature of Riley. Have a look at how soft his fur looks and all the different directions in which it grows. Riley's fur is finer and softer than the fur of a Dalmatian. His eyes are drawn realistically, but a little artistic license was taken with his nose by making it more of a button shape. This gives the drawing a cartoon-like impression, almost as if he were a stuffed toy.\r\n<div class=\"figure\"><img src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/0-7645-5476-X_1602.jpg\" border=\"0\" /></div>\r\n<span class=\"caption\"><b>Figure 2:</b> Drawing short, soft fur, growing in a number of directions.</span>\r\n<h3>Long fur</h3>\r\nLong fur tends to be somewhat more difficult to draw because the individual strands often curve in different directions and overlap one another.\r\n\r\nIn Figure 3 you see Rosey, who now lives at the Rainbow Bridge. She had very soft, slightly wavy fur and looked most adorable when her fur was wild and messy.\r\n<div class=\"figure\"><img src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/0-7645-5476-X_1603.jpg\" border=\"0\" /></div>\r\n<span class=\"caption\"><b>Figure 3:</b> Drawing long, soft fur on an animal. </span>\r\n<p class=\"Remember\">Long fur doesn't define the bone structure of an animal as well as short fur. But the contrasting shading of the light and shadow areas identifies the basic form of her head.</p>\r\n\r\n<h2 id=\"tab2\" >Drawing form beyond the furry texture</h2>\r\nIn this exercise, you draw the form of the leg and foot of a puppy with short fur. The same basic principles apply to drawing short fur on any part of an animal's body.\r\n<p class=\"number\">1. Lightly sketch the three shapes you see in Figure 4.</p>\r\n<p class=\"article-list\">The top shape is a section of the puppy's body, the longer one is his leg, and the horizontal oval shape at the bottom is his paw.</p>\r\n\r\n<div class=\"figure\"><img src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/0-7645-5476-X_1604.jpg\" border=\"0\" /></div>\r\n<span class=\"caption\"><b>Figure 4:</b> Drawing the shape and basic texture of a furry leg.</span>\r\n<p class=\"number\">2. Use your kneaded eraser to lighten your sketch lines and draw a more detailed outline.</p>\r\n<p class=\"number\">3. With your HB pencil, begin shading the values you see with hatching lines to represent the texture of fur.</p>\r\n<p class=\"article-list\">Watch closely the direction in which the fur grows (see the third drawing in Figure 4). On the main part of the leg, it seems to grow downward in the center. As it gets closer to the edges of the leg, it curves outward at a downward angle to the edges of each side of the legs.</p>\r\n<p class=\"number\">4. Use your 2B pencil to darken the shading in the shadow areas of the leg (see Figure 5).</p>\r\n\r\n<div class=\"figure\"><img src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/0-7645-5476-X_1605.jpg\" border=\"0\" /></div>\r\n<span class=\"caption\"><b>Figure 5:</b> Adding detail to the furry form.</span>\r\n<p class=\"number\">5. Add the light shading on the paw, and outline the toenails on the toes (see the second drawing in Figure 5).</p>\r\n<p class=\"number\">6. Add a section of dark fur where the top of the leg meets the chest.</p>\r\n<p class=\"number\">7. Use your 2B pencil to add the dark shading to his paw and to draw the shadow under his paw (as in the third drawing in Figure 5).</p>\r\n<!-- break -->\r\n<h2 id=\"tab3\" >Letting your drawing soar with winged things</h2>\r\nIn Figure 6, have a look at a drawing of a generic feather. Understanding an individual feather's basic shape and construction allows you to draw the many feathers of a wing with increased accuracy. The wide end of the shaft (the long skinny thing in the center) of a feather is called a <i>quill.</i> It has a hollow center, and many years ago, people dipped quills into ink and used them as writing tools.\r\n<div class=\"figure\"><img src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/0-7645-5476-X_1606.jpg\" border=\"0\" /></div>\r\n<span class=\"caption\"><b>Figure 6:</b> Taking a close-up look at a feather.</span>\r\n\r\nWings come in a vast range of shapes and sizes, from the tiny delicate wings of a hummingbird to the magnificent strong wings of a bald eagle. Figure 7 shows the outline of a simple wing to provide you with an understanding of its construction. You can adapt the overall shape and construction of this wing to draw anything, from birds to angels, and from ferocious dragons to flying pigs!\r\n<div class=\"figure\"><img src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/0-7645-5476-X_1607.jpg\" border=\"0\" /></div>\r\n<span class=\"caption\"><b>Figure 7:</b> The basic construction of a wing.</span>","description":"Drawing animals brings with it its own set of artistic difficulties. Most animals are always fully dressed. Their fashion statements vary from critter to critter, come in a variety of fashionable patterns, and sometimes change with the seasons, and you must take this all into consideration if you want to draw them well.\r\n\r\nSome points to keep in mind when drawing fur or feathers include the following:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>Observe closely the direction in which the fur or feathers grow and draw your shading lines to follow these directions.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>Fur and feathers look much more realistic when the shading lines are different lengths and sizes.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>Use curved shading lines to define the form of a bird or animal.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>Pay special attention to light and shadows, as well as texture, when shading fur or feathers.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" >Identifying the long and short of fur</h2>\r\nThe furry coats of animals can be straight, curly, soft, coarse, shiny, matte, spotted, or striped! Keep the following guidelines in mind when drawing either short or long fur:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>To make fur look short, you draw short (mostly curved) hatching lines. Use long, curved hatching lines to create the illusion of long fur.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>Hatching is the perfect shading technique for rendering the texture of most types of fur.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>Bold, thick lines give the illusion of coarse fur, and gentle, thin lines help fur to look soft.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<h3>Short fur</h3>\r\nIn Figure 1, meet Shadow. Shadow's fur is short, soft, and shiny. She sheds enough fur in one month to make a spotted fur coat for a bald Chihuahua!\r\n<div class=\"figure\"><img src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/0-7645-5476-X_1601.jpg\" border=\"0\" /></div>\r\n<span class=\"caption\"><b>Figure 1:</b> Drawing spotted fur involves lots of shading and a full range of values.</span>\r\n\r\nLook at how the shading of Shadow's short fur clearly defines the bone structure of her head and face. Observe the close-ups of the patterns of black spots on white fur, and white spots on black fur in Figure 1. The fur grows in many different directions. Look at all the different values, from white to medium, used to represent the light fur. A range of values from medium to black depicts the black fur.\r\n\r\nIn Figure 2, you see a combination of fur and feline facial features in a caricature of Riley. Have a look at how soft his fur looks and all the different directions in which it grows. Riley's fur is finer and softer than the fur of a Dalmatian. His eyes are drawn realistically, but a little artistic license was taken with his nose by making it more of a button shape. This gives the drawing a cartoon-like impression, almost as if he were a stuffed toy.\r\n<div class=\"figure\"><img src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/0-7645-5476-X_1602.jpg\" border=\"0\" /></div>\r\n<span class=\"caption\"><b>Figure 2:</b> Drawing short, soft fur, growing in a number of directions.</span>\r\n<h3>Long fur</h3>\r\nLong fur tends to be somewhat more difficult to draw because the individual strands often curve in different directions and overlap one another.\r\n\r\nIn Figure 3 you see Rosey, who now lives at the Rainbow Bridge. She had very soft, slightly wavy fur and looked most adorable when her fur was wild and messy.\r\n<div class=\"figure\"><img src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/0-7645-5476-X_1603.jpg\" border=\"0\" /></div>\r\n<span class=\"caption\"><b>Figure 3:</b> Drawing long, soft fur on an animal. </span>\r\n<p class=\"Remember\">Long fur doesn't define the bone structure of an animal as well as short fur. But the contrasting shading of the light and shadow areas identifies the basic form of her head.</p>\r\n\r\n<h2 id=\"tab2\" >Drawing form beyond the furry texture</h2>\r\nIn this exercise, you draw the form of the leg and foot of a puppy with short fur. The same basic principles apply to drawing short fur on any part of an animal's body.\r\n<p class=\"number\">1. Lightly sketch the three shapes you see in Figure 4.</p>\r\n<p class=\"article-list\">The top shape is a section of the puppy's body, the longer one is his leg, and the horizontal oval shape at the bottom is his paw.</p>\r\n\r\n<div class=\"figure\"><img src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/0-7645-5476-X_1604.jpg\" border=\"0\" /></div>\r\n<span class=\"caption\"><b>Figure 4:</b> Drawing the shape and basic texture of a furry leg.</span>\r\n<p class=\"number\">2. Use your kneaded eraser to lighten your sketch lines and draw a more detailed outline.</p>\r\n<p class=\"number\">3. With your HB pencil, begin shading the values you see with hatching lines to represent the texture of fur.</p>\r\n<p class=\"article-list\">Watch closely the direction in which the fur grows (see the third drawing in Figure 4). On the main part of the leg, it seems to grow downward in the center. As it gets closer to the edges of the leg, it curves outward at a downward angle to the edges of each side of the legs.</p>\r\n<p class=\"number\">4. Use your 2B pencil to darken the shading in the shadow areas of the leg (see Figure 5).</p>\r\n\r\n<div class=\"figure\"><img src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/0-7645-5476-X_1605.jpg\" border=\"0\" /></div>\r\n<span class=\"caption\"><b>Figure 5:</b> Adding detail to the furry form.</span>\r\n<p class=\"number\">5. Add the light shading on the paw, and outline the toenails on the toes (see the second drawing in Figure 5).</p>\r\n<p class=\"number\">6. Add a section of dark fur where the top of the leg meets the chest.</p>\r\n<p class=\"number\">7. Use your 2B pencil to add the dark shading to his paw and to draw the shadow under his paw (as in the third drawing in Figure 5).</p>\r\n<!-- break -->\r\n<h2 id=\"tab3\" >Letting your drawing soar with winged things</h2>\r\nIn Figure 6, have a look at a drawing of a generic feather. Understanding an individual feather's basic shape and construction allows you to draw the many feathers of a wing with increased accuracy. The wide end of the shaft (the long skinny thing in the center) of a feather is called a <i>quill.</i> It has a hollow center, and many years ago, people dipped quills into ink and used them as writing tools.\r\n<div class=\"figure\"><img src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/0-7645-5476-X_1606.jpg\" border=\"0\" /></div>\r\n<span class=\"caption\"><b>Figure 6:</b> Taking a close-up look at a feather.</span>\r\n\r\nWings come in a vast range of shapes and sizes, from the tiny delicate wings of a hummingbird to the magnificent strong wings of a bald eagle. Figure 7 shows the outline of a simple wing to provide you with an understanding of its construction. You can adapt the overall shape and construction of this wing to draw anything, from birds to angels, and from ferocious dragons to flying pigs!\r\n<div class=\"figure\"><img src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/0-7645-5476-X_1607.jpg\" border=\"0\" /></div>\r\n<span class=\"caption\"><b>Figure 7:</b> The basic construction of a wing.</span>","blurb":"","authors":[],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33668,"title":"General Drawing","slug":"general-drawing","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33668"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[{"label":"Identifying the long and short of fur","target":"#tab1"},{"label":"Drawing form beyond the furry texture","target":"#tab2"},{"label":"Letting your drawing soar with winged things","target":"#tab3"}],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":208791,"title":"Figure Drawing For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"figure-drawing-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","art-architecture","drawing","general-drawing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/208791"}},{"articleId":208723,"title":"Drawing For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"drawing-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","art-architecture","drawing","general-drawing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/208723"}},{"articleId":203238,"title":"Five Coloring Pages Suitable for Adults","slug":"5-coloring-pages-suitable-for-adults","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","art-architecture","drawing","general-drawing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/203238"}},{"articleId":203191,"title":"Five Mandalas to Color","slug":"5-mandalas-to-color","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","art-architecture","drawing","general-drawing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/203191"}},{"articleId":200446,"title":"Light and Shadows in Your Figure Drawings","slug":"drawing-light-and-shadows","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","art-architecture","drawing","general-drawing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/200446"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":0,"slug":null,"isbn":null,"categoryList":null,"amazon":null,"image":null,"title":null,"testBankPinActivationLink":null,"bookOutOfPrint":false,"authorsInfo":null,"authors":null,"_links":null},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = 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Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"Art & Architecture","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33663"},"slug":"art-architecture","categoryId":33663},{"name":"Drawing","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33666"},"slug":"drawing","categoryId":33666},{"name":"General Drawing","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33668"},"slug":"general-drawing","categoryId":33668}],"title":"Light and Shadows in Your Figure Drawings","strippedTitle":"light and shadows in your figure drawings","slug":"drawing-light-and-shadows","canonicalUrl":"","搜所刹车系统改善方案":{"metaDescription":"Depicting light and shadows in your figure drawings, with shading techniques, is what gives the drawings a three-dimensional quality.","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"Light and shadows visually define objects. Before you can draw the light and shadows you see, you need to train your eyes to see like an artist.\r\n\r\n<em>Values</em> are the different shades of gray between white and black. Artists use values to translate the light and shadows they see into <em>shading,</em> thus creating the illusion of a third dimension.\r\n\r\n<em>Hatching</em> and <em>crosshatching</em> are simple and fun techniques for drawing shading.\r\n\r\nA full range of values is the basic ingredient for shading. When you can draw lots of different values, you can begin to add shading, and therefore depth, to your drawings.\r\n\r\nWith shading, the magical illusion of three-dimensional reality appears on your drawing paper. Figure 1 demonstrates hot to take a simple line drawing of a circle and add shading to transform it into the planet Earth.\r\n<div class=\"figure\"><img src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/0-7645-5476-X_0601.jpg\" alt=\"\"\" border=\"0\" /></div>\r\n<span class=\"caption\"><strong>Figure 1:</strong> Turning a simple line drawing into planet Earth.</span>\r\n\r\nYou know the objects around you are three-dimensional because you can walk up to them, see them from all sides, and touch them. Take a moment to look around you at familiar objects. Try to discover why you see their actual three-dimensional forms. Look for the different values created by the light and shadows.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" >Taking a closer look at light and shadow</h2>\r\nBefore you can draw the appropriate values that illustrate light and shadows correctly, you need to be able to visually identify the following:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Light source:</strong> The direction from which a dominant light originates. The placement of this light source affects every aspect of a drawing.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Shadows: </strong> The areas on an object that receive little or no light.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Cast shadow:</strong> The dark area on an adjacent surface where the light is blocked by the solid object.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<p class=\"Remember\">The light source tells you where to draw all the light values and shadows.</p>\r\n<!-- break -->\r\n\r\nFigure 2 gives you some practice in locating the light source, shadows, and cast shadows around an object, which in this case is a sculpture. As you look at two drawings of the sculpture, ask yourself the following questions:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Where are the light values?</strong> Look for the lightest areas on the object. The very brightest of the lightest values are called <em>highlights.</em></li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Where are the dark values?</strong> Dark values often reveal the sections of the object that are in shadow. By locating shadows, you can usually identify the light source.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Where is the cast shadow?</strong> The section of the cast shadow closest to the object is usually the darkest value in a drawing. By locating an object's cast shadow, you can easily discover the direction from which the light source originates.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<div class=\"figure\"><img src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/0-7645-5476-X_0602.jpg\" alt=\"\"\" border=\"0\" /></div>\r\n<span class=\"caption\"><strong>Figure 2:</strong> Looking for light and dark values and cast shadows.</span>\r\n\r\nThe two drawings in Figure 2 have different light sources. Compare them and find the dominant light source in each.\r\n\r\nIf you guessed that the light is coming from the right in the first drawing, you would be correct. In the second drawing, the light originates from the left.\r\n<p class=\"Tip\">Seeing how a light source affects an actual object is more challenging than examining a drawing. Place an object on a table in a dimly lit room. Shine a powerful flashlight or a lamp (a light source) on the object. Observe it from different perspectives.</p>\r\nEach time you reposition the light source, identify the following:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>The shadows on the object (dark values)</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>The brightest areas (the highlights)</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>The light values (areas closer to the light source or not in shadow)</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>The cast shadow (the darkest values)</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<!-- break -->\r\n<h2 id=\"tab2\" >Exploring contrast in a drawing</h2>\r\n<em>Contrast</em> can be used to make your drawings more three-dimensional by accentuating the light and shadows. By using extremes in values (more light and dark values than middle values) you create a <em>high</em>-<em>contrast </em>drawing. For a really powerful, strong, and dynamic drawing, you can draw very dark shading right next to the light areas.\r\n\r\nWhen a drawing has mostly light and middle values, it is called <em>low contrast.</em> Some drawing subjects need to be soft and gentle. You can create a very soft drawing and still use a full range of values. Think about a white kitten, for example. Most of the shading is very light, but the drawing becomes more powerful if you use a little dark shading in a few selective areas, such as the pupils of the eyes and the shadows.\r\n<p class=\"Remember\">Your drawings can appear flat rather than three-dimensional when you use too little contrast in values. Unless you are trying to achieve a specific mood or want the subject to look flat, always use a full range of values.</p>\r\nFigure 3 helps you see contrast while exercising your vision. Take a few moments to explore the light and shadows in this drawing more closely. The face of the girl is drawn in profile. The boy's face is a frontal view. Notice how the girl's profile is in the shadow of the boy's face.\r\n\r\nThe bright light on the front of her face presents a strong contrast to the dark shadow on the side of his face. This makes for a powerful visual separation even though the two faces seem close together.\r\n<div class=\"figure\"><img src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/0-7645-5476-X_0603.jpg\" alt=\"\"\" border=\"0\" /></div>\r\n<span class=\"caption\"><strong>Figure 3:</strong> High contrast makes a drawing appear more three-dimensional. </span>\r\n<!-- break -->\r\n<h2 id=\"tab3\" >Translating values you see into values you draw</h2>\r\nAlmost everything has more than one value. Depending on the light source, most things have some areas that are very light and others that are quite dark.\r\n\r\nIf you look closely at a mound of dark earth, you notice that it has several different values. If a fresh layer of snow covered this mound of earth, there would still be lots of values. When you can see a range of different values you can draw your subject in the third dimension.\r\n<h3>Squinting to see values and simple shapes</h3>\r\nSeeing values is key to drawing in the third dimension. Many artists can visually simplify complex drawing subjects by simply squinting their eyes. Squinting helps you screen out details and see simple values and shapes. When you can see the shapes created by different values, you can draw your subject more accurately.\r\n\r\nLook at Figure 4 and squint your eyes until the image seems to go out of focus. Compare the darkest values to the lightest, and try to see the abstract shapes created by the different values.\r\n\r\nThe second drawing shows what you may see when you squint. Take note of the shapes created by the values.\r\n<div class=\"figure\"><img src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/0-7645-5476-X_0604.jpg\" alt=\"\"\" border=\"0\" /></div>\r\n<span class=\"caption\"><strong>Figure 4:</strong> Squinting to see values and shapes.</span>\r\n<h3>Turning colors into values with squinting</h3>\r\nMany drawing media, such as graphite, are designed for black and white drawings. Yet, almost everything in the world is in color. You need to adjust your visual perceptions to see these colors as shades of gray when drawing.\r\n\r\nWouldn't it be nice if you could simply press a button in the middle of your forehead and magically transform the world from full color to gray values? This ability would certainly make drawing a lot easier. Thankfully, simply squinting your eyes can help you develop this skill.\r\n\r\nTry these suggestions to help you train your mind to translate colors into values:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>Look around you at different objects. Focus on only the light and dark areas and not the actual colors. Concentrate on the light and shadows. Then squint your eyes until you see the values of that object. Take a mental note of where the lights and darks are. Think about how you could draw these darks and lights. Don't get discouraged if you can't do it right away. With practice, you get better.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>Find a colored photograph with lots of contrast. Squint your eyes to block out the colors and details. In your sketchbook, draw only the simple shapes and values you see. Add shading with only black, white, a light value, and a middle value.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\nIf your subject has, for example, light-pink and dark-red stripes, seeing two different values in the two colors is easy. You simply draw the dark red as a dark value and the pink as a light value. But some objects have colors that seem to be the same in value. When this is the case, you simply have to rely on your own discretion to decide which colors should be drawn lighter or darker than others. If your subject has stripes of dark green and dark red, you need to pick one to be a lighter value. Otherwise, you end up drawing a solid tone instead of stripes.","description":"Light and shadows visually define objects. Before you can draw the light and shadows you see, you need to train your eyes to see like an artist.\r\n\r\n<em>Values</em> are the different shades of gray between white and black. Artists use values to translate the light and shadows they see into <em>shading,</em> thus creating the illusion of a third dimension.\r\n\r\n<em>Hatching</em> and <em>crosshatching</em> are simple and fun techniques for drawing shading.\r\n\r\nA full range of values is the basic ingredient for shading. When you can draw lots of different values, you can begin to add shading, and therefore depth, to your drawings.\r\n\r\nWith shading, the magical illusion of three-dimensional reality appears on your drawing paper. Figure 1 demonstrates hot to take a simple line drawing of a circle and add shading to transform it into the planet Earth.\r\n<div class=\"figure\"><img src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/0-7645-5476-X_0601.jpg\" alt=\"\"\" border=\"0\" /></div>\r\n<span class=\"caption\"><strong>Figure 1:</strong> Turning a simple line drawing into planet Earth.</span>\r\n\r\nYou know the objects around you are three-dimensional because you can walk up to them, see them from all sides, and touch them. Take a moment to look around you at familiar objects. Try to discover why you see their actual three-dimensional forms. Look for the different values created by the light and shadows.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" >Taking a closer look at light and shadow</h2>\r\nBefore you can draw the appropriate values that illustrate light and shadows correctly, you need to be able to visually identify the following:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Light source:</strong> The direction from which a dominant light originates. The placement of this light source affects every aspect of a drawing.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Shadows: </strong> The areas on an object that receive little or no light.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Cast shadow:</strong> The dark area on an adjacent surface where the light is blocked by the solid object.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<p class=\"Remember\">The light source tells you where to draw all the light values and shadows.</p>\r\n<!-- break -->\r\n\r\nFigure 2 gives you some practice in locating the light source, shadows, and cast shadows around an object, which in this case is a sculpture. As you look at two drawings of the sculpture, ask yourself the following questions:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Where are the light values?</strong> Look for the lightest areas on the object. The very brightest of the lightest values are called <em>highlights.</em></li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Where are the dark values?</strong> Dark values often reveal the sections of the object that are in shadow. By locating shadows, you can usually identify the light source.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Where is the cast shadow?</strong> The section of the cast shadow closest to the object is usually the darkest value in a drawing. By locating an object's cast shadow, you can easily discover the direction from which the light source originates.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<div class=\"figure\"><img src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/0-7645-5476-X_0602.jpg\" alt=\"\"\" border=\"0\" /></div>\r\n<span class=\"caption\"><strong>Figure 2:</strong> Looking for light and dark values and cast shadows.</span>\r\n\r\nThe two drawings in Figure 2 have different light sources. Compare them and find the dominant light source in each.\r\n\r\nIf you guessed that the light is coming from the right in the first drawing, you would be correct. In the second drawing, the light originates from the left.\r\n<p class=\"Tip\">Seeing how a light source affects an actual object is more challenging than examining a drawing. Place an object on a table in a dimly lit room. Shine a powerful flashlight or a lamp (a light source) on the object. Observe it from different perspectives.</p>\r\nEach time you reposition the light source, identify the following:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>The shadows on the object (dark values)</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>The brightest areas (the highlights)</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>The light values (areas closer to the light source or not in shadow)</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>The cast shadow (the darkest values)</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<!-- break -->\r\n<h2 id=\"tab2\" >Exploring contrast in a drawing</h2>\r\n<em>Contrast</em> can be used to make your drawings more three-dimensional by accentuating the light and shadows. By using extremes in values (more light and dark values than middle values) you create a <em>high</em>-<em>contrast </em>drawing. For a really powerful, strong, and dynamic drawing, you can draw very dark shading right next to the light areas.\r\n\r\nWhen a drawing has mostly light and middle values, it is called <em>low contrast.</em> Some drawing subjects need to be soft and gentle. You can create a very soft drawing and still use a full range of values. Think about a white kitten, for example. Most of the shading is very light, but the drawing becomes more powerful if you use a little dark shading in a few selective areas, such as the pupils of the eyes and the shadows.\r\n<p class=\"Remember\">Your drawings can appear flat rather than three-dimensional when you use too little contrast in values. Unless you are trying to achieve a specific mood or want the subject to look flat, always use a full range of values.</p>\r\nFigure 3 helps you see contrast while exercising your vision. Take a few moments to explore the light and shadows in this drawing more closely. The face of the girl is drawn in profile. The boy's face is a frontal view. Notice how the girl's profile is in the shadow of the boy's face.\r\n\r\nThe bright light on the front of her face presents a strong contrast to the dark shadow on the side of his face. This makes for a powerful visual separation even though the two faces seem close together.\r\n<div class=\"figure\"><img src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/0-7645-5476-X_0603.jpg\" alt=\"\"\" border=\"0\" /></div>\r\n<span class=\"caption\"><strong>Figure 3:</strong> High contrast makes a drawing appear more three-dimensional. </span>\r\n<!-- break -->\r\n<h2 id=\"tab3\" >Translating values you see into values you draw</h2>\r\nAlmost everything has more than one value. Depending on the light source, most things have some areas that are very light and others that are quite dark.\r\n\r\nIf you look closely at a mound of dark earth, you notice that it has several different values. If a fresh layer of snow covered this mound of earth, there would still be lots of values. When you can see a range of different values you can draw your subject in the third dimension.\r\n<h3>Squinting to see values and simple shapes</h3>\r\nSeeing values is key to drawing in the third dimension. Many artists can visually simplify complex drawing subjects by simply squinting their eyes. Squinting helps you screen out details and see simple values and shapes. When you can see the shapes created by different values, you can draw your subject more accurately.\r\n\r\nLook at Figure 4 and squint your eyes until the image seems to go out of focus. Compare the darkest values to the lightest, and try to see the abstract shapes created by the different values.\r\n\r\nThe second drawing shows what you may see when you squint. Take note of the shapes created by the values.\r\n<div class=\"figure\"><img src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/0-7645-5476-X_0604.jpg\" alt=\"\"\" border=\"0\" /></div>\r\n<span class=\"caption\"><strong>Figure 4:</strong> Squinting to see values and shapes.</span>\r\n<h3>Turning colors into values with squinting</h3>\r\nMany drawing media, such as graphite, are designed for black and white drawings. Yet, almost everything in the world is in color. You need to adjust your visual perceptions to see these colors as shades of gray when drawing.\r\n\r\nWouldn't it be nice if you could simply press a button in the middle of your forehead and magically transform the world from full color to gray values? This ability would certainly make drawing a lot easier. Thankfully, simply squinting your eyes can help you develop this skill.\r\n\r\nTry these suggestions to help you train your mind to translate colors into values:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>Look around you at different objects. Focus on only the light and dark areas and not the actual colors. Concentrate on the light and shadows. Then squint your eyes until you see the values of that object. Take a mental note of where the lights and darks are. Think about how you could draw these darks and lights. Don't get discouraged if you can't do it right away. With practice, you get better.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>Find a colored photograph with lots of contrast. Squint your eyes to block out the colors and details. In your sketchbook, draw only the simple shapes and values you see. Add shading with only black, white, a light value, and a middle value.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\nIf your subject has, for example, light-pink and dark-red stripes, seeing two different values in the two colors is easy. You simply draw the dark red as a dark value and the pink as a light value. But some objects have colors that seem to be the same in value. When this is the case, you simply have to rely on your own discretion to decide which colors should be drawn lighter or darker than others. If your subject has stripes of dark green and dark red, you need to pick one to be a lighter value. Otherwise, you end up drawing a solid tone instead of stripes.","blurb":"","authors":[],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33668,"title":"General Drawing","slug":"general-drawing","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33668"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[{"label":"Taking a closer look at light and shadow","target":"#tab1"},{"label":"Exploring contrast in a drawing","target":"#tab2"},{"label":"Translating values you see into values you draw","target":"#tab3"}],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[{"articleId":208791,"title":"Figure Drawing For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"figure-drawing-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","art-architecture","drawing","general-drawing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/208791"}},{"articleId":190227,"title":"Fixing Figure Drawing Bloopers","slug":"fixing-figure-drawing-bloopers","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","art-architecture","drawing","general-drawing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/190227"}},{"articleId":190228,"title":"Essential Figure Drawing Supplies","slug":"essential-figure-drawing-supplies","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","art-architecture","drawing","general-drawing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/190228"}},{"articleId":190229,"title":"Portable Figure Drawing Studio Items","slug":"portable-figure-drawing-studio-items","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","art-architecture","drawing","general-drawing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/190229"}},{"articleId":190225,"title":"Great Spots for Studying and Drawing the Figure","slug":"great-spots-for-studying-and-drawing-the-figure","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","art-architecture","drawing","general-drawing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/190225"}}],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":208791,"title":"Figure Drawing For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"figure-drawing-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","art-architecture","drawing","general-drawing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/208791"}},{"articleId":208723,"title":"Drawing For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"drawing-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","art-architecture","drawing","general-drawing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/208723"}},{"articleId":203238,"title":"Five Coloring Pages Suitable for Adults","slug":"5-coloring-pages-suitable-for-adults","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","art-architecture","drawing","general-drawing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/203238"}},{"articleId":203191,"title":"Five Mandalas to Color","slug":"5-mandalas-to-color","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","art-architecture","drawing","general-drawing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/203191"}},{"articleId":200447,"title":"Drawing Geometric Perspective","slug":"drawing-geometric-perspective","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","art-architecture","drawing","general-drawing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/200447"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":282197,"slug":"figure-drawing-for-dummies","isbn":"9780470390733","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","art-architecture","drawing","general-drawing"],"amazon":{"default":"//www.amazon.com/gp/product/0470390735/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","ca":"//www.amazon.ca/gp/product/0470390735/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","indigo_ca":"//www.tkqlhce.com/click-9208661-13710633?url=//www.chapters.indigo.ca/en-ca/books/product/0470390735-item.html&cjsku=978111945484","gb":"//www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/0470390735/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","de":"//www.amazon.de/gp/product/0470390735/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20"},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/figure-drawing-for-dummies-cover-9780470390733-203x255.jpg","width":203,"height":255},"title":"Figure Drawing For Dummies","testBankPinActivationLink":"","bookOutOfPrint":false,"authorsInfo":"<p>Kensuke Okabayashi is an award-winning professional artist. His work can be seen in everything from comic books to graphic novels to advertising storyboards. Okabayashi has taught illustration courses at Mercer College of New Jersey.</p>","authors":[{"authorId":10258,"name":"Kensuke Okabayashi","slug":"kensuke-okabayashi","description":" <p>Kensuke Okabayashi is an award-winning professional artist. His work can be seen in everything from comic books to graphic novels to advertising storyboards. Okabayashi has taught illustration courses at Mercer College of New Jersey.</p> ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/10258"}}],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/books/"}},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;art-architecture&quot;,&quot;drawing&quot;,&quot;general-drawing&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9780470390733&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-6537dc2f1cc9b\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;art-architecture&quot;,&quot;drawing&quot;,&quot;general-drawing&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9780470390733&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-6537dc2f1d49c\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Articles","articleList":null,"content":null,"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Explore","lifeExpectancy":"Two years","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2022-11-11T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":200446},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2017-03-27T09:00:06+00:00","modifiedTime":"2024-10-24T13:52:45+00:00","timestamp":"2024-10-24T15:01:03+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Academics & The Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"Art & Architecture","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33663"},"slug":"art-architecture","categoryId":33663},{"name":"Drawing","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33666"},"slug":"drawing","categoryId":33666},{"name":"General Drawing","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33668"},"slug":"general-drawing","categoryId":33668}],"title":"Five Mandalas to Color","strippedTitle":"five mandalas to color","slug":"5-mandalas-to-color","canonicalUrl":"","搜所刹车系统改善方案":{"metaDescription":"You can download these five Mandala drawings to color. You will need fine-tipped pencils or markers for the very intricate ones.","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"Here, you’ll find five downloadable mandalas to color. You can color the more basic images with less detail with crayons or markers, but the incredibly detailed mandalas might require a steady hand and a fine-tip marker or pencil. Color them however you’d like.","description":"Here, you’ll find five downloadable mandalas to color. You can color the more basic images with less detail with crayons or markers, but the incredibly detailed mandalas might require a steady hand and a fine-tip marker or pencil. Color them however you’d like.","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":8947,"name":"The Experts at Dummies","slug":"the-experts-at-dummies","description":"The Experts at Dummies are smart, friendly people who make learning easy by taking a not-so-serious approach to serious stuff.","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/8947"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33668,"title":"General Drawing","slug":"general-drawing","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33668"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":208791,"title":"Figure Drawing For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"figure-drawing-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","art-architecture","drawing","general-drawing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/208791"}},{"articleId":208723,"title":"Drawing For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"drawing-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","art-architecture","drawing","general-drawing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/208723"}},{"articleId":203238,"title":"Five Coloring Pages Suitable for Adults","slug":"5-coloring-pages-suitable-for-adults","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","art-architecture","drawing","general-drawing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/203238"}},{"articleId":200447,"title":"Drawing Geometric Perspective","slug":"drawing-geometric-perspective","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","art-architecture","drawing","general-drawing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/200447"}},{"articleId":200446,"title":"Light and Shadows in Your Figure Drawings","slug":"drawing-light-and-shadows","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","art-architecture","drawing","general-drawing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/200446"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":0,"slug":null,"isbn":null,"categoryList":null,"amazon":null,"image":null,"title":null,"testBankPinActivationLink":null,"bookOutOfPrint":false,"authorsInfo":null,"authors":null,"_links":null},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;art-architecture&quot;,&quot;drawing&quot;,&quot;general-drawing&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[null]}]\" id=\"du-slot-6537dc2f115e5\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;art-architecture&quot;,&quot;drawing&quot;,&quot;general-drawing&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[null]}]\" id=\"du-slot-6537dc2f11de2\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Step by Step","articleList":null,"content":[{"title":"Check out this mandala, which combines detailed areas in the center with larger spaces on the outer part of the design.","thumb":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/496739.image0.jpg","width":535,"height":535},"content":"<p>Download this <a href=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/9781119220879-cs0101.pdf\">mixed mandala</a> and enjoy both detailed and more basic coloring areas in one!</p>\n"},{"title":"This mandala also mixes detailed areas on the outside with more open areas on the inside.","thumb":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/496740.image1.jpg","width":535,"height":535},"content":"<p>Download and print <a href=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/9781119220879-cs0102.pdf\">this mandala</a> and make it your own.</p>\n"},{"title":"This mandala might remind you of Russian church tops.","thumb":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/496741.image2.jpg","width":535,"height":535},"content":"<p>This <a href=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/9781119220879-cs0103.pdf\">mandala</a> has smooth-flowing lines and outer peaks that resemble Russian steeples.</p>\n"},{"title":"What do you see in this mandala — flowers and leaves, or smiling cats and bumblebees?","thumb":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/496742.image3.jpg","width":535,"height":535},"content":"<p>Download <a href=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/9781119220879-cs0104.pdf\">this mandala</a> and use whatever colors you want to bring out your vision.</p>\n"},{"title":"This incredibly detailed mandala will require a steady hand.","thumb":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/496743.image4.jpg","width":535,"height":535},"content":"<p>Download this <a href=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/9781119220879-cs0105.pdf\">detailed mandala</a> and get out the fine-tip markers.</p>\n"}],"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Explore","lifeExpectancy":"Five years","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2022-11-12T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":203191},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2017-03-27T16:54:35+00:00","modifiedTime":"2024-09-06T17:52:17+00:00","timestamp":"2024-09-06T18:01:22+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Academics & The 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Here's a handy guide to the supplies you'll need, how to find inspiration, and some drawing styles.","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"Discover everything you need to know to get started with drawing, including what supplies and styles to use to create different types of drawings. You'll also find ways to come up with ideas about what to draw.","description":"Discover everything you need to know to get started with drawing, including what supplies and styles to use to create different types of drawings. You'll also find ways to come up with ideas about what to draw.","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":35326,"name":"Jamie Platt","slug":"jamie-platt","description":"<strong>Jamie Platt</strong> is an artist and director of the art galleries at the University of Central Missouri, where she sees her role as helping to bring people together over art. Platt has an MFA in painting from Indiana University, in Bloomington Indiana and a BFA in painting from Kendall College of Art &amp; Design in Grand Rapids, Michigan. She has exhibited her work widely, including recent exhibitions at Manifest in Cincinnati, Ohio, the Huntington Museum of Art in Huntington, West Virginia, and Blue Mountain Gallery in New York City.","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/35326"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33668,"title":"General Drawing","slug":"general-drawing","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33668"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[{"articleId":189261,"title":"Get Started Drawing with Basic Supplies","slug":"get-started-drawing-with-basic-supplies","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","art-architecture","drawing","general-drawing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/189261"}},{"articleId":189260,"title":"How to Identify Common Drawing Styles","slug":"how-to-identify-common-drawing-styles","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","art-architecture","drawing","general-drawing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/189260"}},{"articleId":189236,"title":"How to Find Drawing Inspiration","slug":"how-to-find-drawing-inspiration","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","art-architecture","drawing","general-drawing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/189236"}}],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":208791,"title":"Figure Drawing For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"figure-drawing-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","art-architecture","drawing","general-drawing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/208791"}},{"articleId":203238,"title":"Five Coloring Pages Suitable for Adults","slug":"5-coloring-pages-suitable-for-adults","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","art-architecture","drawing","general-drawing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/203238"}},{"articleId":203191,"title":"Five Mandalas to Color","slug":"5-mandalas-to-color","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","art-architecture","drawing","general-drawing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/203191"}},{"articleId":200447,"title":"Drawing Geometric Perspective","slug":"drawing-geometric-perspective","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","art-architecture","drawing","general-drawing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/200447"}},{"articleId":200446,"title":"Drawing Light and Shadows","slug":"drawing-light-and-shadows","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","art-architecture","drawing","general-drawing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/200446"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":282160,"slug":"drawing-for-dummies-2nd-edition","isbn":"9781394199198","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","art-architecture","drawing","general-drawing"],"amazon":{"default":"//www.amazon.com/gp/product/1394199198/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","ca":"//www.amazon.ca/gp/product/1394199198/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","indigo_ca":"//www.tkqlhce.com/click-9208661-13710633?url=//www.chapters.indigo.ca/en-ca/books/product/1394199198-item.html&cjsku=978111945484","gb":"//www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/1394199198/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","de":"//www.amazon.de/gp/product/1394199198/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20"},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/drawing-for-dummies-3rd-edition-cover-9781394199198-203x255.jpg","width":203,"height":255},"title":"Drawing For Dummies","testBankPinActivationLink":"","bookOutOfPrint":true,"authorsInfo":"<p><strong><b data-author-id=\"35326\">Jamie Platt</b></strong> is an artist and director of the art galleries at the University of Central Missouri, where she sees her role as helping to bring people together over art. Platt has an MFA in painting from Indiana University, in Bloomington Indiana and a BFA in painting from Kendall College of Art &amp; Design in Grand Rapids, Michigan. She has exhibited her work widely, including recent exhibitions at Manifest in Cincinnati, Ohio, the Huntington Museum of Art in Huntington, West Virginia, and Blue Mountain Gallery in New York City.</p>","authors":[{"authorId":35326,"name":"Jamie Platt","slug":"jamie-platt","description":"<strong>Jamie Platt</strong> is an artist and director of the art galleries at the University of Central Missouri, where she sees her role as helping to bring people together over art. Platt has an MFA in painting from Indiana University, in Bloomington Indiana and a BFA in painting from Kendall College of Art &amp; Design in Grand Rapids, Michigan. She has exhibited her work widely, including recent exhibitions at Manifest in Cincinnati, Ohio, the Huntington Museum of Art in Huntington, West Virginia, and Blue Mountain Gallery in New York City.","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/35326"}}],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/books/"}},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;art-architecture&quot;,&quot;drawing&quot;,&quot;general-drawing&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781394199198&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-64f8be7295940\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;art-architecture&quot;,&quot;drawing&quot;,&quot;general-drawing&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781394199198&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-64f8be7296634\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Cheat Sheet","articleList":[{"articleId":189261,"title":"Get Started Drawing with Basic Supplies","slug":"get-started-drawing-with-basic-supplies","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","art-architecture","drawing","general-drawing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/189261"}},{"articleId":189236,"title":"How to Find Drawing Inspiration","slug":"how-to-find-drawing-inspiration","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","art-architecture","drawing","general-drawing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/189236"}},{"articleId":189260,"title":"How to Identify Common Drawing Styles","slug":"how-to-identify-common-drawing-styles","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","art-architecture","drawing","general-drawing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/189260"}}],"content":[{"title":"Get started drawing with basic supplies","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>If you’re new to drawing, you’ll want to gather a few must-have supplies. You can get started with any old pencils, erasers, rulers, and paper, but you’re going to be amazed at how much more you can do and how much faster you can grow with some artist quality drawing supplies. Don’t worry – you don’t have to sell your baseball card collection to get these!</p>\n<p>Here is a basic artist quality drawing toolkit you’ll want to gather as you get started:</p>\n<ul>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><strong>Three to five pencils in a variety of grades:</strong> Drawing pencils come in a wide range of grades. The grade of a pencil indicates its softness. The softness of a pencil controls the darkness of its marks.</p>\n<p class=\"child-para\">A very soft pencil makes a very dark mark because it leaves more graphite on the paper than a harder pencil. A very hard pencil leaves less graphite on the paper and therefore makes a lighter mark.</p>\n<p class=\"child-para\">Harder pencils are given grades from H to 9H, with 9H being the hardest. Softer pencils are given grades from B to 9B, with 9B being the softest. An HB pencil is in the middle of the range.</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n<div class=\"figure-container\"><figure id=\"attachment_300473\" aria-labelledby=\"figcaption_attachment_300473\" class=\"wp-caption alignnone\" style=\"width: 467px\"><img loading=\"lazy\" class=\"size-full wp-image-300473\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/graphite-pencil-range.jpg\" alt=\"Chart with shaded areas to show graphite pencil grades\" width=\"457\" height=\"400\" /><figcaption id=\"figcaption_attachment_300473\" class=\"wp-caption-text\">©John Wiley &amp; Sons, Inc.<br />This handy chart is a guide for the range of values of 16 popular graphite pencil grades.</figcaption></figure></div><div class=\"clearfix\"></div>\n<p class=\"article-tips tip\">A good range to begin with is the 2H, HB, 2B, 4B, and 6B pencils. If you buy only three, try the 2H, 2B, and 4B pencils.</p>\n<ul>\n<li><strong>Erasers: </strong>There are lots of different kinds of erasers, each suited to different jobs. Start with one rectangular vinyl eraser and one kneaded eraser. A vinyl eraser is a hard, white eraser. It’s an excellent choice when you want to erase graphite or charcoal completely. A kneaded eraser is a soft, moldable gray eraser.\n<ul>\n<li>Choose a kneaded eraser when you want to lighten something drawn with graphite or charcoal, without disturbing the whole drawing. Kneaded erasers come out of the package pretty stiff. Just spend some time kneading it in your hand and soon it’ll be soft and pliable.</li>\n<li>When it’s ready, try using it to lighten part of one of your drawings. Gently press the eraser on the part you want to lighten and then lift it up to see how you did. If it’s still not light enough, press and lift again. Repeat as needed.</li>\n</ul>\n</li>\n<li><strong>Ruler and plastic triangle: </strong>Get a 12- or 18-inch clear plastic ruler and a 10- or 12-inch plastic triangle with one right angle. Rulers are helpful for drawing straight lines. A clear plastic ruler is a good choice because you can see through it in case you need to make sure something is lining up with something else. You can use a plastic triangle as a guide to draw right angles of any size.</li>\n<li><strong>Paper: </strong>You’re going to use lots of paper. Buy a sketchbook with at least 50 sheets. A good size is 9 inches by 12 inches, because it’s small enough to stow in your bag for the day but large enough that you’re not limited to tiny sketches.</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"Finding inspiration","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>If you ever feel like you’re out of ideas, don&#8217;t fret. Artist’s block can strike at any time. Fortunately, inspiration can strike anytime, too! You just have to know where to look. To unclog your creative flow, try these tips:</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Go for a walk (or just sit outside for a while) to clear your mind and gather new sensory stimulation. </b>While you’re out, look around. Take in everything you can about your surroundings: light, colors, shapes, sounds, smells, temperature, and so on.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Look at art made by others to get ideas for your own.</b> Looking at art is like food for an artist. You just need it. Visit a local art museum or gallery. Go to the library and browse the art books. Get online and type <i>drawings</i> into a search engine.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Make an inspiration wall or journal.</b> Fill it with postcards, photographs, sketches, and anything else that strikes you. Anytime you find an image you like in a newspaper or magazine, clip it out and add it to your collection. When you do have ideas, make note of them to use later.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>If an idea just won’t come, don’t force it.</b> Do something else for a while to take your mind off drawing. In no time, the ideas will come flooding back in.</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"How to identify common drawing styles","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Style in drawing is a collection of attributes that make drawings unique. Each period in the history of art is characterized by the style trends in artmaking.</p>\n<p>Generally, the dominant style of any period in art history is identified by critics and art historians who determine when a dominant trend marks a shift from the dominant trends before it. It is also true that such trends in the story of visual art are often part of their broader sociopolitical moment.</p>\n<p>For example, the Baroque period, which includes such iconoclastic visual artists as Artemisia Gentileschi and Caravaggio, also refers to trends in architecture, decorative arts, music, and writing of the time.</p>\n<p>The characteristics shared by creative works produced in the Baroque period have in the aggregate become a style that is a shorthand for describing creative works that have traits in common with Baroque masterpieces.</p>\n<p>It is important to note that in every period of art history, including the Baroque, there were, as there are now, artists whose work does not fit in with the dominant style of its period.</p>\n<p>Fitting into a dominant style is great if it suits who you are or want to be. Beware of giving &#8220;fitting in&#8221; outsized importance. The small group of artists we now know as the Impressionists were outliers to the dominant style. When they emerged, people scoffed at them.</p>\n<p class=\"article-tips remember\">You can spend your whole life chasing trends but no one ever really knows when the next big thing is going to set the world aflame. It could be you. Have fun trying on other people’s styles and remember to take what works and leave the rest. You can’t go wrong by being true to who you are and watching how you grow.</p>\n<p>Here are common drawing styles:</p>\n<ul>\n<li><strong>Abstraction/Nonrepresentational:</strong> Artists who work in an abstract style make drawings that are usually about shape, line, value, color, and/or texture. Some artists whose work features abstract or nonrepresentational styles of drawing include Alma Thomas, Corita Kent, Anni Albers, and Al Held.</li>\n<li><strong>Art Nouveau: </strong>Artists who work in an Art Nouveau style make drawings that are illusionistic but primarily flat, that are highly pattern driven, and that usually incorporate fluid, curving lines. Practitioners of art nouveau include Alice Russell Glenny, Margaret Macdonald, Gustav Klimt, and Alphonse Mucha.</li>\n<li><strong>Comics:</strong> Artists who make comics use a wide range of drawing techniques. One thing they have in common is that they use drawings to tell stories. Comics are generally drawn in ink. They may be in color or black and white. If you are curious about comics, be sure to check out Alison Bechdel, Aaron McGruder, Keith Knight, Robb Armstrong, Bianca Xunise, Lynda Barry, Roz Chast, Darrin Bell, Charles Schultz, and Gary Larson.</li>\n<li><strong>Manga: </strong>Manga is a Japanese comic book style developed in 19th-century Japan. Though manga could be included in the comics drawing style, it is such a distinctive style of comic art with a deep and wide history that it needs its own category. Practitioners of manga include Yoshitoki Oima, Maoko Takeuchi, Osamu Tezuka, and Machiko Hasegawa.</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><strong>Impressionism and post-impressionism:</strong> Impressionism was a name given by an art critic to a group of artists who exhibited work together as an act of rebellion against the dominant art establishment of late 19th century France. These artists were more interested in capturing effects of light than rendering realistic depictions of form.</p>\n<p class=\"child-para\">Post-impressionists carried on with the project of capturing effects of light, particularly as it relates to color perception. Focusing on effects of light falling on forms instead of focusing on the forms themselves resulted in artwork that is characterized by active mark making that caused the art critic who named impressionism to say that the work wasn’t art but just an impression.</p>\n<p class=\"child-para\">Pioneers of impressionism include Mary Cassatt and Berthe Morisot. Artists commonly associated with post-impressionism include Georges Seurat, Paul Cézanne, and Vincent van Gogh. Artists who work in the manner of the impressionists and post-impressionists are typically enamored by the characteristic expressive mark-making of these styles.</p>\n</li>\n<li><strong>Realism:</strong> When artists draw convincing representations of reality, the style is called realism. Practitioners of realism include Leonardo da Vinci, Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, Elizabeth Catlett, Alice Neel, and Käthe Kollwitz.</li>\n<li><strong>Surrealism:</strong> Artists who draw dreamlike and sometimes startling works based on pure imagination are practicing surrealism. Practitioners of surrealism include Remedios Varo, Leonora Carrington, Salvador Dalí, Marcel Duchamp, and Yves Tanguy.</li>\n</ul>\n"}],"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Explore","lifeExpectancy":"Five years","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2024-09-05T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":208723},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2017-03-26T07:17:03+00:00","modifiedTime":"2024-03-22T16:46:36+00:00","timestamp":"2024-03-22T18:01:03+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Academics & The Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"Art & Architecture","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33663"},"slug":"art-architecture","categoryId":33663},{"name":"Drawing","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33666"},"slug":"drawing","categoryId":33666},{"name":"General Drawing","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33668"},"slug":"general-drawing","categoryId":33668}],"title":"What Are Mandalas?","strippedTitle":"what are mandalas?","slug":"what-are-mandalas","canonicalUrl":"","搜所刹车系统改善方案":{"metaDescription":"In the trend of coloring as a form of relaxation, one of the most popular types of patterns to color is the mandala. Mandalas are usually circular geometric pat","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"In the trend of coloring as a form of relaxation, one of the most popular types of patterns to color is the mandala. Mandalas are usually circular geometric patterns. Some people find the drawing and coloring of a mandala as a form of meditation. As they focus on coloring in the patterns of the form, they relax, their mind grows quiet, and they may enter into a spiritual space.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" >What exactly is a mandala?</h2>\r\nA <i>mandala</i> is a spiritual symbol in Buddhism and Hinduism. It's a symbolic representation of the universe with an inner and outer world. The word <i>mandala</i> comes from Sanskrit, an ancient Indian language. Literally mandala means \"circle.\" The circle is seen as a magical form, without beginning and end, just as the universe is believed to have no end.\r\n\r\nThe Sanskrit word <i>mandala</i> indicates everything that is round or circular. In tantric traditions, it often refers to a sacred space, which can be round or square or any other form. Deities are invited to enter this space by uttering powerful words <i>(mantras).</i>\r\n\r\nThe prototype of the mandala is a square with four gates containing a circle with a central point. Often the mandala is also in an outer circle. This basic form can be found in many ancient mandalas, but there are many more variants. The mandala can also be filled with all kinds of patterns: geometric figures, Buddhist saints, flowers, you name it.\r\n\r\n<img src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/496736.image0.jpg\" alt=\"image0.jpg\" width=\"535\" height=\"535\" />\r\n\r\nThe mandala is used as an object to focus your attention on while meditating. Because of the symmetrical shape, your attention is directed to the center. People in the Western world often used a freer form of the mandala, which is more reflective of the inner self and the unconscious self. Regardless of what mandala you use, coloring it can be very meditative and relaxing.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab2\" >Why coloring mandalas is for everyone</h2>\r\nYou don't have to be Buddhist to color mandalas. It's an activity everyone can enjoy:\r\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Children:</b> Because the mandala isn't a literal representation of reality, children can fully enjoy their creativity. They don't have to worry about choosing the right color green for the trees or what color blue the sky should be. The mandala can have all the colors of the rainbow. Or just their favorite color. Coloring a mandala is an excellent way to end a busy class and help children unwind.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Adults:</b> Everyone has had those days when your head overflows and your thoughts just seem to keep running in circles. Coloring a mandala for an hour may help you calm down. By focusing only on the pattern and colors, your mind may become wonderfully empty. You come to rest for a little while.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Elderly:</b> For the elderly, coloring mandalas may help you keep your memory in shape. The repetitive nature of many mandalas allows you to create beautiful symmetrical patterns, but you must concentrate to ensure that your colors are symmetrical (if that is, indeed, your goal). Remaining focused on a creative endeavor of this sort may keep your mind sharp.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n</ul>\r\nFinally, you may not think at first glance that coloring mandalas is something that can be done in a group, but it's a great activity to do with friends or relatives. Make a photocopy of a mandala that everyone can work on at once and go to town. Or give everyone their own copy of the same mandala and see how people come up with different colors and patterns for the same design. You can also just pass out different mandalas and enjoy being creative together.","description":"In the trend of coloring as a form of relaxation, one of the most popular types of patterns to color is the mandala. Mandalas are usually circular geometric patterns. Some people find the drawing and coloring of a mandala as a form of meditation. As they focus on coloring in the patterns of the form, they relax, their mind grows quiet, and they may enter into a spiritual space.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" >What exactly is a mandala?</h2>\r\nA <i>mandala</i> is a spiritual symbol in Buddhism and Hinduism. It's a symbolic representation of the universe with an inner and outer world. The word <i>mandala</i> comes from Sanskrit, an ancient Indian language. Literally mandala means \"circle.\" The circle is seen as a magical form, without beginning and end, just as the universe is believed to have no end.\r\n\r\nThe Sanskrit word <i>mandala</i> indicates everything that is round or circular. In tantric traditions, it often refers to a sacred space, which can be round or square or any other form. Deities are invited to enter this space by uttering powerful words <i>(mantras).</i>\r\n\r\nThe prototype of the mandala is a square with four gates containing a circle with a central point. Often the mandala is also in an outer circle. This basic form can be found in many ancient mandalas, but there are many more variants. The mandala can also be filled with all kinds of patterns: geometric figures, Buddhist saints, flowers, you name it.\r\n\r\n<img src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/496736.image0.jpg\" alt=\"image0.jpg\" width=\"535\" height=\"535\" />\r\n\r\nThe mandala is used as an object to focus your attention on while meditating. Because of the symmetrical shape, your attention is directed to the center. People in the Western world often used a freer form of the mandala, which is more reflective of the inner self and the unconscious self. Regardless of what mandala you use, coloring it can be very meditative and relaxing.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab2\" >Why coloring mandalas is for everyone</h2>\r\nYou don't have to be Buddhist to color mandalas. It's an activity everyone can enjoy:\r\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Children:</b> Because the mandala isn't a literal representation of reality, children can fully enjoy their creativity. They don't have to worry about choosing the right color green for the trees or what color blue the sky should be. The mandala can have all the colors of the rainbow. Or just their favorite color. Coloring a mandala is an excellent way to end a busy class and help children unwind.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Adults:</b> Everyone has had those days when your head overflows and your thoughts just seem to keep running in circles. Coloring a mandala for an hour may help you calm down. By focusing only on the pattern and colors, your mind may become wonderfully empty. You come to rest for a little while.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Elderly:</b> For the elderly, coloring mandalas may help you keep your memory in shape. The repetitive nature of many mandalas allows you to create beautiful symmetrical patterns, but you must concentrate to ensure that your colors are symmetrical (if that is, indeed, your goal). Remaining focused on a creative endeavor of this sort may keep your mind sharp.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n</ul>\r\nFinally, you may not think at first glance that coloring mandalas is something that can be done in a group, but it's a great activity to do with friends or relatives. Make a photocopy of a mandala that everyone can work on at once and go to town. Or give everyone their own copy of the same mandala and see how people come up with different colors and patterns for the same design. You can also just pass out different mandalas and enjoy being creative together.","blurb":"","authors":[],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33668,"title":"General Drawing","slug":"general-drawing","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33668"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[{"label":"What exactly is a mandala?","target":"#tab1"},{"label":"Why coloring mandalas is for everyone","target":"#tab2"}],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":208791,"title":"Figure Drawing For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"figure-drawing-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","art-architecture","drawing","general-drawing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/208791"}},{"articleId":208723,"title":"Drawing For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"drawing-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","art-architecture","drawing","general-drawing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/208723"}},{"articleId":203238,"title":"Five Coloring Pages Suitable for Adults","slug":"5-coloring-pages-suitable-for-adults","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","art-architecture","drawing","general-drawing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/203238"}},{"articleId":203191,"title":"Five Mandalas to Color","slug":"5-mandalas-to-color","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","art-architecture","drawing","general-drawing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/203191"}},{"articleId":200447,"title":"Drawing Geometric Perspective","slug":"drawing-geometric-perspective","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","art-architecture","drawing","general-drawing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/200447"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":0,"slug":null,"isbn":null,"categoryList":null,"amazon":null,"image":null,"title":null,"testBankPinActivationLink":null,"bookOutOfPrint":false,"authorsInfo":null,"authors":null,"_links":null},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;art-architecture&quot;,&quot;drawing&quot;,&quot;general-drawing&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[null]}]\" id=\"du-slot-641b425f4beea\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;art-architecture&quot;,&quot;drawing&quot;,&quot;general-drawing&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[null]}]\" id=\"du-slot-641b425f4c60d\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Articles","articleList":null,"content":null,"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Explore","lifeExpectancy":"Five years","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2022-11-12T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":139717},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2017-03-27T16:55:01+00:00","modifiedTime":"2023-04-19T20:43:19+00:00","timestamp":"2023-09-14T18:19:38+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Academics & The Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"Art & Architecture","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33663"},"slug":"art-architecture","categoryId":33663},{"name":"Drawing","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33666"},"slug":"drawing","categoryId":33666},{"name":"General Drawing","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33668"},"slug":"general-drawing","categoryId":33668}],"title":"Figure Drawing For Dummies Cheat Sheet","strippedTitle":"figure drawing for dummies cheat sheet","slug":"figure-drawing-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","canonicalUrl":"","搜所刹车系统改善方案":{"metaDescription":"Discover the steps to drawing people, including using the correct art supplies and finding locations to draw in public settings.","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"Learning how to draw people is a process that starts with purchasing the right art supplies. Try a simple method for drawing a human head and if you make a figure drawing mistake, use some quick techniques to fix the problem. Drawing people in public settings is fun and relaxing, so consider this list of inspiration spots — just be sure to take the supplies you need with you.","description":"Learning how to draw people is a process that starts with purchasing the right art supplies. Try a simple method for drawing a human head and if you make a figure drawing mistake, use some quick techniques to fix the problem. Drawing people in public settings is fun and relaxing, so consider this list of inspiration spots — just be sure to take the supplies you need with you.","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":10258,"name":"Kensuke Okabayashi","slug":"kensuke-okabayashi","description":" <p>Kensuke Okabayashi is an award-winning professional artist. His work can be seen in everything from comic books to graphic novels to advertising storyboards. Okabayashi has taught illustration courses at Mercer College of New Jersey.</p> ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/10258"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33668,"title":"General Drawing","slug":"general-drawing","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33668"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33667,"title":"Fashion Drawing","slug":"fashion-drawing","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33667"}},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[{"articleId":190227,"title":"Fixing Figure Drawing Bloopers","slug":"fixing-figure-drawing-bloopers","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","art-architecture","drawing","general-drawing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/190227"}},{"articleId":190228,"title":"Essential Figure Drawing Supplies","slug":"essential-figure-drawing-supplies","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","art-architecture","drawing","general-drawing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/190228"}},{"articleId":190229,"title":"Portable Figure Drawing Studio Items","slug":"portable-figure-drawing-studio-items","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","art-architecture","drawing","general-drawing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/190229"}},{"articleId":190225,"title":"Great Spots for Studying and Drawing the Figure","slug":"great-spots-for-studying-and-drawing-the-figure","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","art-architecture","drawing","general-drawing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/190225"}},{"articleId":190226,"title":"A Simple Way to Draw the Head","slug":"a-simple-way-to-draw-the-head","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","art-architecture","drawing","general-drawing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/190226"}}],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":208723,"title":"Drawing For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"drawing-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","art-architecture","drawing","general-drawing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/208723"}},{"articleId":203238,"title":"Five Coloring Pages Suitable for Adults","slug":"5-coloring-pages-suitable-for-adults","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","art-architecture","drawing","general-drawing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/203238"}},{"articleId":203191,"title":"Five Mandalas to Color","slug":"5-mandalas-to-color","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","art-architecture","drawing","general-drawing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/203191"}},{"articleId":200446,"title":"Drawing Light and Shadows","slug":"drawing-light-and-shadows","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","art-architecture","drawing","general-drawing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/200446"}},{"articleId":200447,"title":"Drawing Geometric Perspective","slug":"drawing-geometric-perspective","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","art-architecture","drawing","general-drawing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/200447"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":282197,"slug":"figure-drawing-for-dummies","isbn":"9780470390733","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","art-architecture","drawing","general-drawing"],"amazon":{"default":"//www.amazon.com/gp/product/0470390735/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","ca":"//www.amazon.ca/gp/product/0470390735/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","indigo_ca":"//www.tkqlhce.com/click-9208661-13710633?url=//www.chapters.indigo.ca/en-ca/books/product/0470390735-item.html&cjsku=978111945484","gb":"//www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/0470390735/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","de":"//www.amazon.de/gp/product/0470390735/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20"},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/figure-drawing-for-dummies-cover-9780470390733-203x255.jpg","width":203,"height":255},"title":"Figure Drawing For Dummies","testBankPinActivationLink":"","bookOutOfPrint":false,"authorsInfo":"<p>Kensuke Okabayashi is an award-winning professional artist. His work can be seen in everything from comic books to graphic novels to advertising storyboards. Okabayashi has taught illustration courses at Mercer College of New Jersey.</p>","authors":[{"authorId":10258,"name":"Kensuke Okabayashi","slug":"kensuke-okabayashi","description":" <p>Kensuke Okabayashi is an award-winning professional artist. His work can be seen in everything from comic books to graphic novels to advertising storyboards. Okabayashi has taught illustration courses at Mercer College of New Jersey.</p> ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/10258"}}],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/books/"}},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;art-architecture&quot;,&quot;drawing&quot;,&quot;general-drawing&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9780470390733&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-63221b3a9dd6e\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;art-architecture&quot;,&quot;drawing&quot;,&quot;general-drawing&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9780470390733&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-63221b3a9e76f\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Cheat Sheet","articleList":[{"articleId":190228,"title":"Essential Figure Drawing Supplies","slug":"essential-figure-drawing-supplies","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","art-architecture","drawing","general-drawing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/190228"}},{"articleId":190229,"title":"Portable Figure Drawing Studio Items","slug":"portable-figure-drawing-studio-items","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","art-architecture","drawing","general-drawing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/190229"}},{"articleId":190225,"title":"Great Spots for Studying and Drawing the Figure","slug":"great-spots-for-studying-and-drawing-the-figure","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","art-architecture","drawing","general-drawing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/190225"}},{"articleId":190226,"title":"A Simple Way to Draw the Head","slug":"a-simple-way-to-draw-the-head","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","art-architecture","drawing","general-drawing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/190226"}},{"articleId":190227,"title":"Fixing Figure Drawing Bloopers","slug":"fixing-figure-drawing-bloopers","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","art-architecture","drawing","general-drawing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/190227"}}],"content":[{"title":"Essential figure drawing supplies","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>You don’t have to feel overwhelmed when you walk into the art supplies store to buy your figure drawing materials. Remember to buy the supplies based on your budget and needs. (You can always buy more!) Arm yourself with this list of the basic supplies you need for figure drawing in a studio:</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Drawing pad (18 x 24 inches)</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Tracing paper</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Drawing pencils</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Soft vine charcoal</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Markers</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Kneaded and plastic erasers</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Pencil sharpeners</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">X-Acto blades</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Sandpaper</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Rulers (straight edge and triangle)</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">A composition grid</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Artists tape</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Spray fixative</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Drafting lamp</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Drawing table</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Drafting chair</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Side table</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Archival boxes and folders</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Egg timer</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"Portable figure drawing studio items","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Once in a while, step out of your art studio for a breath of fresh air. An occasional change of physical and psychological scenery is essential for figure drawing. Besides your figure drawing pad and tools, pack up the following supplies:</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Drawing backboard with clip</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Portfolio case</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Carrying case for your drawing tools</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Paper towels/baby wipes (for cleaning up after yourself)</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Portable folding chair</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Baseball cap</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Water and snacks</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Music player</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Blanket</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"Great spots for studying and drawing the figure","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Even the most motivated artist can benefit from outside education and another artist’s input to help with figure drawing. A variety of outside inspiration exists to help you create fresh figure drawing ideas and methods. Here are a few great places for studying and drawing the human form:</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Continuing education classes and art schools</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Open sessions at your local art institution</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Art galleries and museums</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Trains and other mass transportation</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Bookstores and coffee shops</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Libraries</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Parks</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Beaches</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Shopping malls</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Public squares</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"A simple way to draw the head","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>If you want to build your figure drawing confidence, put down the drawing tools and use the freehand method to draw the basic structure of the head. Just follow these basic steps:</p>\n<ol class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Draw an oval shape that resembles an upside-down egg.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Draw a horizontal line and a vertical line to form a cross that divides the oval evenly.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Place two small circles along the horizontal guideline for the center of the eyes and lightly draw an arc above each circle; the width of the arc shouldn’t be more than one-fifth of the width of the head.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Draw a slightly larger arc above each eye to indicate the eyebrow; make sure that each arc slightly angles down toward the center of the guidelines.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Draw a small concave arc for the nose so that the bottom of the arc is about halfway between the horizontal guideline and the bottom of the chin; make the width of the arc about one eye width.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Indicate the mouth with a line halfway between the bottom of the nose and the bottom of the chin; place the line symmetrically along the vertical guideline.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Draw a <em>C</em> shape on each side of the head for each ear; the top of the ear shouldn’t go past the top of the eye and the bottom of the ear shouldn’t go past the nose.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Draw two short parallel lines for the neck, starting each line from the bottom of each <em>C</em> ear shape; the length of each line should be half of the length of the head.</p>\n</li>\n</ol>\n"},{"title":"Fixing figure drawing bloopers","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Even the most experienced artists make mistakes in their work. Fortunately if you make a figure drawing mistake it doesn’t have to be completely removed to maintain the integrity of your drawing. Here are some clever techniques for fixing figure drawing bloopers:</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Use a kneaded eraser (the advantage is that you have no eraser dust).</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">For correcting darker lines, use the end of a plastic eraser.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Rub out the mistakes by using a soft cloth.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Use your finger to smudge lighter blooper lines.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Use darker lines to trace over the lighter blooper lines without erasing.</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n"}],"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Explore","lifeExpectancy":"Two years","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2023-04-19T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":208791},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2017-03-27T16:56:59+00:00","modifiedTime":"2023-03-25T13:23:50+00:00","timestamp":"2023-09-14T18:19:30+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Academics & The Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"Art & Architecture","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33663"},"slug":"art-architecture","categoryId":33663},{"name":"Drawing","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33666"},"slug":"drawing","categoryId":33666},{"name":"Manga","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/34350"},"slug":"manga","categoryId":34350}],"title":"Manga For Dummies Cheat Sheet","strippedTitle":"manga for dummies cheat sheet","slug":"manga-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","canonicalUrl":"","搜所刹车系统改善方案":{"metaDescription":"Learn the common manga archetypes and genres, and, if you're exhibiting at a manga convention, what you should bring.","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"The Japanese comics and cartoons known as manga bring a unique style to age-old art forms. Like the art forms that precede it, manga works within specific archetypes and genres. However, the manga conventions are a new twist, and if you’re exhibiting at one you need to know what to bring.","description":"The Japanese comics and cartoons known as manga bring a unique style to age-old art forms. Like the art forms that precede it, manga works within specific archetypes and genres. However, the manga conventions are a new twist, and if you’re exhibiting at one you need to know what to bring.","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":10258,"name":"Kensuke Okabayashi","slug":"kensuke-okabayashi","description":" <p>Kensuke Okabayashi is an award-winning professional artist. His work can be seen in everything from comic books to graphic novels to advertising storyboards. Okabayashi has taught illustration courses at Mercer College of New Jersey.</p> ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/10258"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":34350,"title":"Manga","slug":"manga","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/34350"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":200589,"title":"Creating Common Manga Characters","slug":"creating-common-manga-characters","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","art-architecture","drawing","manga"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/200589"}},{"articleId":199481,"title":"Constructing Your Manga Plot","slug":"constructing-your-manga-plot","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","art-architecture","drawing","manga"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/199481"}},{"articleId":193553,"title":"Common Manga Archetypes","slug":"common-manga-archetypes","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","art-architecture","drawing","manga"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/193553"}},{"articleId":193543,"title":"Basic Manga Genres","slug":"basic-manga-genres","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","art-architecture","drawing","manga"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/193543"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":0,"slug":null,"isbn":null,"categoryList":null,"amazon":null,"image":null,"title":null,"testBankPinActivationLink":null,"bookOutOfPrint":false,"authorsInfo":null,"authors":null,"_links":null},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;art-architecture&quot;,&quot;drawing&quot;,&quot;manga&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[null]}]\" id=\"du-slot-63221b3262938\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;art-architecture&quot;,&quot;drawing&quot;,&quot;manga&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[null]}]\" id=\"du-slot-63221b326337c\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Cheat Sheet","articleList":[{"articleId":193553,"title":"Common Manga Archetypes","slug":"common-manga-archetypes","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","art-architecture","drawing","manga"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/193553"}},{"articleId":193543,"title":"Basic Manga Genres","slug":"basic-manga-genres","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","art-architecture","drawing","manga"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/193543"}},{"articleId":193541,"title":"Manga Materials to Bring to a Convention","slug":"manga-materials-to-bring-to-a-convention","categoryList":[],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/193541"}}],"content":[{"title":"Common manga archetypes","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>The type of Japanese comics or cartoons called manga has its <i>archetypes</i> — classic examples of the art — just like every other art form. The archetypal characters and plots you encounter in manga generally fall into one of four categories:</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>The good guys:</b></p>\n<ul class=\"level-two\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>The androgynous rookie (main lead): </b>He’s the new kid on the block who’s full of energy and promise. He usually has an androgynous face and hairstyle.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>The sidekick: </b>He, she, or it is the young rookie’s best pal. The two go hand-in-hand and rarely go through a complete manga story by themselves.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>The caring female: </b>She’s the only main, featured female who represents the maternal caregiver and is always around to give emotional support to the young rookie.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>The veteran: </b>He’s the experienced character. He’s not necessarily the strongest, but he has a lot of wisdom and makes sure the young rookie is in check with reality.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>The loyal geek: </b>What he lacks in muscle, he makes up in intelligence and loyalty. He’s the one who stays back at the home base crunching numbers to make sure the team wins.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>The backup: </b>This guy is pure muscle, which makes him the ultimate backup. He’s not the sharpest tool in the shed, but he’ll use his dominating physical presence to help the team.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>The wise one: </b>He’s the sage mentor who’s been around for what seems like forever.</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>The bad guys:</b></p>\n<ul class=\"level-two\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>The handsome icy villain: </b>This type is cunning, deceitful, and drop-dead gorgeous. His attire is simple — he wears a dark cape, but the rest of his costume is one plain color.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>The evil sorceress: </b>She’s clad in dark armor and a bikini, with a dark cape flowing behind her. With her evil magic, there’s no telling what demonic plan she has in mind.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>The awesome warrior: </b>This handsome and muscular giant relies on his strength to get the job done. In addition to a cape, he never leaves without his elaborate armor.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>The military vixen: </b>This lady takes down anyone in charge to get power for herself. She’s beautiful, but her dark attire and evil smile are giveaways that you don’t want to be near her.</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Damsels in distress:</b></p>\n<ul class=\"level-two\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>The “little sister” princess: </b>Picture<b> </b>a younger sister getting in trouble by sticking her nose in other people’s business. The main character has little choice but to go in and bail her out.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>The innocent schoolgirl: </b>She endures harsh treatment at the hands of her captor while the lead character devises a daring way of rescuing her. Don’t worry, she never dies (that would <i>kill</i> the plot).</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>The loyal, selfless damsel: </b>Compared to the Innocent School Girl, this damsel controls her emotions. Despite being tortured, she remains calm and loyal to her team.</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Shôjo style:</b></p>\n<ul class=\"level-two\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>The rags-to-riches girl: </b>Once a commoner or an orphan, this girl is now living a better life. She has to fend off other jealous girls while she tries to capture the heart of her charming prince.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>The knight in shining armor: </b>This gentleman is a handsome dream for any teenage girl. He’s flawless in every aspect, and any girl can come to him for help or comfort.</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"Basic manga genres","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Manga cartoons and comics come in several different styles, geared toward different audiences that range from young children to older readers interested in topical issues. The following list describes each manga genre:</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><strong>Kodomo manga: </strong>Comics for little kids</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><strong>Shōnen manga:</strong> Comics for young teenage boys</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><strong>Shōjo manga:</strong> Comics for young teenage girls</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><strong>Seinen manga: </strong>Comics for young adult males</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><strong>Seijin manga:</strong> Adult comics for males</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><strong>Redisu (lady’s) manga:</strong> Comics for young adult females</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><strong>Dōjinshi manga:</strong> Comic publication that’s written by and for amateurs. Often created for self-promotion</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><strong>Yonkoma manga:</strong> Four-panel comics (usually published in newspapers)</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><strong>Gekiga manga:</strong> Comics focusing on serious topics geared toward mature audiences</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"Manga materials to bring to a convention","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>If you’re promoting your manga or manga-inspired work in an exhibit or at a manga convention, you need to have a balance of freebies and money-makers to hand out as well as equipment for your display. Change and improvise on the following lists to meet your specific needs.</p>\n<table>\n<tbody>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"208\"><strong>Promotional Materials (freebies)</strong></td>\n<td width=\"208\"><strong>Selling Materials</strong></td>\n<td width=\"208\"><strong>Exhibit Essentials</strong></td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"208\">Postcards</td>\n<td width=\"208\">Prints</td>\n<td width=\"208\">Tablecloth</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"208\">Business cards</td>\n<td width=\"208\">T-shirts</td>\n<td width=\"208\">Banners and stands</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"208\">Flyers</td>\n<td width=\"208\">Original art</td>\n<td width=\"208\">Book stands</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"208\">Buttons</td>\n<td width=\"208\">Mini-manga books</td>\n<td width=\"208\">Money box or safe</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"208\">Stickers</td>\n<td width=\"208\">Protective manga and print sleeves</td>\n<td width=\"208\">Inventory checklist</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"208\"></td>\n<td width=\"208\"></td>\n<td width=\"208\">Basic drawing materials</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"208\"></td>\n<td width=\"208\"></td>\n<td width=\"208\">Food</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"208\"></td>\n<td width=\"208\"></td>\n<td width=\"208\">Moving cart and storage boxes</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"208\"></td>\n<td width=\"208\"></td>\n<td width=\"208\">Another warm body</td>\n</tr>\n</tbody>\n</table>\n"}],"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Explore","lifeExpectancy":"One year","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2022-11-12T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":209184},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2017-03-27T16:52:22+00:00","modifiedTime":"2023-02-28T15:42:52+00:00","timestamp":"2023-09-14T18:19:17+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Academics & The Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"Art & Architecture","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33663"},"slug":"art-architecture","categoryId":33663},{"name":"Drawing","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33666"},"slug":"drawing","categoryId":33666},{"name":"Fashion Drawing","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33667"},"slug":"fashion-drawing","categoryId":33667}],"title":"Fashion Drawing For Dummies Cheat Sheet","strippedTitle":"fashion drawing for dummies cheat sheet","slug":"fashion-drawing-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","canonicalUrl":"","搜所刹车系统改善方案":{"metaDescription":"Hone your personal drawing style by mastering the S curve and observing the golden rules of fashion drawing.","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"Fashion drawing is all about attitude, exaggeration, and style. As you develop your fashion illustration skills, infuse your work with personal flair — your signature — to create a look unlike any other. Start by observing the golden rules of fashion drawing, mastering the <i>S</i> curve and other figure drawing techniques, and putting a creative spin on the fashion drawings you create.","description":"Fashion drawing is all about attitude, exaggeration, and style. As you develop your fashion illustration skills, infuse your work with personal flair — your signature — to create a look unlike any other. Start by observing the golden rules of fashion drawing, mastering the <i>S</i> curve and other figure drawing techniques, and putting a creative spin on the fashion drawings you create.","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":9826,"name":"Lisa Arnold","slug":"lisa-arnold","description":" <p>Marianne Egan teaches fashion illustration and design, apparel construction, and more. Lisa Smith Arnold teaches art and drawing, including fashion illustration, at Norwalk Community College.?She has also served as creative coordinator and fashion editor at several major publications. </p> ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9826"}},{"authorId":9827,"name":"Marianne Egan","slug":"marianne-egan","description":" <p>Marianne Egan teaches fashion illustration and design, apparel construction, and more. Lisa Smith Arnold teaches art and drawing, including fashion illustration, at Norwalk Community College.?She has also served as creative coordinator and fashion editor at several major publications. </p> ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9827"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33667,"title":"Fashion Drawing","slug":"fashion-drawing","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33667"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[{"articleId":205085,"title":"Fashion Drawing: How to Sketch a Basic Figure","slug":"fashion-drawing-how-to-sketch-a-basic-figure","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","art-architecture","drawing","fashion-drawing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/205085"}},{"articleId":205083,"title":"How to Slant Shoulders and Hips without Drawing S Curves","slug":"how-to-slant-shoulders-and-hips-without-drawing-s-curves","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","art-architecture","drawing","fashion-drawing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/205083"}},{"articleId":205082,"title":"Create a Basic Stick Figure for Fashion Drawing","slug":"create-a-basic-stick-figure-for-fashion-drawing","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","art-architecture","drawing","fashion-drawing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/205082"}},{"articleId":205081,"title":"How to Sculpt Arms for Male Fashion Figures","slug":"how-to-sculpt-arms-for-male-fashion-figures","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","art-architecture","drawing","fashion-drawing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/205081"}},{"articleId":205080,"title":"How to Draw Fashion Figure Noses","slug":"how-to-draw-fashion-figure-noses","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","art-architecture","drawing","fashion-drawing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/205080"}}],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":205085,"title":"Fashion Drawing: How to Sketch a Basic Figure","slug":"fashion-drawing-how-to-sketch-a-basic-figure","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","art-architecture","drawing","fashion-drawing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/205085"}},{"articleId":205083,"title":"How to Slant Shoulders and Hips without Drawing S Curves","slug":"how-to-slant-shoulders-and-hips-without-drawing-s-curves","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","art-architecture","drawing","fashion-drawing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/205083"}},{"articleId":205082,"title":"Create a Basic Stick Figure for Fashion Drawing","slug":"create-a-basic-stick-figure-for-fashion-drawing","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","art-architecture","drawing","fashion-drawing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/205082"}},{"articleId":205081,"title":"How to Sculpt Arms for Male Fashion Figures","slug":"how-to-sculpt-arms-for-male-fashion-figures","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","art-architecture","drawing","fashion-drawing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/205081"}},{"articleId":205080,"title":"How to Draw Fashion Figure Noses","slug":"how-to-draw-fashion-figure-noses","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","art-architecture","drawing","fashion-drawing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/205080"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":282190,"slug":"fashion-drawing-for-dummies","isbn":"9780470601600","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","art-architecture","drawing","fashion-drawing"],"amazon":{"default":"//www.amazon.com/gp/product/0470601604/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","ca":"//www.amazon.ca/gp/product/0470601604/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","indigo_ca":"//www.tkqlhce.com/click-9208661-13710633?url=//www.chapters.indigo.ca/en-ca/books/product/0470601604-item.html&cjsku=978111945484","gb":"//www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/0470601604/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","de":"//www.amazon.de/gp/product/0470601604/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20"},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/fashion-drawing-for-dummies-cover-9780470601600-203x255.jpg","width":203,"height":255},"title":"Fashion Drawing For Dummies","testBankPinActivationLink":"","bookOutOfPrint":false,"authorsInfo":"<p>Marianne Egan teaches fashion illustration and design, apparel construction, and more. Lisa Smith Arnold teaches art and drawing, including fashion illustration, at Norwalk Community College.?She has also served as creative coordinator and fashion editor at several major publications. </p>","authors":[{"authorId":9826,"name":"Lisa Arnold","slug":"lisa-arnold","description":" <p>Marianne Egan teaches fashion illustration and design, apparel construction, and more. Lisa Smith Arnold teaches art and drawing, including fashion illustration, at Norwalk Community College.?She has also served as creative coordinator and fashion editor at several major publications. </p> ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9826"}},{"authorId":9827,"name":"Marianne Egan","slug":"marianne-egan","description":" <p>Marianne Egan teaches fashion illustration and design, apparel construction, and more. 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When drawing fashion models, remember the following guidelines:</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Know the difference between figure drawing and fashion drawing. In fashion drawing, go for a stylized look over realism. Show just a few key folds or shadows instead of every detail, and leave some white space.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Exaggerate!</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Render proportions appropriate to the model’s gender and age. For adult figures, keep heads small for a graceful look.</p>\n<p class=\"child-para Tip\"><b><i> </i></b>Start with a stick figure to set your pose and proportions and make sure the model looks balanced before you get too far into a drawing.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Diversify your fashion poses and views (front, side, back, and three-quarter) to draw audience interest. Tilt the shoulders and hips to create active poses.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">To avoid a flat look, curve lines with the figure’s body. Have necklines and hemlines wrap around to the back of the figure. Let fabric prints cut off at the seams or disappear over the edges.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Experiment to keep your art fresh.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Know when to fix a drawing, stop it, or scrap it.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Practice, practice, practice.</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"How to draw a basic fashion figure","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Fashion figures need attitude as well as style. Here’s how to draw a basic fashion figure with a look that rules the runway. Start by creating a <i>fashion croquis, </i>or rough sketch of the body:</p>\n<ol class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Lay tracing paper over a full-body picture of a model from a magazine and use a pencil to trace around the perimeter of her body.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Draw lines to show the angles of her shoulders and hips. Trace a center line down the front of her body and draw an oval for the head.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Break your figure down into basic shapes, using two trapezoids for the torso and cylinders for the arms and legs, as in “a” in the figure. Include circles for the elbows and knees.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Remove the tracing paper from your model.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">On a piece of sketch paper, redraw your fashion model freehand, but lengthen the torso, arms, and legs. <b></b>The new figure is taller and narrower and has a smaller head in comparison to the rest of her body. Fashion figures almost always have long, slim torsos and long, slender limbs, which make the clothes look better.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Use a black pen to draw over the areas of the body that you want to show. Erase the pencil lines.</p>\n<p class=\"child-para\">See the “b” figure.</p>\n<div class=\"imageBlock\" style=\"width: 535px;\">\n<p><img loading=\"lazy\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/317833.image0.jpg\" alt=\"Drawing a fashion model freehand with basic lines and shapes.\" width=\"535\" height=\"819\" /></p>\n<div class=\"imageCaption\">Drawing a fashion model freehand with basic lines and shapes.</div>\n</div>\n</li>\n</ol>\n"},{"title":"Developing your own fashion illustration style","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>When you first start drawing fashion illustrations, it’s easiest to imitate someone else’s style. But eventually, you need to develop your own signature look. Try these methods on for drawing style:</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Experiment with exaggeration and play with proportions. Draw attention with outrageous hair or go for a minimalist look.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Specialize in the clothing types you like best.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Study other artists’ work. Borrow design elements from them but don’t copy their style.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Keep up on the latest fashion trends. Read magazines, visit websites, and scope out styles at department stores, boutiques, and vintage shops. Perfect the art of people-watching. Watch old movies and find inspiration in costumes from film and stage.</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n"}],"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Advance","lifeExpectancy":"One 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