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{"appState":{"pageLoadApiCallsStatus":true},"authorState":{"author":{"headers":{"timestamp":"2025-03-18T08:49:08+00:00"},"authorId":9086,"data":{"name":"Lisa Zimmer Hatch","slug":"lisa-zimmer-hatch","description":" Lisa Zimmer Hatch, MA, and Scott A. Hatch, JD, have been helping students excel on standardized tests since 1987. They have written curricula and taught students internationally through live lectures, online forums, DVDs, and independent study, and have authored numerous test-prep texts. ","photo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}}},"authorLoadedStatus":"success"},"listState":{"list":{"count":10,"total":150,"items":[{"headers":{"creationTime":"2017-03-27T16:50:21+00:00","modifiedTime":"2024-10-31T17:42:27+00:00","timestamp":"2024-10-31T18:01:09+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Academics & The Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"Study Skills & Test Prep","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33772"},"slug":"study-skills-test-prep","categoryId":33772},{"name":"GMAT","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33784"},"slug":"gmat","categoryId":33784}],"title":"GMAT Prep For Dummies Cheat Sheet","strippedTitle":"gmat prep for dummies cheat sheet","slug":"gmat-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","canonicalUrl":"","浏览搜寻平台改进":{"metaDescription":"Here are guidelines, tips, and tricks for answering the different parts of the GMAT, including math, integrated reasoning, and reading comprehension.","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"When you take the Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT), make sure you take the required items with you to the test. Use these guidelines to help you get through the integrated reasoning, data sufficiency, quantitative problem solving, reading comprehension, and critical reasoning questions — as well as for writing your analytical essay and conquering integrated reasoning questions.\r\n\r\n[caption id=\"attachment_283522\" align=\"alignnone\" width=\"556\"]<img class=\"size-full wp-image-283522\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/GMAT-graphic.jpg\" alt=\"GMAT\" width=\"556\" height=\"556\" /> © Waldemarus / Shutterstock.com[/caption]","description":"When you take the Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT), make sure you take the required items with you to the test. Use these guidelines to help you get through the integrated reasoning, data sufficiency, quantitative problem solving, reading comprehension, and critical reasoning questions — as well as for writing your analytical essay and conquering integrated reasoning questions.\r\n\r\n[caption id=\"attachment_283522\" align=\"alignnone\" width=\"556\"]<img class=\"size-full wp-image-283522\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/GMAT-graphic.jpg\" alt=\"GMAT\" width=\"556\" height=\"556\" /> © Waldemarus / Shutterstock.com[/caption]","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":9086,"name":"Lisa Zimmer Hatch","slug":"lisa-zimmer-hatch","description":" <p><b>Lisa Zimmer Hatch </b>served as VP of The Center for Legal Studies, where she created standardized test preparation. Currently, she is an Independent College Counselor and president of College Primers.</p> <p><b>Scott A. Hatch</b> develops courses for a variety of careers and assists those seeking advanced degrees in law, business, and other professions. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9086"}},{"authorId":9087,"name":"Scott A. Hatch","slug":"scott-a-hatch","description":" <p><b>Lisa Zimmer Hatch </b>served as VP of The Center for Legal Studies, where she created standardized test preparation. Currently, she is an Independent College Counselor and president of College Primers.</p> <p><b>Scott A. Hatch</b> develops courses for a variety of careers and assists those seeking advanced degrees in law, business, and other professions. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9087"}},{"authorId":11243,"name":"Sandra Luna McCune","slug":"sandra-luna-mccune","description":" <p><b>Lisa Zimmer Hatch </b>served as VP of The Center for Legal Studies, where she created standardized test preparation. Currently, she is an Independent College Counselor and president of College Primers.</p> <p><b>Scott A. Hatch</b> develops courses for a variety of careers and assists those seeking advanced degrees in law, business, and other professions. 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Currently, she is an Independent College Counselor and president of College Primers.</p> <p><b><b data-author-id=\"9087\">Scott A. Hatch</b></b> develops courses for a variety of careers and assists those seeking advanced degrees in law, business, and other professions. <p><b><b data-author-id=\"9086\">Lisa Zimmer Hatch</b> </b>served as VP of The Center for Legal Studies, where she created standardized test preparation. Currently, she is an Independent College Counselor and president of College Primers.</p> <p><b>Scott A. Hatch</b> develops courses for a variety of careers and assists those seeking advanced degrees in law, business, and other professions. <p><b>Lisa Zimmer Hatch </b>served as VP of The Center for Legal Studies, where she created standardized test preparation. Currently, she is an Independent College Counselor and president of College Primers.</p> <p><b>Scott A. Hatch</b> develops courses for a variety of careers and assists those seeking advanced degrees in law, business, and other professions.</p>","authors":[{"authorId":9087,"name":"Scott A. Hatch","slug":"scott-a-hatch","description":" <p><b>Lisa Zimmer Hatch </b>served as VP of The Center for Legal Studies, where she created standardized test preparation. Currently, she is an Independent College Counselor and president of College Primers.</p> <p><b>Scott A. Hatch</b> develops courses for a variety of careers and assists those seeking advanced degrees in law, business, and other professions. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9087"}},{"authorId":9086,"name":"Lisa Zimmer Hatch","slug":"lisa-zimmer-hatch","description":" <p><b>Lisa Zimmer Hatch </b>served as VP of The Center for Legal Studies, where she created standardized test preparation. Currently, she is an Independent College Counselor and president of College Primers.</p> <p><b>Scott A. Hatch</b> develops courses for a variety of careers and assists those seeking advanced degrees in law, business, and other professions. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9086"}},{"authorId":11243,"name":"Sandra Luna McCune","slug":"sandra-luna-mccune","description":" <p><b>Lisa Zimmer Hatch </b>served as VP of The Center for Legal Studies, where she created standardized test preparation. Currently, she is an Independent College Counselor and president of College Primers.</p> <p><b>Scott A. Hatch</b> develops courses for a variety of careers and assists those seeking advanced degrees in law, business, and other professions. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/11243"}}],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/books/"}},"collections":[{"title":"Career Shifting","slug":"career-shifting","collectionId":295890}],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;study-skills-test-prep&quot;,&quot;gmat&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781394183364&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-654140e59e683\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;study-skills-test-prep&quot;,&quot;gmat&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781394183364&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-654140e59edfd\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Cheat Sheet","articleList":[{"articleId":170923,"title":"Items You Should Take to the GMAT","slug":"items-you-should-take-to-the-gmat","categoryList":[],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/170923"}},{"articleId":170907,"title":"GMAT Math Question Tricks and Tips","slug":"gmat-math-question-tricks-and-tips","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","gmat"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/170907"}},{"articleId":170929,"title":"Tips and Tricks for GMAT Critical Reasoning Questions","slug":"tips-and-tricks-for-gmat-critical-reasoning-questions","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","gmat"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/170929"}},{"articleId":170911,"title":"Helpful Hints for GMAT Sentence Correction Questions","slug":"helpful-hints-for-gmat-sentence-correction-questions","categoryList":[],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/170911"}},{"articleId":170931,"title":"Tips for the GMAT Reading Comprehension Questions","slug":"tips-for-the-gmat-reading-comprehension-questions","categoryList":[],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/170931"}},{"articleId":170910,"title":"Tricks for the GMAT Analytical Writing Assessment","slug":"tricks-for-the-gmat-analytical-writing-assessment","categoryList":[],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/170910"}},{"articleId":170921,"title":"Guidelines for Answering GMAT Integrated Reasoning Questions","slug":"guidelines-for-answering-gmat-integrated-reasoning-questions","categoryList":[],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/170921"}}],"content":[{"title":"Items you should take to the GMAT","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Forget your calculator when you take the GMAT. The only things you need to bring with you to the test, besides a confident attitude and a good night&#8217;s sleep, are:</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Your appointment confirmation letter or email:</b> When you schedule an appointment for the GMAT, Pearson VUE sends you a confirmation letter or e-mail that you should bring with you to the test. It proves you&#8217;re registered. Don&#8217;t despair if you can&#8217;t find yours, though. They&#8217;ll let you in if you have an appointment.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>A photo ID:</b> You have to prove that you&#8217;re you and not your really smart neighbor who looks a little like you coming in to take the test for you. Any form of identification that doesn&#8217;t have your picture on it is unacceptable, but valid government-issued picture IDs, like driver&#8217;s licenses, passports, identification cards, and military IDs, are great as long as they&#8217;re originals (no photocopies) and they present your name and date of birth <i>exactly</i> as you stated them when you registered for the GMAT.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>The names of up to five of your favorite MBA programs:</b> Pearson VUE sends your GMAT scores to five programs of your choice, so if you didn&#8217;t enter them online when you registered, be sure to have a list of your five favorites with you on test day.</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"GMAT integrated reasoning tips and tricks","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>The GMAT integrated reasoning questions test how well you apply logical reasoning to real-life situations. Here are some tips to guide you through this unusual section of questions:</p>\n<ul>\n<li>Sift through information to determine what is relevant.</li>\n<li>Carefully read questions and graphical or visual representations of information.</li>\n<li>Be prepared to draw inferences and make judgment, recognize cause and effect, identify relationships in information, and apply rules or principles from provided information.</li>\n<li>Expect to perform simple computations, such as percent change or averages.</li>\n<li>Ignore excess data that you don’t need.</li>\n<li>Answer questions based on the information given, not on your personal knowledge.</li>\n<li>Use the noteboard to keep track of information.</li>\n<li>Use the onscreen calculator only when necessary.</li>\n<li>Pace yourself so that you can answer all the questions and subparts in the given timeframe.</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"Guidelines for answering the data sufficiency questions","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Data sufficiency questions require that you analyze the data in two statements and determine whether at some point there is <em>sufficient</em> information for you to answer the question. Here are some guidelines for approaching this question type, which is unique to the data insights section of the GMAT:</p>\n<ul>\n<li>Memorize the five fixed answer choices so you don’t have to refer to them.</li>\n<li>Read carefully to know exactly what the question posed is asking.</li>\n<li>Avoid making unwarranted assumptions, such as assuming the variable <em>x</em> is always positive.</li>\n<li>Be sure to check whether the second statement is sufficient when the first statement is determined to be sufficient.</li>\n<li>When the question posed asks for the value of a quantity, decide given information is sufficient only if exactly <u>one</u> numerical value for the quantity can be determined.</li>\n<li>When the question posed is a yes or no question, decide given information is sufficient only if a <u>definite</u> yes or no answer is possible.</li>\n<li>Don’t work out solutions to the question posed unless you can’t decide sufficiency without doing so.</li>\n<li>Use the onscreen calculator as needed.</li>\n<li>If a question is taking too much time, make a strategic guess and move on.</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"Math questions tips and tricks","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Does the thought of taking the GMAT math test make you break out in a cold sweat? Relax, and use these tips and tricks to help you tackle the quantitative section of the GMAT:</p>\n<ul>\n<li>Be prepared to use your knowledge of basic math, probability and statistics, algebra, and problem solving.</li>\n<li>Memorize formulas and other common math knowledge beforehand.</li>\n<li>Write expressions and sketch diagrams on the erasable noteboard correctly.</li>\n<li>Avoid making arithmetic or algebra mistakes.</li>\n<li>Check to make sure you didn’t overlook something when formulating an equation.</li>\n<li>Read all the answer choices before you select an answer.</li>\n<li>Eliminate answer choices that don’t make sense.</li>\n<li>If a question is taking too much time, make a strategic guess and move on.</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"Tips for the reading comprehension questions","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>GMAT reading questions are designed to test how well you extract information from a passage. So follow these suggestions when answering the reading comprehension questions in the verbal section of the GMAT:</p>\n<ul>\n<li>Read the entire passage. Don’t skim.</li>\n<li>Read the question prompt and ask yourself what type of question it is: is it asking for the main idea, for a fact from the passage, for the best answer based on your inferring, about the style and tone, or is it another type?</li>\n<li>Eliminate answer choices you know cannot be correct. Then return to the passage and look for your answer.</li>\n<li>In questions about the author’s tone, remember that the reading comprehension passages are usually written in fairly neutral style.</li>\n<li>In vocabulary questions, avoid guessing on a big word you don’t know just because it sounds impressive.</li>\n<li>When answering an inference question, look for logical hops in thinking, not giant, unsubstantiated leaps.</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"Tips and tricks for the critical reasoning questions","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>The critical reasoning questions on the GMAT are all about using logic. To maximize your potential on the critical reasoning questions in the verbal section of the GMAT, use these helpful techniques:</p>\n<ul>\n<li>There are several different types of critical reasoning questions, so it’s a good idea to read the question first before the passage. That will help you establish what the question is looking for: to support the argument, to weaken it, to conclude it, etc.</li>\n<li>Some passages have multiple questions. Always consider them separately.</li>\n<li>Do not bring your own knowledge to the question. Use only the passage provided.</li>\n<li>Remember that the argument presented is likely to be weak or flawed.</li>\n<li>Most critical reasoning questions will ask you to strengthen or weaken the author’s logic. It’s therefore important to be able to explain what the logic – not just the topic – is. If you can find the spine of the logic, you’ll be in better shape to weaken or support it.</li>\n</ul>\n"}],"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Advance","lifeExpectancy":"One year","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2024-09-05T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":208102},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2022-03-25T18:45:28+00:00","modifiedTime":"2024-08-07T16:49:49+00:00","timestamp":"2024-08-07T18:01:03+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Academics & The Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"Study Skills & Test Prep","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33772"},"slug":"study-skills-test-prep","categoryId":33772},{"name":"GMAT","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33784"},"slug":"gmat","categoryId":33784}],"title":"Preparing for Integrated Reasoning on the GMAT","strippedTitle":"preparing for integrated reasoning on the gmat","slug":"what-the-gmats-integrated-reasoning-section-is-all-about","canonicalUrl":"","浏览搜寻平台改进":{"metaDescription":"The integrated reasoning section of the GMAT combines critical reasoning skills with math skills you use in quantitative reasoning.","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"True to its name, the integrated reasoning section of the GMAT combines the critical reasoning skills tested in the verbal reasoning section with some of the math skills you use to solve quantitative reasoning questions. Therefore, if you’re well prepared for the GMAT’s math and verbal sections, you should do well in the IR section, too.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" >Skills tested</h2>\r\nThe most common math computations in the IR section involve these areas:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>Basic statistics, such as average, median, mode, and range</li>\r\n \t<li>Percentages</li>\r\n \t<li>Rate and distance</li>\r\n \t<li>Functions</li>\r\n \t<li>Geometry formulas</li>\r\n</ul>\r\nYou’ll need to apply these essentials of critical reasoning:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>Basic elements of logical arguments—premises, conclusions, and assumptions</li>\r\n \t<li>How to strengthen and weaken an argument</li>\r\n \t<li>Argument types—cause and effect, analogy, and statistical</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<h2 id=\"tab2\" >Integrated reasoning question format</h2>\r\nThe IR section presents you with 12 questions, one question at a time, and you have 30 minutes to answer them. Almost every question has multiple parts. To get credit for answering a question correctly, you have to answer <em>all</em> of its parts correctly. You don’t receive partial credit for getting one part of the question correct. Unlike the verbal and quantitative reasoning sections, the IR section isn’t computer adaptive. So, the order in which you receive questions is preordained and not based on your performance.\r\n\r\nYour IR score is based on your answers to four types of questions. On average, you can expect to come across about three of each question type on the GMAT, but the actual number of questions of each type and the order in which they appear may vary. So, count on seeing at least a couple of each of these four question types crop up on your test:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Table analysis:</strong> This three-part IR question offers you a spreadsheet of values that you can order in different ways by clicking the heading of each column. You use the data to make judgments about three pieces of information; each of your judgments has to be correct to get credit for the question.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Two-part analysis:</strong> Based on a short, written explanation of a phenomenon, situation, or mathematical problem, you come up with the proper assertions or mathematical expressions that meet the two interrelated criteria presented in the question.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Graphics interpretation:</strong> A graph or chart gives you all the data you need to complete the two missing pieces of information in one or two statements. You choose from a pull-down menu of several answer options to record your answers.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Multi-source reasoning:</strong> These properly named questions present you with several sources of information, such as short passages, graphs and charts, and business documents, from which you draw logical conclusions to answer questions in either of two formats: standard five-answer multiple-choice questions and three-part questions that ask you to evaluate statements.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\nTo assist you with the mathematical computations you may need to make for some of the IR questions, the GMAT software provides you with a simple calculator. Whenever you need it, you click the box labeled <em>Calculator</em> and something that looks like the following figure appears. You select its functions by using your mouse. Don’t get too attached to it, though; the calculator is available only for IR questions, so you won’t be able to use it in the quantitative reasoning section.\r\n\r\n[caption id=\"attachment_283497\" align=\"alignnone\" width=\"415\"]<img class=\"size-full wp-image-283497\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/gmat-calculator.jpg\" alt=\"GMAT calculator\" width=\"415\" height=\"600\" /> The GMAT calculator[/caption]\r\n<p class=\"article-tips tip\">Because using a computer calculator can be awkward, you’ll likely answer most IR questions more quickly by using estimation or working out calculations by hand on your noteboard. Save the calculator for only the most complex or precise computations.</p>\r\n\r\n<h2 id=\"tab3\" >How the IR section is scored</h2>\r\nLike the score you receive for the analytical writing section, your integrated reasoning score has no influence on your overall GMAT score, which consists of the combination of only your quantitative reasoning and verbal reasoning scores. Based on your performance in the IR section, your raw score is converted to a scaled score that ranges in whole numbers from 1 to 8 and is recorded separately from all the other scores.\r\n\r\nMBA programs decide how they use your IR score and may choose to disregard it altogether. So, your IR score is unlikely to make much of an impression unless it’s unusually low, in the 1-to-3 score range, or really high, such as the rare 7 or 8. A midrange score of 4, 5, or 6 likely won’t significantly hurt or help your chances of admission.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab4\" >How to make the most of your time on the IR section</h2>\r\nIf you’ve already calculated that answering 12 questions in 30 minutes gives you 2.5 minutes to answer each question, you may be celebrating the fact that that gives you even more time per question than you have for the quantitative and verbal reasoning sections. Don’t get too excited just yet. Almost every IR question has multiple parts, and you have to answer all parts of the question correctly to be credited with a correct answer.\r\n\r\nWhen you consider the average number of sub-questions contained within each of those 12 questions, the actual number of IR answers you have to come up with in 30 minutes may be as high as 30. Therefore, you have to use your time wisely as you move through the section.\r\n<p class=\"article-tips tip\">You’ll likely feel the time crunch more fiercely in this section than the others. We provide some coping skills to help you through it:</p>\r\n\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Conceal the timer.</strong> To maintain your sanity, refrain from constant clock-watching. Hide the timer on the computer by clicking on it. After you answer about three questions, reveal the timer by clicking on it again. It counts down from 30 minutes, so if you’re at 22 minutes, you’re cruising comfortably. If you’re at 21 or fewer, you may need to make some more calculated guesses to move through the section at a successful pace.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Know when to move on.</strong> Discipline yourself to submit your best stab at an answer if you find yourself spending more than several minutes on any one question. You don’t want to sacrifice getting to an easy, less-time-consuming question because you’ve worked too long on a harder question. You can’t go back and revisit questions after you submitted your answers, so this practice may be difficult for you, especially if you tenaciously seek perfection. Take a deep breath, mark your best guess, and move on to what lies ahead.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Write stuff down.</strong> Don’t be afraid to spend a little time upfront analyzing the loads of data in some IR questions. Unless you’re someone who can juggle a lot of details in your head, you should write on your noteboard as you think. A little note-taking may save you from reading information over again, which is a real time waster.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Whisper to yourself.</strong> Studies show that processing information is easier if you speak out loud. Don’t be afraid to whisper your way through some of the more complex problems the IR section throws at you. You’ll likely take the test in a cubicle-like setting, so if you speak quietly, you won’t disturb anyone.</li>\r\n</ul>","description":"True to its name, the integrated reasoning section of the GMAT combines the critical reasoning skills tested in the verbal reasoning section with some of the math skills you use to solve quantitative reasoning questions. Therefore, if you’re well prepared for the GMAT’s math and verbal sections, you should do well in the IR section, too.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" >Skills tested</h2>\r\nThe most common math computations in the IR section involve these areas:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>Basic statistics, such as average, median, mode, and range</li>\r\n \t<li>Percentages</li>\r\n \t<li>Rate and distance</li>\r\n \t<li>Functions</li>\r\n \t<li>Geometry formulas</li>\r\n</ul>\r\nYou’ll need to apply these essentials of critical reasoning:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>Basic elements of logical arguments—premises, conclusions, and assumptions</li>\r\n \t<li>How to strengthen and weaken an argument</li>\r\n \t<li>Argument types—cause and effect, analogy, and statistical</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<h2 id=\"tab2\" >Integrated reasoning question format</h2>\r\nThe IR section presents you with 12 questions, one question at a time, and you have 30 minutes to answer them. Almost every question has multiple parts. To get credit for answering a question correctly, you have to answer <em>all</em> of its parts correctly. You don’t receive partial credit for getting one part of the question correct. Unlike the verbal and quantitative reasoning sections, the IR section isn’t computer adaptive. So, the order in which you receive questions is preordained and not based on your performance.\r\n\r\nYour IR score is based on your answers to four types of questions. On average, you can expect to come across about three of each question type on the GMAT, but the actual number of questions of each type and the order in which they appear may vary. So, count on seeing at least a couple of each of these four question types crop up on your test:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Table analysis:</strong> This three-part IR question offers you a spreadsheet of values that you can order in different ways by clicking the heading of each column. You use the data to make judgments about three pieces of information; each of your judgments has to be correct to get credit for the question.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Two-part analysis:</strong> Based on a short, written explanation of a phenomenon, situation, or mathematical problem, you come up with the proper assertions or mathematical expressions that meet the two interrelated criteria presented in the question.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Graphics interpretation:</strong> A graph or chart gives you all the data you need to complete the two missing pieces of information in one or two statements. You choose from a pull-down menu of several answer options to record your answers.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Multi-source reasoning:</strong> These properly named questions present you with several sources of information, such as short passages, graphs and charts, and business documents, from which you draw logical conclusions to answer questions in either of two formats: standard five-answer multiple-choice questions and three-part questions that ask you to evaluate statements.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\nTo assist you with the mathematical computations you may need to make for some of the IR questions, the GMAT software provides you with a simple calculator. Whenever you need it, you click the box labeled <em>Calculator</em> and something that looks like the following figure appears. You select its functions by using your mouse. Don’t get too attached to it, though; the calculator is available only for IR questions, so you won’t be able to use it in the quantitative reasoning section.\r\n\r\n[caption id=\"attachment_283497\" align=\"alignnone\" width=\"415\"]<img class=\"size-full wp-image-283497\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/gmat-calculator.jpg\" alt=\"GMAT calculator\" width=\"415\" height=\"600\" /> The GMAT calculator[/caption]\r\n<p class=\"article-tips tip\">Because using a computer calculator can be awkward, you’ll likely answer most IR questions more quickly by using estimation or working out calculations by hand on your noteboard. Save the calculator for only the most complex or precise computations.</p>\r\n\r\n<h2 id=\"tab3\" >How the IR section is scored</h2>\r\nLike the score you receive for the analytical writing section, your integrated reasoning score has no influence on your overall GMAT score, which consists of the combination of only your quantitative reasoning and verbal reasoning scores. Based on your performance in the IR section, your raw score is converted to a scaled score that ranges in whole numbers from 1 to 8 and is recorded separately from all the other scores.\r\n\r\nMBA programs decide how they use your IR score and may choose to disregard it altogether. So, your IR score is unlikely to make much of an impression unless it’s unusually low, in the 1-to-3 score range, or really high, such as the rare 7 or 8. A midrange score of 4, 5, or 6 likely won’t significantly hurt or help your chances of admission.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab4\" >How to make the most of your time on the IR section</h2>\r\nIf you’ve already calculated that answering 12 questions in 30 minutes gives you 2.5 minutes to answer each question, you may be celebrating the fact that that gives you even more time per question than you have for the quantitative and verbal reasoning sections. Don’t get too excited just yet. Almost every IR question has multiple parts, and you have to answer all parts of the question correctly to be credited with a correct answer.\r\n\r\nWhen you consider the average number of sub-questions contained within each of those 12 questions, the actual number of IR answers you have to come up with in 30 minutes may be as high as 30. Therefore, you have to use your time wisely as you move through the section.\r\n<p class=\"article-tips tip\">You’ll likely feel the time crunch more fiercely in this section than the others. We provide some coping skills to help you through it:</p>\r\n\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Conceal the timer.</strong> To maintain your sanity, refrain from constant clock-watching. Hide the timer on the computer by clicking on it. After you answer about three questions, reveal the timer by clicking on it again. It counts down from 30 minutes, so if you’re at 22 minutes, you’re cruising comfortably. If you’re at 21 or fewer, you may need to make some more calculated guesses to move through the section at a successful pace.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Know when to move on.</strong> Discipline yourself to submit your best stab at an answer if you find yourself spending more than several minutes on any one question. You don’t want to sacrifice getting to an easy, less-time-consuming question because you’ve worked too long on a harder question. You can’t go back and revisit questions after you submitted your answers, so this practice may be difficult for you, especially if you tenaciously seek perfection. Take a deep breath, mark your best guess, and move on to what lies ahead.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Write stuff down.</strong> Don’t be afraid to spend a little time upfront analyzing the loads of data in some IR questions. Unless you’re someone who can juggle a lot of details in your head, you should write on your noteboard as you think. A little note-taking may save you from reading information over again, which is a real time waster.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Whisper to yourself.</strong> Studies show that processing information is easier if you speak out loud. Don’t be afraid to whisper your way through some of the more complex problems the IR section throws at you. You’ll likely take the test in a cubicle-like setting, so if you speak quietly, you won’t disturb anyone.</li>\r\n</ul>","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":9086,"name":"Lisa Zimmer Hatch","slug":"lisa-zimmer-hatch","description":" <p><b>Lisa Zimmer Hatch </b>served as VP of The Center for Legal Studies, where she created standardized test preparation. Currently, she is an Independent College Counselor and president of College Primers.</p> <p><b>Scott A. Hatch</b> develops courses for a variety of careers and assists those seeking advanced degrees in law, business, and other professions. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9086"}},{"authorId":9087,"name":"Scott A. Hatch","slug":"scott-a-hatch","description":" <p><b>Lisa Zimmer Hatch </b>served as VP of The Center for Legal Studies, where she created standardized test preparation. Currently, she is an Independent College Counselor and president of College Primers.</p> <p><b>Scott A. Hatch</b> develops courses for a variety of careers and assists those seeking advanced degrees in law, business, and other professions. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9087"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33784,"title":"GMAT","slug":"gmat","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33784"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[{"label":"Skills tested","target":"#tab1"},{"label":"Integrated reasoning question format","target":"#tab2"},{"label":"How the IR section is scored","target":"#tab3"},{"label":"How to make the most of your time on the IR section","target":"#tab4"}],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":283513,"title":"The Coordinate Plane and the 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Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"Study Skills & Test Prep","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33772"},"slug":"study-skills-test-prep","categoryId":33772},{"name":"ACT","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33775"},"slug":"act","categoryId":33775}],"title":"ACT Prep 2024 For Dummies Cheat Sheet","strippedTitle":"act prep 2024 for dummies cheat sheet","slug":"act-prep-2023-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","canonicalUrl":"","浏览搜寻平台改进":{"metaDescription":"Learn what you should know before you take the ACT, including tips and strategies for tackling the various sections of the test.","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"The American College Testing exam (ACT) tests your knowledge of grammar, reading, science, and math. In addition, the ACT includes an optional writing test. Many colleges require or recommend and entrance exam, such as the ACT, as a component of your application for admission.","description":"The American College Testing exam (ACT) tests your knowledge of grammar, reading, science, and math. In addition, the ACT includes an optional writing test. Many colleges require or recommend and entrance exam, such as the ACT, as a component of your application for admission.","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":9086,"name":"Lisa Zimmer Hatch","slug":"lisa-zimmer-hatch","description":"<b>Lisa Zimmer Hatch </b>served as VP of The Center for Legal Studies, where she created standardized test preparation. Currently, she is an Independent College Counselor and president of College Primers.","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9086"}},{"authorId":9087,"name":"Scott A. Hatch","slug":"scott-a-hatch","description":"<b>Scott A. Hatch</b> develops courses for a variety of careers and assists those seeking advanced degrees in law, business, and other professions.","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9087"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33775,"title":"ACT","slug":"act","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33775"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":268046,"title":"How to Organize Your ACT Essay","slug":"how-to-organize-your-act-essay","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","act"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/268046"}},{"articleId":268043,"title":"How to Write a Great ACT Essay","slug":"how-to-write-a-great-act-essay","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","act"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/268043"}},{"articleId":268033,"title":"ACT Geometry Test: Triangle Trauma","slug":"act-geometry-test-triangle-trauma","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","act"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/268033"}},{"articleId":268023,"title":"ACT Geometry Test: Analyzing Angles","slug":"act-geometry-test-analyzing-angles","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","act"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/268023"}},{"articleId":238694,"title":"ACT Practice Math Questions: Circles","slug":"act-practice-math-questions-circles","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","act"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/238694"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":299127,"slug":"act-prep-2024-for-dummies","isbn":"9781394183425","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","act"],"amazon":{"default":"//www.amazon.com/gp/product/1394183429/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","ca":"//www.amazon.ca/gp/product/1394183429/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","indigo_ca":"//www.tkqlhce.com/click-9208661-13710633?url=//www.chapters.indigo.ca/en-ca/books/product/1394183429-item.html&cjsku=978111945484","gb":"//www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/1394183429/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","de":"//www.amazon.de/gp/product/1394183429/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20"},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/act-prep-2024-for-dummies-cover-9781394183425-199x255.jpg","width":199,"height":255},"title":"ACT Prep 2024 For Dummies","testBankPinActivationLink":"","bookOutOfPrint":true,"authorsInfo":"<p><b><b data-author-id=\"9086\">Lisa Zimmer Hatch</b> </b>served as VP of The Center for Legal Studies, where she created standardized test preparation. Currently, she is an Independent College Counselor and president of College Primers. <b><b data-author-id=\"9087\">Scott A. Hatch</b></b> develops courses for a variety of careers and assists those seeking advanced degrees in law, business, and other professions.</p>","authors":[{"authorId":9086,"name":"Lisa Zimmer Hatch","slug":"lisa-zimmer-hatch","description":"<b>Lisa Zimmer Hatch </b>served as VP of The Center for Legal Studies, where she created standardized test preparation. Currently, she is an Independent College Counselor and president of College Primers.","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9086"}},{"authorId":9087,"name":"Scott A. Hatch","slug":"scott-a-hatch","description":"<b>Scott A. Hatch</b> develops courses for a variety of careers and assists those seeking advanced degrees in law, business, and other professions.","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9087"}}],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/books/"}},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;study-skills-test-prep&quot;,&quot;act&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781394183425&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-647df8af2f1e1\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;study-skills-test-prep&quot;,&quot;act&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781394183425&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-647df8af2fb28\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Cheat Sheet","articleList":[{"articleId":0,"title":"","slug":null,"categoryList":[],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/"}}],"content":[{"title":"Test sections of the ACT","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>The ACT comprises several different test sections, and each section has its own time limit. The following table shows you how many questions each ACT section has and how much time you have to answer them.</p>\n<p><strong>ACT Breakdown by Section</strong></p>\n<table>\n<tbody>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"197\"><strong>Test</strong></td>\n<td width=\"197\"><strong>Number of Questions</strong></td>\n<td width=\"197\"><strong>Time Allotted</strong></td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"197\">English</td>\n<td width=\"197\">75</td>\n<td width=\"197\">45 minutes</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"197\">Mathematics</td>\n<td width=\"197\">60</td>\n<td width=\"197\">60 minutes</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"197\">Reading</td>\n<td width=\"197\">40</td>\n<td width=\"197\">35 minutes</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"197\">Science</td>\n<td width=\"197\">40</td>\n<td width=\"197\">35 minutes</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"197\">Writing (optional)</td>\n<td width=\"197\">1</td>\n<td width=\"197\">40 minutes</td>\n</tr>\n</tbody>\n</table>\n<p>&nbsp;</p>\n<p>If you add up the numbers, you find that you have 216 questions to answer in 205 minutes. You get one 10-minute break between the second and third tests (the mathematics and reading tests). If you opt not to take the optional writing Test, then you get to walk out right after the science test.</p>\n<p>Occasionally, the ACT will throw in an extra 20-minute section at the end to test questions for future exams. This section could be English, mathematics, reading, or science. These questions don’t count toward your composite score.</p>\n"},{"title":"Tips for avoiding mistakes on the ACT","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Taking the ACT requires quite a bit of preparation. If you&#8217;ve taken the time to prepare, you don&#8217;t want to jeopardize a good score by making a silly mistake. So, be aware of the following catastrophes so that you can prevent them from happening to you.</p>\n<ul>\n<li><strong>Losing concentration: </strong>When you’re in the middle of an excruciatingly boring reading passage, the worst thing you can do is let your mind drift off to a more pleasant time. Although visualization (picturing yourself doing something relaxing or fun) is a good stress-reduction technique to practice <em>before</em> the exam, it stinks when it comes to helping your ACT score during the test.Even if you have to pinch yourself or snap your wrist with a rubber band to keep from falling asleep or flaking out, stay focused.</li>\n<li><strong>Panicking about time: </strong>Every section on the ACT begins with directions and a line that tells you how many questions are in the section and, therefore, how many minutes you have per question. The ACT is no big mystery. You can waste a lot of time and drive yourself crazy if you keep flipping pages and counting how many more questions remain. You can do what you can do; that’s all. Looking ahead and panicking are counterproductive and waste time.</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><strong>Messing up numbering on the answer grid: </strong>Suppose that you decide to postpone doing Question 11, hoping that inspiration will strike later. But now, you accidentally put the answer to Question 12 in the blank for Question 11, and mess up all the numbers from that point on. After you answer Question 40, you suddenly realize that you just filled in bubble number 39 and have one bubble left — <em>aaargh!</em> It’s easy to say, “don’t panic,” but chances are your blood pressure will go sky-high, especially when you eyeball the clock and see that only one minute remains.</p>\n<p class=\"child-para\">If you have a good eraser with you (and you should), the wrong answers on the answer grid should take only a few seconds to erase. But how on earth are you going to resolve all of those problems and reread and re-answer all of the questions? You’re not, because you took the following advice: When you choose an answer, <em>circle that answer in your test booklet first</em> and <em>then</em> fill in the answer on the answer grid. Doing so takes you a mere nanosecond and helps you not only in this panic situation but also as you go back and double-check your work.</p>\n</li>\n<li><strong>Rubbernecking: </strong><em>Rubbernecking</em> is craning your neck around to see how everyone else is doing. Forget those bozos. You have too much to do on your own to waste precious seconds checking out anyone else. After you have the exam booklet in front of you, don’t look at anything but it and your watch until time is called.</li>\n<li><strong>Cheating: </strong>Cheating on the ACT is a loser’s game — it’s just plain stupid. Apart from the legal, moral, and ethical questions, let’s talk practicality: You can’t predict what types of grammatical mistakes will show up in the questions; what are you going to do, copy a textbook on the palm of your hand? All the math formulas that you need can’t fit onto the bottom of your shoe.</li>\n<li><strong>Worrying about previous sections: </strong>Think of the ACT as four separate lifetimes. You’re reborn three times, so you get three more chances to “do it right.” Every time the proctor says, “Your time is up. Please turn to the next test and begin,” you get a fresh start. The ACT rules are very strict: You can’t go back to a previous section and finish work there or change some of your answers. If you try to do so, the proctor will catch you, and you’ll be in a world of hurt.</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><strong>Worrying about the hard problems: </strong>The ACT contains a couple of challenging problems and questions. Forget about them. Almost no one gets them right, anyway. You can often miss a question or two in each section and still receive a 35 or 36. And ridiculously few students receive 36s every year. If you get into the 30s, you’re in a super-elite club of only a few percent of the thousands of students who take the ACT annually.</p>\n<p class=\"child-para\">Just accept the fact that you either won’t get to or can’t answer a few of the hard questions and learn to live with your imperfection. When you do encounter a hard question, don’t waste too much time on it. See if you can use common sense to eliminate any answers. Then mark your best guess from the remaining choices.</p>\n</li>\n<li><strong>Forgetting to double-check: </strong>If you finish a test early, go back and double-check the questions you’ve marked for future review. Questions that you think you answered too quickly or for which made a few assumptions as you eliminated answers are good options for checking twice if you have a couple minutes remaining at the end of the section. Be sure to mark questions along the way (in your test booklet, not on the bubble sheet, to avoid machine scoring errors) so you’ll know exactly which ones to turn to during those last precious moments until the proctor calls time.</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"Translating math word problems","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>When you see a word problem on the ACT math test, you may feel a little lost at first. Straightforward math equations seem so much more, well, straightforward. Even though word problems are written in English, they may seem like they’re written in a foreign language.</p>\n<p>To help you with the translation, the following table provides you with some of the more common words you encounter in word problems and tells you what they mean (and look like!) in math terms.</p>\n<p><strong>Common Words and Their Math Counterparts</strong></p>\n<table>\n<tbody>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"307\"><strong>Plain English</strong></td>\n<td width=\"307\"><strong>Math Equivalent</strong></td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"307\">More than, increased by, added to, combined with, total of, sum of</td>\n<td width=\"307\">Add (+)</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"307\">Decreased by, diminished by, reduced by, difference between, taken away from, subtracted from, less than, fewer than</td>\n<td width=\"307\">Subtract (–)</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"307\">Of, times, product of</td>\n<td width=\"307\">Multiply</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"307\">Ratio of, per, out of, quotient</td>\n<td width=\"307\">Divide</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"307\">Percent</td>\n<td width=\"307\">Divide by 100</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"307\">Is, are, was, were, becomes, results in</td>\n<td width=\"307\">Equals (=)</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"307\">How much, how many, what, what number</td>\n<td width=\"307\">The unknown, usually a variable (<em>x</em>, <em>y</em>)</td>\n</tr>\n</tbody>\n</table>\n<p>&nbsp;</p>\n<p>Subtraction phrases such as “taken away from,” “subtracted from,” “less than,” and “fewer than” require you to switch the order of the quantities you’re subtracting. For example, “Ten decreased by six” means 10 – 6 (which equals 4), but “Ten subtracted from six” means 6 – 10, or –4.</p>\n<p><em> </em></p>\n<p>&nbsp;</p>\n"}],"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Advance","lifeExpectancy":"One year","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2024-06-02T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":294142},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2017-03-26T10:54:39+00:00","modifiedTime":"2023-10-05T16:36:10+00:00","timestamp":"2023-10-05T18:01:06+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Academics & The Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"Study Skills & Test Prep","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33772"},"slug":"study-skills-test-prep","categoryId":33772},{"name":"LSAT","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33786"},"slug":"lsat","categoryId":33786}],"title":"LSAT Reading Comprehension: Sample Natural Science Passage","strippedTitle":"lsat reading comprehension: sample natural science passage","slug":"lsat-reading-comprehension-sample-natural-science-passage","canonicalUrl":"","浏览搜寻平台改进":{"metaDescription":"This example of a natural science passage on the LSAT reading comprehension portion will help you prepare for the exam.","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"Physical and biological sciences play a big role in a host of legal issues and is important for the LSAT. Some attorneys specialize in negotiating water and mineral rights. Patent attorneys often begin as engineers. Even product liability and personal injury cases require a general understanding of the way the physical world works.\r\n\r\nAlthough you may concede the importance of the natural sciences, you may not be eager to find that 25 percent of your reading score is based on a chemistry passage. The good news is that the reading comprehension questions don't assume that you have any previous knowledge of the subject.\r\n<p class=\"Remember\">If you do come across a reading passage on chemistry and it's been 20 years since you've studied the periodic table, relax. The answer to every question is located somewhere in the passage.</p>\r\nYou really don't need to know a lot about a passage topic to answer the questions correctly. Although it's true that chemistry majors may read a passage about polymers more quickly than someone who never took a college chemistry course, that doesn't necessarily mean chemistry experts will answer more questions correctly.\r\n\r\nIn fact, they may actually be at a disadvantage because they may try to answer questions based on outside knowledge instead of using the information stated in the passage.\r\n<p class=\"Warning\">Reading comprehension questions test reading skills, not the plethora of details you keep tucked away in your long-term memory. When you come across a passage on a subject that you're pretty familiar with, don't rely exclusively on your outside knowledge to answer the question! Make sure the answers you choose can be justified by information contained in the passage.</p>\r\n<p class=\"Remember\">Natural science passages tend to be more objective and neutral than persuasive in tone. So often, the main theme of a natural science topic is to explain, describe, or inform about a scientific event. Here's a shortened version of a nice, neutral natural science passage that may appear on the LSAT:</p>\r\nA logarithmic unit known as the <i>decibel</i> (dB) is used to represent the intensity of sound. The decibel scale is similar to the Richter scale used to measure earthquakes. On the Richter scale, a 7.0 earthquake is ten times stronger than a 6.0 earthquake. On the decibel scale, an increase of 10 dB is equivalent to a tenfold increase in intensity or power.\r\n\r\nThus, a sound registering 80 dB is ten times louder than a 70 dB sound. In the range of sounds audible to humans, a whisper has an intensity of 20 dB; 140 dB (a jet aircraft taking off nearby) is the threshold of immediate pain.\r\n\r\nThe perceived intensity of sound is not simply a function of volume; certain frequencies of sound appear louder to the human ear than do other frequencies, even at the same volume. Decibel measurements of noise are therefore often “A-weighted” to take into account the fact that some sound wavelengths are perceived as being particularly loud.\r\n\r\nA soft whisper is 20 dB, but on the A-weighted scale, the whisper is 30 dBA. This is because human ears are particularly attuned to human speech. Quiet conversation has a sound level of about 60 dBA.\r\n\r\nContinuous exposure to sounds over 80 dBA can eventually result in mild hearing loss, while exposure to louder sounds can cause much greater damage in a short period of time. Emergency sirens, motorcycles, chainsaws, construction activities, and other mechanical or amplified noises are often in the 80 to 120 dBA range. Sound levels above 120 dBA begin to be felt inside the human ear as discomfort and eventually as pain.\r\n<p class=\"Remember\">Don't let the unfamiliar scientific concepts worry you. You're probably familiar with the term <i>decibel,</i> but you may have never encountered the <i>A-weighted decibel</i> or <i>dBA,</i> as it's abbreviated. Focus on the main point, which in this passage is to describe dBAs and how human ears perceive them.</p>","description":"Physical and biological sciences play a big role in a host of legal issues and is important for the LSAT. Some attorneys specialize in negotiating water and mineral rights. Patent attorneys often begin as engineers. Even product liability and personal injury cases require a general understanding of the way the physical world works.\r\n\r\nAlthough you may concede the importance of the natural sciences, you may not be eager to find that 25 percent of your reading score is based on a chemistry passage. The good news is that the reading comprehension questions don't assume that you have any previous knowledge of the subject.\r\n<p class=\"Remember\">If you do come across a reading passage on chemistry and it's been 20 years since you've studied the periodic table, relax. The answer to every question is located somewhere in the passage.</p>\r\nYou really don't need to know a lot about a passage topic to answer the questions correctly. Although it's true that chemistry majors may read a passage about polymers more quickly than someone who never took a college chemistry course, that doesn't necessarily mean chemistry experts will answer more questions correctly.\r\n\r\nIn fact, they may actually be at a disadvantage because they may try to answer questions based on outside knowledge instead of using the information stated in the passage.\r\n<p class=\"Warning\">Reading comprehension questions test reading skills, not the plethora of details you keep tucked away in your long-term memory. When you come across a passage on a subject that you're pretty familiar with, don't rely exclusively on your outside knowledge to answer the question! Make sure the answers you choose can be justified by information contained in the passage.</p>\r\n<p class=\"Remember\">Natural science passages tend to be more objective and neutral than persuasive in tone. So often, the main theme of a natural science topic is to explain, describe, or inform about a scientific event. Here's a shortened version of a nice, neutral natural science passage that may appear on the LSAT:</p>\r\nA logarithmic unit known as the <i>decibel</i> (dB) is used to represent the intensity of sound. The decibel scale is similar to the Richter scale used to measure earthquakes. On the Richter scale, a 7.0 earthquake is ten times stronger than a 6.0 earthquake. On the decibel scale, an increase of 10 dB is equivalent to a tenfold increase in intensity or power.\r\n\r\nThus, a sound registering 80 dB is ten times louder than a 70 dB sound. In the range of sounds audible to humans, a whisper has an intensity of 20 dB; 140 dB (a jet aircraft taking off nearby) is the threshold of immediate pain.\r\n\r\nThe perceived intensity of sound is not simply a function of volume; certain frequencies of sound appear louder to the human ear than do other frequencies, even at the same volume. Decibel measurements of noise are therefore often “A-weighted” to take into account the fact that some sound wavelengths are perceived as being particularly loud.\r\n\r\nA soft whisper is 20 dB, but on the A-weighted scale, the whisper is 30 dBA. This is because human ears are particularly attuned to human speech. Quiet conversation has a sound level of about 60 dBA.\r\n\r\nContinuous exposure to sounds over 80 dBA can eventually result in mild hearing loss, while exposure to louder sounds can cause much greater damage in a short period of time. Emergency sirens, motorcycles, chainsaws, construction activities, and other mechanical or amplified noises are often in the 80 to 120 dBA range. Sound levels above 120 dBA begin to be felt inside the human ear as discomfort and eventually as pain.\r\n<p class=\"Remember\">Don't let the unfamiliar scientific concepts worry you. You're probably familiar with the term <i>decibel,</i> but you may have never encountered the <i>A-weighted decibel</i> or <i>dBA,</i> as it's abbreviated. Focus on the main point, which in this passage is to describe dBAs and how human ears perceive them.</p>","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":9086,"name":"Lisa Zimmer Hatch","slug":"lisa-zimmer-hatch","description":" <p><b>Lisa Zimmer Hatch </b>served as VP of The Center for Legal Studies, where she created standardized test preparation. Currently, she is an Independent College Counselor and president of College Primers.</p> <p><b>Scott A. Hatch</b> develops courses for a variety of careers and assists those seeking advanced degrees in law, business, and other professions. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9086"}},{"authorId":9087,"name":"Scott A. Hatch","slug":"scott-a-hatch","description":" <p><b>Lisa Zimmer Hatch </b>served as VP of The Center for Legal Studies, where she created standardized test preparation. Currently, she is an Independent College Counselor and president of College Primers.</p> <p><b>Scott A. Hatch</b> develops courses for a variety of careers and assists those seeking advanced degrees in law, business, and other professions. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9087"}},{"authorId":9388,"name":"Amy Hackney Blackwell","slug":"amy-hackney-blackwell","description":" Amy Hackney Blackwell is a former attorney who received her JD from the University of Virginia School of Law. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9388"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33786,"title":"LSAT","slug":"lsat","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33786"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[{"articleId":284030,"title":"Practice Writing Sample for the LSAT","slug":"practice-writing-sample-for-the-lsat","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","lsat"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/284030"}},{"articleId":207766,"title":"LSAT For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"lsat-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","lsat"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/207766"}},{"articleId":157512,"title":"Tips for the Reading Comprehension Section of the LSAT","slug":"tips-for-the-reading-comprehension-section-of-the-lsat","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","lsat"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/157512"}},{"articleId":157511,"title":"10 Habits of Highly Successful LSAT-Takers","slug":"10-habits-of-highly-successful-lsat-takers","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","lsat"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/157511"}},{"articleId":157508,"title":"Helpful Vocabulary for the LSAT Logical Reasoning Questions","slug":"helpful-vocabulary-for-the-lsat-logical-reasoning-questions","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","lsat"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/157508"}}],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":284047,"title":"How to Choose a Law School","slug":"how-to-choose-a-law-school","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","lsat"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/284047"}},{"articleId":284042,"title":"Applying to Law School","slug":"applying-to-law-school","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","lsat"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/284042"}},{"articleId":284030,"title":"Practice Writing Sample for the LSAT","slug":"practice-writing-sample-for-the-lsat","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","lsat"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/284030"}},{"articleId":207766,"title":"LSAT For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"lsat-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","lsat"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/207766"}},{"articleId":157512,"title":"Tips for the Reading Comprehension Section of the LSAT","slug":"tips-for-the-reading-comprehension-section-of-the-lsat","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","lsat"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/157512"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":282367,"slug":"lsat-for-dummies","isbn":"9781119716273","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","lsat"],"amazon":{"default":"//www.amazon.com/gp/product/1119716276/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","ca":"//www.amazon.ca/gp/product/1119716276/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","indigo_ca":"//www.tkqlhce.com/click-9208661-13710633?url=//www.chapters.indigo.ca/en-ca/books/product/1119716276-item.html&cjsku=978111945484","gb":"//www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/1119716276/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","de":"//www.amazon.de/gp/product/1119716276/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20"},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/lsat-for-dummies-book-3rd-edition-cover-9781119716273-199x255.jpg","width":199,"height":255},"title":"LSAT For Dummies, 3rd Edition","testBankPinActivationLink":"","bookOutOfPrint":true,"authorsInfo":"<p><p><b><b data-author-id=\"9086\">Lisa Zimmer Hatch</b> </b>served as VP of The Center for Legal Studies, where she created standardized test preparation. Currently, she is an Independent College Counselor and president of College Primers.</p> <p><b>Scott A. Hatch</b> develops courses for a variety of careers and assists those seeking advanced degrees in law, business, and other professions. <p><b>Lisa Zimmer Hatch </b>served as VP of The Center for Legal Studies, where she created standardized test preparation. Currently, she is an Independent College Counselor and president of College Primers.</p> <p><b><b data-author-id=\"9087\">Scott A. Hatch</b></b> develops courses for a variety of careers and assists those seeking advanced degrees in law, business, and other professions.</p>","authors":[{"authorId":9086,"name":"Lisa Zimmer Hatch","slug":"lisa-zimmer-hatch","description":" <p><b>Lisa Zimmer Hatch </b>served as VP of The Center for Legal Studies, where she created standardized test preparation. Currently, she is an Independent College Counselor and president of College Primers.</p> <p><b>Scott A. Hatch</b> develops courses for a variety of careers and assists those seeking advanced degrees in law, business, and other professions. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9086"}},{"authorId":9087,"name":"Scott A. Hatch","slug":"scott-a-hatch","description":" <p><b>Lisa Zimmer Hatch </b>served as VP of The Center for Legal Studies, where she created standardized test preparation. Currently, she is an Independent College Counselor and president of College Primers.</p> <p><b>Scott A. Hatch</b> develops courses for a variety of careers and assists those seeking advanced degrees in law, business, and other professions. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9087"}}],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/books/"}},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;study-skills-test-prep&quot;,&quot;lsat&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781119716273&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-633dc6622cafd\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;study-skills-test-prep&quot;,&quot;lsat&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781119716273&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-633dc6622d2bc\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Articles","articleList":null,"content":null,"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Advance","lifeExpectancy":"Two years","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2023-10-05T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":149042},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2022-04-09T18:42:52+00:00","modifiedTime":"2023-10-05T16:34:22+00:00","timestamp":"2023-10-05T18:01:04+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Academics & The Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"Study Skills & Test Prep","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33772"},"slug":"study-skills-test-prep","categoryId":33772},{"name":"LSAT","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33786"},"slug":"lsat","categoryId":33786}],"title":"Practice Writing Sample for the LSAT","strippedTitle":"practice writing sample for the lsat","slug":"practice-writing-sample-for-the-lsat","canonicalUrl":"","浏览搜寻平台改进":{"metaDescription":"The LSAT will include a writing prompt. Get some practice for your essay by responding to this writing prompt and comparing your essay.","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"Here's your chance to try writing an <a href=\"//coursofppt.com/test-prep/lsat/lsat-for-dummies-cheat-sheet/\">LSAT</a>-style writing essay. Open up your word processing program and enable the spellcheck (or use the Get Acquainted With LSAT Writing software to prepare your practice essay).\r\n<p class=\"article-tips remember\">There’s no right or wrong answer for an essay. Just pick a side and defend it well. After the sample topic are two possible responses. The essay positions aren’t right or wrong. Read them to get an idea of how you could organize your essay.</p>\r\n\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" >Writing prompt example: The sporting goods store</h2>\r\nThis topic deals with whether the state should fund a large sporting retailer to come to the area. Read the prompt and pick your side.\r\n\r\nA small southern town is trying to decide whether to provide financial incentives to a large national retailer that wants to open an outlet there. Town business leaders are considering offering funds raised by state taxes to pay for the store’s construction. Write an argument either supporting or protesting offering the financial incentives, keeping two guidelines in mind:\r\n<p style=\"padding-left: 40px;\">The town wants to create jobs by bringing tourist dollars to the area.</p>\r\n<p style=\"padding-left: 40px;\">The town wants to avoid putting local merchants out of business.</p>\r\nTown business leaders want to use state taxes to pay for the construction of the national retailer’s multimillion-dollar facility right next to an exit from an interstate highway. The facility would include a giant sporting goods store, several restaurants, and a hotel. It would create at least 300 new jobs, and the town hopes that it would also attract tourists who otherwise would not bother leaving the highway. If the town does not provide the tax funds, the retailer will probably take its business elsewhere.\r\n\r\nLocal merchants in the town do not want to use state funds to finance the facility’s construction. They claim that local retailers already provide all the goods that would be available at the new store, and they fear that the new store would deliberately cut its prices to drive them out of business. They believe it would be wrong for the state to fund the construction of a store for an out-of-town retailer when it does not provide the same service to local businesses. They insist that the town should treat the out-of-town retailer the same way it treats local merchants, and if the national retailer takes its business elsewhere, so much the better for local businesses.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab2\" >Sample answer: Use state funds</h2>\r\nHere’s a sample answer that argues for using the state funds:\r\n<blockquote><em>The benefits of bringing this large national retailer to the town are tremendous, and the town should do whatever is necessary to persuade the company to come. If that means the town’s leaders must offer to pay for the facility’s construction with state tax funds, then they should do it because the benefits of having the retailer move in far outweigh the cost of using state money to build the store.</em>\r\n\r\n<em>The retailer would build a huge, multimillion-dollar facility just off an interstate exit. That exit would become a major destination; people who would otherwise never consider stopping in the town would now have a reason to get off the highway and spend their money there. After these people have stopped, it will be easier to convince them to stay a while and spend even more money, perhaps on amenities that already exist in town, away from the interstate.</em>\r\n\r\n<em>Introducing the retailer would create hundreds of new jobs. First, construction workers would have ample employment. Second, all the facilities that would be part of the retailer’s complex — the sporting goods store, the several restaurants, the hotel — would require a large number of employees. These would be good, stable jobs, and the local economy needs that.</em>\r\n\r\n<em>The town already has several sporting goods stores and of course hotels and restaurants, but all are not located in one convenient place; people must drive around to get to them, and they will never attract anyone from out of town. The local merchants already have a loyal local clientele, and it’s not likely that that will change; regardless, it is unfair to force local customers to pay high prices for goods that the major retailer can sell for less.</em>\r\n\r\n<em>Bringing the retailer to town would be a win-win situation for nearly everyone. The town should bend over backward to persuade it to come; spending tax money to build the facility would be an investment with huge payoffs in the near future.</em></blockquote>\r\n<h2 id=\"tab3\" >Sample answer: Don’t use state funds</h2>\r\nHere’s a sample answer for the other side:\r\n<blockquote><em>Offering to pay for the construction of this retailer’s facility is a terrible idea. Because the potential consequences to the town’s local merchants are horrific and the likely economic benefit to the town of the retailer’s locating there is unproven at best and negligible at worst, the town should definitely not subsidize the store’s construction with state funds.</em>\r\n\r\n<em>The town should not pay to construct the national retailer’s monstrous facility because to do so would be extremely unfair to local merchants. Local merchants have to pay their own way; no one has ever offered to build facilities for them. To add insult to injury, if the town does decide to use state taxes to build the complex, then local merchants will in effect be forced to finance the construction of a major competitor.</em>\r\n\r\n<em>Countless towns have proven that introducing large national retailers with big-box stores is devastating for local merchants. The national retailers carry a larger variety of merchandise with prices set specifically to drive local merchants out of business. There is no reason to assume this retailer would be different. If this retailer comes to town, customers will flock there to do their business, abandoning the merchants who already operate in the heart of town. As for tourists, perhaps a few interstate travelers will get off the highway to do a little shopping or have a quick meal, but they are unlikely to stay very long or venture into town. Nothing about a big-box sporting goods store will impress them with “local color.”</em>\r\n\r\n<em>Although this retailer would provide a certain number of jobs, they would be low-paying jobs in an isolated area around a remote interstate exit. They would come at the cost of the jobs that already exist with the town’s local sporting-goods merchants. All profits would leave the state to go to corporate headquarters, leaving the town with a hefty construction bill and 300 minimum-wage jobs with no security.</em>\r\n\r\n<em>If the national retailer is serious about coming to this town, it can pay its own way like any other honorable vendor. There’s no sense in the town’s subsidizing its own economic destruction.</em></blockquote>","description":"Here's your chance to try writing an <a href=\"//coursofppt.com/test-prep/lsat/lsat-for-dummies-cheat-sheet/\">LSAT</a>-style writing essay. Open up your word processing program and enable the spellcheck (or use the Get Acquainted With LSAT Writing software to prepare your practice essay).\r\n<p class=\"article-tips remember\">There’s no right or wrong answer for an essay. Just pick a side and defend it well. After the sample topic are two possible responses. The essay positions aren’t right or wrong. Read them to get an idea of how you could organize your essay.</p>\r\n\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" >Writing prompt example: The sporting goods store</h2>\r\nThis topic deals with whether the state should fund a large sporting retailer to come to the area. Read the prompt and pick your side.\r\n\r\nA small southern town is trying to decide whether to provide financial incentives to a large national retailer that wants to open an outlet there. Town business leaders are considering offering funds raised by state taxes to pay for the store’s construction. Write an argument either supporting or protesting offering the financial incentives, keeping two guidelines in mind:\r\n<p style=\"padding-left: 40px;\">The town wants to create jobs by bringing tourist dollars to the area.</p>\r\n<p style=\"padding-left: 40px;\">The town wants to avoid putting local merchants out of business.</p>\r\nTown business leaders want to use state taxes to pay for the construction of the national retailer’s multimillion-dollar facility right next to an exit from an interstate highway. The facility would include a giant sporting goods store, several restaurants, and a hotel. It would create at least 300 new jobs, and the town hopes that it would also attract tourists who otherwise would not bother leaving the highway. If the town does not provide the tax funds, the retailer will probably take its business elsewhere.\r\n\r\nLocal merchants in the town do not want to use state funds to finance the facility’s construction. They claim that local retailers already provide all the goods that would be available at the new store, and they fear that the new store would deliberately cut its prices to drive them out of business. They believe it would be wrong for the state to fund the construction of a store for an out-of-town retailer when it does not provide the same service to local businesses. They insist that the town should treat the out-of-town retailer the same way it treats local merchants, and if the national retailer takes its business elsewhere, so much the better for local businesses.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab2\" >Sample answer: Use state funds</h2>\r\nHere’s a sample answer that argues for using the state funds:\r\n<blockquote><em>The benefits of bringing this large national retailer to the town are tremendous, and the town should do whatever is necessary to persuade the company to come. If that means the town’s leaders must offer to pay for the facility’s construction with state tax funds, then they should do it because the benefits of having the retailer move in far outweigh the cost of using state money to build the store.</em>\r\n\r\n<em>The retailer would build a huge, multimillion-dollar facility just off an interstate exit. That exit would become a major destination; people who would otherwise never consider stopping in the town would now have a reason to get off the highway and spend their money there. After these people have stopped, it will be easier to convince them to stay a while and spend even more money, perhaps on amenities that already exist in town, away from the interstate.</em>\r\n\r\n<em>Introducing the retailer would create hundreds of new jobs. First, construction workers would have ample employment. Second, all the facilities that would be part of the retailer’s complex — the sporting goods store, the several restaurants, the hotel — would require a large number of employees. These would be good, stable jobs, and the local economy needs that.</em>\r\n\r\n<em>The town already has several sporting goods stores and of course hotels and restaurants, but all are not located in one convenient place; people must drive around to get to them, and they will never attract anyone from out of town. The local merchants already have a loyal local clientele, and it’s not likely that that will change; regardless, it is unfair to force local customers to pay high prices for goods that the major retailer can sell for less.</em>\r\n\r\n<em>Bringing the retailer to town would be a win-win situation for nearly everyone. The town should bend over backward to persuade it to come; spending tax money to build the facility would be an investment with huge payoffs in the near future.</em></blockquote>\r\n<h2 id=\"tab3\" >Sample answer: Don’t use state funds</h2>\r\nHere’s a sample answer for the other side:\r\n<blockquote><em>Offering to pay for the construction of this retailer’s facility is a terrible idea. Because the potential consequences to the town’s local merchants are horrific and the likely economic benefit to the town of the retailer’s locating there is unproven at best and negligible at worst, the town should definitely not subsidize the store’s construction with state funds.</em>\r\n\r\n<em>The town should not pay to construct the national retailer’s monstrous facility because to do so would be extremely unfair to local merchants. Local merchants have to pay their own way; no one has ever offered to build facilities for them. To add insult to injury, if the town does decide to use state taxes to build the complex, then local merchants will in effect be forced to finance the construction of a major competitor.</em>\r\n\r\n<em>Countless towns have proven that introducing large national retailers with big-box stores is devastating for local merchants. The national retailers carry a larger variety of merchandise with prices set specifically to drive local merchants out of business. There is no reason to assume this retailer would be different. If this retailer comes to town, customers will flock there to do their business, abandoning the merchants who already operate in the heart of town. As for tourists, perhaps a few interstate travelers will get off the highway to do a little shopping or have a quick meal, but they are unlikely to stay very long or venture into town. Nothing about a big-box sporting goods store will impress them with “local color.”</em>\r\n\r\n<em>Although this retailer would provide a certain number of jobs, they would be low-paying jobs in an isolated area around a remote interstate exit. They would come at the cost of the jobs that already exist with the town’s local sporting-goods merchants. All profits would leave the state to go to corporate headquarters, leaving the town with a hefty construction bill and 300 minimum-wage jobs with no security.</em>\r\n\r\n<em>If the national retailer is serious about coming to this town, it can pay its own way like any other honorable vendor. There’s no sense in the town’s subsidizing its own economic destruction.</em></blockquote>","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":9087,"name":"Scott A. Hatch","slug":"scott-a-hatch","description":" <p><b>Lisa Zimmer Hatch </b>served as VP of The Center for Legal Studies, where she created standardized test preparation. Currently, she is an Independent College Counselor and president of College Primers.</p> <p><b>Scott A. Hatch</b> develops courses for a variety of careers and assists those seeking advanced degrees in law, business, and other professions. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9087"}},{"authorId":9086,"name":"Lisa Zimmer Hatch","slug":"lisa-zimmer-hatch","description":" <p><b>Lisa Zimmer Hatch </b>served as VP of The Center for Legal Studies, where she created standardized test preparation. Currently, she is an Independent College Counselor and president of College Primers.</p> <p><b>Scott A. Hatch</b> develops courses for a variety of careers and assists those seeking advanced degrees in law, business, and other professions. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9086"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33786,"title":"LSAT","slug":"lsat","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33786"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[{"label":"Writing prompt example: The sporting goods store","target":"#tab1"},{"label":"Sample answer: Use state funds","target":"#tab2"},{"label":"Sample answer: Don’t use state funds","target":"#tab3"}],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[{"articleId":207766,"title":"LSAT For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"lsat-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","lsat"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/207766"}},{"articleId":157512,"title":"Tips for the Reading Comprehension Section of the LSAT","slug":"tips-for-the-reading-comprehension-section-of-the-lsat","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","lsat"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/157512"}},{"articleId":157510,"title":"An Alternative Approach to the LSAT's Reading Questions","slug":"an-alternative-approach-to-the-lsats-reading-questions","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","lsat"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/157510"}},{"articleId":157511,"title":"10 Habits of Highly Successful LSAT-Takers","slug":"10-habits-of-highly-successful-lsat-takers","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","lsat"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/157511"}},{"articleId":157508,"title":"Helpful Vocabulary for the LSAT Logical Reasoning Questions","slug":"helpful-vocabulary-for-the-lsat-logical-reasoning-questions","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","lsat"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/157508"}}],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":284047,"title":"How to Choose a Law School","slug":"how-to-choose-a-law-school","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","lsat"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/284047"}},{"articleId":284042,"title":"Applying to Law School","slug":"applying-to-law-school","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","lsat"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/284042"}},{"articleId":207766,"title":"LSAT For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"lsat-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","lsat"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/207766"}},{"articleId":157512,"title":"Tips for the Reading Comprehension Section of the LSAT","slug":"tips-for-the-reading-comprehension-section-of-the-lsat","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","lsat"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/157512"}},{"articleId":157511,"title":"10 Habits of Highly Successful LSAT-Takers","slug":"10-habits-of-highly-successful-lsat-takers","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","lsat"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/157511"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":282367,"slug":"lsat-for-dummies","isbn":"9781119716273","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","lsat"],"amazon":{"default":"//www.amazon.com/gp/product/1119716276/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","ca":"//www.amazon.ca/gp/product/1119716276/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","indigo_ca":"//www.tkqlhce.com/click-9208661-13710633?url=//www.chapters.indigo.ca/en-ca/books/product/1119716276-item.html&cjsku=978111945484","gb":"//www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/1119716276/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","de":"//www.amazon.de/gp/product/1119716276/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20"},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/lsat-for-dummies-book-3rd-edition-cover-9781119716273-199x255.jpg","width":199,"height":255},"title":"LSAT For Dummies, 3rd Edition","testBankPinActivationLink":"","bookOutOfPrint":true,"authorsInfo":"<p><p><b><b data-author-id=\"9086\">Lisa Zimmer Hatch</b> </b>served as VP of The Center for Legal Studies, where she created standardized test preparation. Currently, she is an Independent College Counselor and president of College Primers.</p> <p><b>Scott A. Hatch</b> develops courses for a variety of careers and assists those seeking advanced degrees in law, business, and other professions. <p><b>Lisa Zimmer Hatch </b>served as VP of The Center for Legal Studies, where she created standardized test preparation. Currently, she is an Independent College Counselor and president of College Primers.</p> <p><b><b data-author-id=\"9087\">Scott A. Hatch</b></b> develops courses for a variety of careers and assists those seeking advanced degrees in law, business, and other professions.</p>","authors":[{"authorId":9086,"name":"Lisa Zimmer Hatch","slug":"lisa-zimmer-hatch","description":" <p><b>Lisa Zimmer Hatch </b>served as VP of The Center for Legal Studies, where she created standardized test preparation. Currently, she is an Independent College Counselor and president of College Primers.</p> <p><b>Scott A. Hatch</b> develops courses for a variety of careers and assists those seeking advanced degrees in law, business, and other professions. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9086"}},{"authorId":9087,"name":"Scott A. Hatch","slug":"scott-a-hatch","description":" <p><b>Lisa Zimmer Hatch </b>served as VP of The Center for Legal Studies, where she created standardized test preparation. Currently, she is an Independent College Counselor and president of College Primers.</p> <p><b>Scott A. Hatch</b> develops courses for a variety of careers and assists those seeking advanced degrees in law, business, and other professions. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9087"}}],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/books/"}},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;study-skills-test-prep&quot;,&quot;lsat&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781119716273&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-633dc660cc1f0\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;study-skills-test-prep&quot;,&quot;lsat&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781119716273&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-633dc660cc9a3\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Articles","articleList":null,"content":null,"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Advance","lifeExpectancy":"Two years","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2023-10-05T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":284030},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2017-03-26T10:54:40+00:00","modifiedTime":"2023-10-05T15:02:15+00:00","timestamp":"2023-10-05T18:01:02+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Academics & The Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"Study Skills & Test Prep","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33772"},"slug":"study-skills-test-prep","categoryId":33772},{"name":"LSAT","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33786"},"slug":"lsat","categoryId":33786}],"title":"LSAT Reading Comprehension: How to Answer Direct Information Questions","strippedTitle":"lsat reading comprehension: how to answer direct information questions","slug":"lsat-reading-comprehension-how-to-answer-direct-information-questions","canonicalUrl":"","浏览搜寻平台改进":{"metaDescription":"Some LSAT reading questions ask you about specific statements from the passage. Learn the best strategy for answering these questions.","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"Some LSAT reading questions ask you about specific statements from the passage. These questions are potentially the easiest type of reading question because the information you need to answer them is stated in the passage, and the correct answer is a paraphrase. You just need to find it. This information may be quantitative, such as years, figures, or numbers, or it may be qualitative, like ideas, emotions, or thoughts.\r\n\r\nSpot specific information questions by noticing how they're phrased. Those that contain verbs that indicate direct statements, such as <i>states, indicates,</i> or <i>claims,</i> are likely ones whose correct answer is a paraphrase of information in the passage. Usually, questions that ask for answers that are “according to the passage” are also specific information questions. So look for a direct answer to a question that's phrased like these examples:\r\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">The passage states that Neruda's Communist beliefs were evident in his poetry as early as which one of the following years?</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">According to the passage, which one of the following is true about the primary intensity of sound?</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">In the passage, the author indicates that transitory actions can be filed in which one of the following?</p>\r\n</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<p class=\"Tip\">Because specific information questions seek an answer that derives directly from information in the passage, look for answers that come straight from the passage and eliminate answer choices that require you to make any inferences.</p>\r\nIf you have to make a logical deduction to justify an answer choice for this question type, it's probably wrong. And keep in mind that the right answer may paraphrase the passage rather than provide a word-for-word repeat.","description":"Some LSAT reading questions ask you about specific statements from the passage. These questions are potentially the easiest type of reading question because the information you need to answer them is stated in the passage, and the correct answer is a paraphrase. You just need to find it. This information may be quantitative, such as years, figures, or numbers, or it may be qualitative, like ideas, emotions, or thoughts.\r\n\r\nSpot specific information questions by noticing how they're phrased. Those that contain verbs that indicate direct statements, such as <i>states, indicates,</i> or <i>claims,</i> are likely ones whose correct answer is a paraphrase of information in the passage. Usually, questions that ask for answers that are “according to the passage” are also specific information questions. So look for a direct answer to a question that's phrased like these examples:\r\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">The passage states that Neruda's Communist beliefs were evident in his poetry as early as which one of the following years?</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">According to the passage, which one of the following is true about the primary intensity of sound?</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">In the passage, the author indicates that transitory actions can be filed in which one of the following?</p>\r\n</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<p class=\"Tip\">Because specific information questions seek an answer that derives directly from information in the passage, look for answers that come straight from the passage and eliminate answer choices that require you to make any inferences.</p>\r\nIf you have to make a logical deduction to justify an answer choice for this question type, it's probably wrong. And keep in mind that the right answer may paraphrase the passage rather than provide a word-for-word repeat.","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":9086,"name":"Lisa Zimmer Hatch","slug":"lisa-zimmer-hatch","description":" <p><b>Lisa Zimmer Hatch </b>served as VP of The Center for Legal Studies, where she created standardized test preparation. Currently, she is an Independent College Counselor and president of College Primers.</p> <p><b>Scott A. Hatch</b> develops courses for a variety of careers and assists those seeking advanced degrees in law, business, and other professions. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9086"}},{"authorId":9087,"name":"Scott A. Hatch","slug":"scott-a-hatch","description":" <p><b>Lisa Zimmer Hatch </b>served as VP of The Center for Legal Studies, where she created standardized test preparation. Currently, she is an Independent College Counselor and president of College Primers.</p> <p><b>Scott A. Hatch</b> develops courses for a variety of careers and assists those seeking advanced degrees in law, business, and other professions. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9087"}},{"authorId":9388,"name":"Amy Hackney Blackwell","slug":"amy-hackney-blackwell","description":" Amy Hackney Blackwell is a former attorney who received her JD from the University of Virginia School of Law. 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Currently, she is an Independent College Counselor and president of College Primers.</p> <p><b>Scott A. Hatch</b> develops courses for a variety of careers and assists those seeking advanced degrees in law, business, and other professions. <p><b>Lisa Zimmer Hatch </b>served as VP of The Center for Legal Studies, where she created standardized test preparation. Currently, she is an Independent College Counselor and president of College Primers.</p> <p><b><b data-author-id=\"9087\">Scott A. Hatch</b></b> develops courses for a variety of careers and assists those seeking advanced degrees in law, business, and other professions.</p>","authors":[{"authorId":9086,"name":"Lisa Zimmer Hatch","slug":"lisa-zimmer-hatch","description":" <p><b>Lisa Zimmer Hatch </b>served as VP of The Center for Legal Studies, where she created standardized test preparation. Currently, she is an Independent College Counselor and president of College Primers.</p> <p><b>Scott A. Hatch</b> develops courses for a variety of careers and assists those seeking advanced degrees in law, business, and other professions. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9086"}},{"authorId":9087,"name":"Scott A. Hatch","slug":"scott-a-hatch","description":" <p><b>Lisa Zimmer Hatch </b>served as VP of The Center for Legal Studies, where she created standardized test preparation. Currently, she is an Independent College Counselor and president of College Primers.</p> <p><b>Scott A. Hatch</b> develops courses for a variety of careers and assists those seeking advanced degrees in law, business, and other professions. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9087"}}],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/books/"}},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;study-skills-test-prep&quot;,&quot;lsat&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781119716273&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-633dc65ec6111\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;study-skills-test-prep&quot;,&quot;lsat&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781119716273&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-633dc65ec6f45\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Articles","articleList":null,"content":null,"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Advance","lifeExpectancy":"Two years","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2023-10-05T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":149044},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2017-03-26T10:54:40+00:00","modifiedTime":"2023-10-05T14:59:31+00:00","timestamp":"2023-10-05T15:01:03+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Academics & The Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"Study Skills & Test Prep","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33772"},"slug":"study-skills-test-prep","categoryId":33772},{"name":"LSAT","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33786"},"slug":"lsat","categoryId":33786}],"title":"LSAT Reading Comprehension: Sample Humanities Passage","strippedTitle":"lsat reading comprehension: sample humanities passage","slug":"lsat-reading-comprehension-sample-humanities-passage","canonicalUrl":"","浏览搜寻平台改进":{"metaDescription":"To prepare for the reading comprehension portion of the LSAT, check out this example of the type of humanities passage you'll encounter.","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"Humanities passages you may see on the LSAT explore topics related to the arts and literature. So you may read about the message of a Mexican muralist, the techniques applied by a modern composer, or the themes advanced by a particular playwright. This passage excerpt interprets the impact of a popular Latin American poet:\r\n\r\nThe Chilean poet Pablo Neruda joined the Communist Party in 1939 and, according to Jean Franco, began to write social poetry shortly thereafter. But Neruda's social philosophy is apparent in the poems he wrote before his formal Communist affiliation.\r\n\r\nIn 1924, Neruda published <i>Twenty Love Poems and a Song of Despair,</i> a compilation of 21 poems through which Neruda reveals the compassion for common humanity that formed the foundation of his political choices.\r\n\r\nNeruda's use of familiar images and common experience in his poetry makes his art accessible to the average person, and because art attempts to make sense of the often ambiguous objective world by presenting it in a more easily grasped form, Neruda's poems carry out the Communist ideal of collective equality by offering everyone the opportunity to better comprehend the world.\r\n\r\nTherefore, <i>Twenty Love Poems</i> achieves a more powerful purpose than merely exploring the relationship between a man and a woman; Neruda's poems provide a means by which to explore the complexities of the world and perhaps catch a glimpse of something more eternal.\r\n<p class=\"Tip\">The excerpt reveals the author's positive view of Neruda's compilation through a relatively objective account of the work's influence. Like many humanities passages, this paragraph incorporates historical and political references in its discussion of the artist.</p>","description":"Humanities passages you may see on the LSAT explore topics related to the arts and literature. So you may read about the message of a Mexican muralist, the techniques applied by a modern composer, or the themes advanced by a particular playwright. This passage excerpt interprets the impact of a popular Latin American poet:\r\n\r\nThe Chilean poet Pablo Neruda joined the Communist Party in 1939 and, according to Jean Franco, began to write social poetry shortly thereafter. But Neruda's social philosophy is apparent in the poems he wrote before his formal Communist affiliation.\r\n\r\nIn 1924, Neruda published <i>Twenty Love Poems and a Song of Despair,</i> a compilation of 21 poems through which Neruda reveals the compassion for common humanity that formed the foundation of his political choices.\r\n\r\nNeruda's use of familiar images and common experience in his poetry makes his art accessible to the average person, and because art attempts to make sense of the often ambiguous objective world by presenting it in a more easily grasped form, Neruda's poems carry out the Communist ideal of collective equality by offering everyone the opportunity to better comprehend the world.\r\n\r\nTherefore, <i>Twenty Love Poems</i> achieves a more powerful purpose than merely exploring the relationship between a man and a woman; Neruda's poems provide a means by which to explore the complexities of the world and perhaps catch a glimpse of something more eternal.\r\n<p class=\"Tip\">The excerpt reveals the author's positive view of Neruda's compilation through a relatively objective account of the work's influence. Like many humanities passages, this paragraph incorporates historical and political references in its discussion of the artist.</p>","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":9086,"name":"Lisa Zimmer Hatch","slug":"lisa-zimmer-hatch","description":" <p><b>Lisa Zimmer Hatch </b>served as VP of The Center for Legal Studies, where she created standardized test preparation. Currently, she is an Independent College Counselor and president of College Primers.</p> <p><b>Scott A. Hatch</b> develops courses for a variety of careers and assists those seeking advanced degrees in law, business, and other professions. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9086"}},{"authorId":9087,"name":"Scott A. Hatch","slug":"scott-a-hatch","description":" <p><b>Lisa Zimmer Hatch </b>served as VP of The Center for Legal Studies, where she created standardized test preparation. Currently, she is an Independent College Counselor and president of College Primers.</p> <p><b>Scott A. Hatch</b> develops courses for a variety of careers and assists those seeking advanced degrees in law, business, and other professions. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9087"}},{"authorId":9388,"name":"Amy Hackney Blackwell","slug":"amy-hackney-blackwell","description":" Amy Hackney Blackwell is a former attorney who received her JD from the University of Virginia School of Law. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9388"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33786,"title":"LSAT","slug":"lsat","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33786"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[{"articleId":207766,"title":"LSAT For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"lsat-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","lsat"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/207766"}},{"articleId":157512,"title":"Tips for the Reading Comprehension Section of the LSAT","slug":"tips-for-the-reading-comprehension-section-of-the-lsat","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","lsat"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/157512"}},{"articleId":157510,"title":"An Alternative Approach to the LSAT's Reading Questions","slug":"an-alternative-approach-to-the-lsats-reading-questions","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","lsat"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/157510"}},{"articleId":157511,"title":"10 Habits of Highly Successful LSAT-Takers","slug":"10-habits-of-highly-successful-lsat-takers","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","lsat"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/157511"}},{"articleId":157508,"title":"Helpful Vocabulary for the LSAT Logical Reasoning Questions","slug":"helpful-vocabulary-for-the-lsat-logical-reasoning-questions","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","lsat"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/157508"}}],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":284047,"title":"How to Choose a Law School","slug":"how-to-choose-a-law-school","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","lsat"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/284047"}},{"articleId":284042,"title":"Applying to Law School","slug":"applying-to-law-school","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","lsat"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/284042"}},{"articleId":284030,"title":"Practice Writing Sample for the LSAT","slug":"practice-writing-sample-for-the-lsat","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","lsat"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/284030"}},{"articleId":207766,"title":"LSAT For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"lsat-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","lsat"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/207766"}},{"articleId":157512,"title":"Tips for the Reading Comprehension Section of the LSAT","slug":"tips-for-the-reading-comprehension-section-of-the-lsat","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","lsat"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/157512"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":282367,"slug":"lsat-for-dummies","isbn":"9781119716273","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","lsat"],"amazon":{"default":"//www.amazon.com/gp/product/1119716276/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","ca":"//www.amazon.ca/gp/product/1119716276/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","indigo_ca":"//www.tkqlhce.com/click-9208661-13710633?url=//www.chapters.indigo.ca/en-ca/books/product/1119716276-item.html&cjsku=978111945484","gb":"//www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/1119716276/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","de":"//www.amazon.de/gp/product/1119716276/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20"},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/lsat-for-dummies-book-3rd-edition-cover-9781119716273-199x255.jpg","width":199,"height":255},"title":"LSAT For Dummies, 3rd Edition","testBankPinActivationLink":"","bookOutOfPrint":true,"authorsInfo":"<p><p><b><b data-author-id=\"9086\">Lisa Zimmer Hatch</b> </b>served as VP of The Center for Legal Studies, where she created standardized test preparation. Currently, she is an Independent College Counselor and president of College Primers.</p> <p><b>Scott A. Hatch</b> develops courses for a variety of careers and assists those seeking advanced degrees in law, business, and other professions. <p><b>Lisa Zimmer Hatch </b>served as VP of The Center for Legal Studies, where she created standardized test preparation. Currently, she is an Independent College Counselor and president of College Primers.</p> <p><b><b data-author-id=\"9087\">Scott A. Hatch</b></b> develops courses for a variety of careers and assists those seeking advanced degrees in law, business, and other professions.</p>","authors":[{"authorId":9086,"name":"Lisa Zimmer Hatch","slug":"lisa-zimmer-hatch","description":" <p><b>Lisa Zimmer Hatch </b>served as VP of The Center for Legal Studies, where she created standardized test preparation. Currently, she is an Independent College Counselor and president of College Primers.</p> <p><b>Scott A. Hatch</b> develops courses for a variety of careers and assists those seeking advanced degrees in law, business, and other professions. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9086"}},{"authorId":9087,"name":"Scott A. Hatch","slug":"scott-a-hatch","description":" <p><b>Lisa Zimmer Hatch </b>served as VP of The Center for Legal Studies, where she created standardized test preparation. Currently, she is an Independent College Counselor and president of College Primers.</p> <p><b>Scott A. Hatch</b> develops courses for a variety of careers and assists those seeking advanced degrees in law, business, and other professions. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9087"}}],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/books/"}},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;study-skills-test-prep&quot;,&quot;lsat&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781119716273&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-633d9c2f3b6ef\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;study-skills-test-prep&quot;,&quot;lsat&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781119716273&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-633d9c2f3bc2e\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Articles","articleList":null,"content":null,"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Advance","lifeExpectancy":"Two years","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2023-10-05T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":149043},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2017-03-26T12:54:10+00:00","modifiedTime":"2023-10-05T13:59:54+00:00","timestamp":"2023-10-05T15:01:03+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Academics & The Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"Study Skills & Test Prep","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33772"},"slug":"study-skills-test-prep","categoryId":33772},{"name":"LSAT","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33786"},"slug":"lsat","categoryId":33786}],"title":"LSAT Test Prep: Reading Comprehension Practice","strippedTitle":"lsat test prep: reading comprehension practice","slug":"lsat-test-prep-reading-comprehension-practice","canonicalUrl":"","浏览搜寻平台改进":{"metaDescription":"To help you prepare for the reading comprehension portion of the LSAT, check out this sample passage, questions, and answer key.","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"The reading comprehension section of the LSAT may present you with reading passages of different lengths, but the passages will all require that you be a critical reader and have good comprehension abilities.\r\n\r\n<i>The questions in this article refer to the following passage.</i>\r\n\r\n“Power” is a generic term that must be distinguished from the more specific term “authority.” When party A gets party B to do what party B would not otherwise have done, party A has exercised power. Power takes many forms and appears variously in the histories of Alexander the Great and his time.\r\n\r\nAlexander enjoyed military power and delegated a portion of it to his general, Antipater. Antipater in turn used the coercive power afforded him by his army in Greece to install friendly governments and forestall concerted action against Macedonia.\r\n\r\nThe politicians and public speakers in the Greek states demonstrated powers of persuasion that, at different times, affected the course of events differently. Only those with some degree of power become actors in political histories. More interesting is the particular manifestation of power that we call authority.\r\n\r\nAuthority is a kind of power, but not all power is authoritative. Authority is a “discursive function.” Authority describes the ability to command effectively, for even when we speak of someone “acting” authoritatively, we actually mean “causing others to act by virtue of one’s authoritative speech.”\r\n\r\nAs such, authority implies an asymmetry in the relationship between speaker and listener. Because authority demands obedience, it is associated with coercive power, and because it operates in discourse, it is associated with persuasive power.\r\n\r\nYet these associations are uneasy. The command, “Don’t move or I’ll shoot” is discursive and demands obedience, but while it shows that the speaker is in a position of power, it does not suggest a position of authority. Likewise, a well-argued case may effect its desired result, but argument presupposes a certain equality between speaker and listener.\r\n\r\nAuthoritative speech relies for its effect on the identity of the speaker, her or his relationship with the audience, and the audience’s perception of the speaker. Coercion and persuasion may support this relationship, as the listeners assume either that dire consequences will result from disobedience or that there must be good reasons for obedience. But to see authority in action, both coercion and persuasion must remain in the background, occulted.\r\n\r\nIf the listener demands a reason for a command or asks about the consequences of disobedience, the speaker’s authority falters. At this point authority may give way to persuasion (if the speaker argues in favor of the command) or naked force (if the speaker threatens), or it may be reasserted by invoking the privileged, authoritative position of the speaker: “Because I said so!”\r\n\r\nAlexander himself enjoyed many kinds of authority at different times: as acclaimed leader, first among equals, of the Macedonians, as presider over the Treaty of Common Peace in Greece, as Great King in Persia, and as an earthly divinity at first to the Egyptians (who were used to such things) and later to many Greeks.\r\n\r\nOther Macedonians also held authority, at various times, either by association with Alexander or according to their own abilities and positions.\r\n<ol class=\"level-one\">\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">Which one of the following most accurately states the central idea of this passage?</p>\r\n\r\n<ul class=\"level-two\">\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">(A)Power and authority are the same thing but are spoken of differently depending on whether the person exercising power is a political leader.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">(B)Power is a kind of authority that comes from persuasive speech and the threat of coercive force.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">(C)Authority is a kind of power that does not explicitly depend for its effect on persuasion or coercion.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">(D)Alexander was unique among ancient kings in exercising power and authority, but his general, Antipater, was also powerful.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">(E)Alexander exercised power among the Greeks but relied on authority to govern Macedonians, Persians, and Egyptians.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">The primary function of the second paragraph of the passage is to</p>\r\n\r\n<ul class=\"level-two\">\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">(A)discuss the use of authority by Alexander the Great</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">(B)explore aspects of the concept of authority and its uneasy association with coercive and discursive power</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">(C)imply that without coercive power, there is no authority</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">(D)criticize scholars who have suggested different definitions of authority</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">(E)suggest that a speaker’s authority falters if listeners question it</p>\r\n</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">What does the author mean by the word “occulted” in Line XX?</p>\r\n\r\n<ul class=\"level-two\">\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">(A)expressed</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">(B)understated</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">(C)hidden</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">(D)magical</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">(E)accosted</p>\r\n</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">According to the passage, what is the difference between power and authority?</p>\r\n\r\n<ul class=\"level-two\">\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">(A)Authority is a generic term for creating an effect through persuasion, while power involves coercive force.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">(B)Power is a generic term for the ability to make someone do something; authority is a particular form of power, the ability to command without explicit persuasion or coercion.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">(C)Authority is exercised by virtue of political office, while power requires military command.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">(D)Power exists in the eyes of the governed, while authority resides in the one employing it.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">(E)Power is a generic term for the ability to make someone do something; authority is a particular form of power, the ability to command by skillfully applying persuasion and coercion as necessary.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n</li>\r\n</ol>\r\n<b>Answer Key</b>\r\n<ol class=\"level-one\">\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">C. Authority is a kind of power that does not explicitly depend for its effect on persuasion or coercion.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">B. explore aspects of the concept of authority and its uneasy association with coercive and discursive power</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">C. hidden</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">B. Power is a generic term for the ability to make someone do something; authority is a particular form of power, the ability to command without explicit persuasion or coercion.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n</ol>","description":"The reading comprehension section of the LSAT may present you with reading passages of different lengths, but the passages will all require that you be a critical reader and have good comprehension abilities.\r\n\r\n<i>The questions in this article refer to the following passage.</i>\r\n\r\n“Power” is a generic term that must be distinguished from the more specific term “authority.” When party A gets party B to do what party B would not otherwise have done, party A has exercised power. Power takes many forms and appears variously in the histories of Alexander the Great and his time.\r\n\r\nAlexander enjoyed military power and delegated a portion of it to his general, Antipater. Antipater in turn used the coercive power afforded him by his army in Greece to install friendly governments and forestall concerted action against Macedonia.\r\n\r\nThe politicians and public speakers in the Greek states demonstrated powers of persuasion that, at different times, affected the course of events differently. Only those with some degree of power become actors in political histories. More interesting is the particular manifestation of power that we call authority.\r\n\r\nAuthority is a kind of power, but not all power is authoritative. Authority is a “discursive function.” Authority describes the ability to command effectively, for even when we speak of someone “acting” authoritatively, we actually mean “causing others to act by virtue of one’s authoritative speech.”\r\n\r\nAs such, authority implies an asymmetry in the relationship between speaker and listener. Because authority demands obedience, it is associated with coercive power, and because it operates in discourse, it is associated with persuasive power.\r\n\r\nYet these associations are uneasy. The command, “Don’t move or I’ll shoot” is discursive and demands obedience, but while it shows that the speaker is in a position of power, it does not suggest a position of authority. Likewise, a well-argued case may effect its desired result, but argument presupposes a certain equality between speaker and listener.\r\n\r\nAuthoritative speech relies for its effect on the identity of the speaker, her or his relationship with the audience, and the audience’s perception of the speaker. Coercion and persuasion may support this relationship, as the listeners assume either that dire consequences will result from disobedience or that there must be good reasons for obedience. But to see authority in action, both coercion and persuasion must remain in the background, occulted.\r\n\r\nIf the listener demands a reason for a command or asks about the consequences of disobedience, the speaker’s authority falters. At this point authority may give way to persuasion (if the speaker argues in favor of the command) or naked force (if the speaker threatens), or it may be reasserted by invoking the privileged, authoritative position of the speaker: “Because I said so!”\r\n\r\nAlexander himself enjoyed many kinds of authority at different times: as acclaimed leader, first among equals, of the Macedonians, as presider over the Treaty of Common Peace in Greece, as Great King in Persia, and as an earthly divinity at first to the Egyptians (who were used to such things) and later to many Greeks.\r\n\r\nOther Macedonians also held authority, at various times, either by association with Alexander or according to their own abilities and positions.\r\n<ol class=\"level-one\">\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">Which one of the following most accurately states the central idea of this passage?</p>\r\n\r\n<ul class=\"level-two\">\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">(A)Power and authority are the same thing but are spoken of differently depending on whether the person exercising power is a political leader.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">(B)Power is a kind of authority that comes from persuasive speech and the threat of coercive force.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">(C)Authority is a kind of power that does not explicitly depend for its effect on persuasion or coercion.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">(D)Alexander was unique among ancient kings in exercising power and authority, but his general, Antipater, was also powerful.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">(E)Alexander exercised power among the Greeks but relied on authority to govern Macedonians, Persians, and Egyptians.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">The primary function of the second paragraph of the passage is to</p>\r\n\r\n<ul class=\"level-two\">\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">(A)discuss the use of authority by Alexander the Great</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">(B)explore aspects of the concept of authority and its uneasy association with coercive and discursive power</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">(C)imply that without coercive power, there is no authority</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">(D)criticize scholars who have suggested different definitions of authority</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">(E)suggest that a speaker’s authority falters if listeners question it</p>\r\n</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">What does the author mean by the word “occulted” in Line XX?</p>\r\n\r\n<ul class=\"level-two\">\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">(A)expressed</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">(B)understated</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">(C)hidden</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">(D)magical</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">(E)accosted</p>\r\n</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">According to the passage, what is the difference between power and authority?</p>\r\n\r\n<ul class=\"level-two\">\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">(A)Authority is a generic term for creating an effect through persuasion, while power involves coercive force.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">(B)Power is a generic term for the ability to make someone do something; authority is a particular form of power, the ability to command without explicit persuasion or coercion.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">(C)Authority is exercised by virtue of political office, while power requires military command.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">(D)Power exists in the eyes of the governed, while authority resides in the one employing it.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">(E)Power is a generic term for the ability to make someone do something; authority is a particular form of power, the ability to command by skillfully applying persuasion and coercion as necessary.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n</li>\r\n</ol>\r\n<b>Answer Key</b>\r\n<ol class=\"level-one\">\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">C. Authority is a kind of power that does not explicitly depend for its effect on persuasion or coercion.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">B. explore aspects of the concept of authority and its uneasy association with coercive and discursive power</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">C. hidden</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">B. Power is a generic term for the ability to make someone do something; authority is a particular form of power, the ability to command without explicit persuasion or coercion.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n</ol>","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":9086,"name":"Lisa Zimmer Hatch","slug":"lisa-zimmer-hatch","description":" <p><b>Lisa Zimmer Hatch </b>served as VP of The Center for Legal Studies, where she created standardized test preparation. Currently, she is an Independent College Counselor and president of College Primers.</p> <p><b>Scott A. Hatch</b> develops courses for a variety of careers and assists those seeking advanced degrees in law, business, and other professions. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9086"}},{"authorId":9087,"name":"Scott A. Hatch","slug":"scott-a-hatch","description":" <p><b>Lisa Zimmer Hatch </b>served as VP of The Center for Legal Studies, where she created standardized test preparation. Currently, she is an Independent College Counselor and president of College Primers.</p> <p><b>Scott A. Hatch</b> develops courses for a variety of careers and assists those seeking advanced degrees in law, business, and other professions. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9087"}},{"authorId":9388,"name":"Amy Hackney Blackwell","slug":"amy-hackney-blackwell","description":" Amy Hackney Blackwell is a former attorney who received her JD from the University of Virginia School of Law. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9388"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33786,"title":"LSAT","slug":"lsat","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33786"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[{"articleId":207766,"title":"LSAT For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"lsat-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","lsat"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/207766"}},{"articleId":157512,"title":"Tips for the Reading Comprehension Section of the LSAT","slug":"tips-for-the-reading-comprehension-section-of-the-lsat","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","lsat"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/157512"}},{"articleId":157510,"title":"An Alternative Approach to the LSAT's Reading Questions","slug":"an-alternative-approach-to-the-lsats-reading-questions","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","lsat"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/157510"}},{"articleId":157511,"title":"10 Habits of Highly Successful LSAT-Takers","slug":"10-habits-of-highly-successful-lsat-takers","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","lsat"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/157511"}},{"articleId":157508,"title":"Helpful Vocabulary for the LSAT Logical Reasoning Questions","slug":"helpful-vocabulary-for-the-lsat-logical-reasoning-questions","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","lsat"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/157508"}}],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":284047,"title":"How to Choose a Law School","slug":"how-to-choose-a-law-school","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","lsat"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/284047"}},{"articleId":284042,"title":"Applying to Law School","slug":"applying-to-law-school","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","lsat"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/284042"}},{"articleId":284030,"title":"Practice Writing Sample for the LSAT","slug":"practice-writing-sample-for-the-lsat","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","lsat"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/284030"}},{"articleId":207766,"title":"LSAT For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"lsat-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","lsat"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/207766"}},{"articleId":157512,"title":"Tips for the Reading Comprehension Section of the LSAT","slug":"tips-for-the-reading-comprehension-section-of-the-lsat","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","lsat"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/157512"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":282367,"slug":"lsat-for-dummies","isbn":"9781119716273","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","lsat"],"amazon":{"default":"//www.amazon.com/gp/product/1119716276/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","ca":"//www.amazon.ca/gp/product/1119716276/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","indigo_ca":"//www.tkqlhce.com/click-9208661-13710633?url=//www.chapters.indigo.ca/en-ca/books/product/1119716276-item.html&cjsku=978111945484","gb":"//www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/1119716276/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","de":"//www.amazon.de/gp/product/1119716276/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20"},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/lsat-for-dummies-book-3rd-edition-cover-9781119716273-199x255.jpg","width":199,"height":255},"title":"LSAT For Dummies, 3rd Edition","testBankPinActivationLink":"","bookOutOfPrint":true,"authorsInfo":"<p><p><b><b data-author-id=\"9086\">Lisa Zimmer Hatch</b> </b>served as VP of The Center for Legal Studies, where she created standardized test preparation. Currently, she is an Independent College Counselor and president of College Primers.</p> <p><b>Scott A. Hatch</b> develops courses for a variety of careers and assists those seeking advanced degrees in law, business, and other professions. <p><b>Lisa Zimmer Hatch </b>served as VP of The Center for Legal Studies, where she created standardized test preparation. Currently, she is an Independent College Counselor and president of College Primers.</p> <p><b><b data-author-id=\"9087\">Scott A. Hatch</b></b> develops courses for a variety of careers and assists those seeking advanced degrees in law, business, and other professions.</p>","authors":[{"authorId":9086,"name":"Lisa Zimmer Hatch","slug":"lisa-zimmer-hatch","description":" <p><b>Lisa Zimmer Hatch </b>served as VP of The Center for Legal Studies, where she created standardized test preparation. Currently, she is an Independent College Counselor and president of College Primers.</p> <p><b>Scott A. Hatch</b> develops courses for a variety of careers and assists those seeking advanced degrees in law, business, and other professions. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9086"}},{"authorId":9087,"name":"Scott A. Hatch","slug":"scott-a-hatch","description":" <p><b>Lisa Zimmer Hatch </b>served as VP of The Center for Legal Studies, where she created standardized test preparation. Currently, she is an Independent College Counselor and president of College Primers.</p> <p><b>Scott A. Hatch</b> develops courses for a variety of careers and assists those seeking advanced degrees in law, business, and other professions. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9087"}}],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/books/"}},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;study-skills-test-prep&quot;,&quot;lsat&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781119716273&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-633d9c2f35a72\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;study-skills-test-prep&quot;,&quot;lsat&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781119716273&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-633d9c2f35fac\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Articles","articleList":null,"content":null,"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Advance","lifeExpectancy":"Two years","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2023-10-05T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":154355},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2017-03-26T10:54:51+00:00","modifiedTime":"2023-10-05T13:54:41+00:00","timestamp":"2023-10-05T15:01:03+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Academics & The Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"Study Skills & Test Prep","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33772"},"slug":"study-skills-test-prep","categoryId":33772},{"name":"LSAT","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33786"},"slug":"lsat","categoryId":33786}],"title":"LSAT Reading Comprehension: Sample Social Science Passage","strippedTitle":"lsat reading comprehension: sample social science passage","slug":"lsat-reading-comprehension-sample-social-science-passage","canonicalUrl":"","浏览搜寻平台改进":{"metaDescription":"To help you prepare for the reading comprehension portion of the LSAT, check out this example of a social science passage.","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"The reading comprehension section of the LSAT includes a passage about a different kind of science: social science. This passage type includes topics like philosophy, history, political science, archaeology, sociology, and psychology. The good news about social science passages is that their topics tend to crop up more in the news and in daily conversation than does, for example, physics! So you may be more comfortable with social science topics.\r\n<p class=\"Remember\">Although passages about the social sciences are still mostly descriptive and informative, they're more likely to be persuasive than natural science passages, so you may see more variety in the kinds of tones these passages display. For instance, the personality and opinion of the author of this excerpt of a sample philosophy passage are very apparent:</p>\r\nFor most Americans and Europeans, this should be the best time in all of human history to live. Survival — the very purpose of all life — is nearly guaranteed for large parts of the world, especially in the West.\r\n\r\nThis should allow people a sense of security and contentment. If life is no longer, as Thomas Hobbes famously wrote, “nasty, brutish, and short,” then should it not be pleasant, dignified, and long? To know that tomorrow is nearly guaranteed, along with thousands of additional tomorrows, should be enough to render hundreds of millions of people awe-struck with happiness.\r\n\r\nAnd modern humans, especially in the West, have every opportunity to be free, even as they enjoy ever-longer lives. Why is it, then, that so many people feel unhappy and trapped? The answer lies in the constant pressure of trying to meet needs that don't actually exist.\r\n\r\nThe word <i>need</i> has been used with less and less precision in modern life. Today, many things are described as needs, including fashion items, SUVs, vacations, and other luxuries. People say, “I need a new car,” when their current vehicle continues to function. People with many pairs of shoes may still say they “need” a new pair.\r\n\r\nClearly, this careless usage is inaccurate; neither the new car nor the additional shoes are truly “needed.”\r\n<p class=\"Tip\">This author conveys a clear opinion regarding Western interpretations of needs. The dubious tone and clear opinion of this social science passage comes through in the placement of copious quotation marks and the introduction of rhetorical questions.</p>","description":"The reading comprehension section of the LSAT includes a passage about a different kind of science: social science. This passage type includes topics like philosophy, history, political science, archaeology, sociology, and psychology. The good news about social science passages is that their topics tend to crop up more in the news and in daily conversation than does, for example, physics! So you may be more comfortable with social science topics.\r\n<p class=\"Remember\">Although passages about the social sciences are still mostly descriptive and informative, they're more likely to be persuasive than natural science passages, so you may see more variety in the kinds of tones these passages display. For instance, the personality and opinion of the author of this excerpt of a sample philosophy passage are very apparent:</p>\r\nFor most Americans and Europeans, this should be the best time in all of human history to live. Survival — the very purpose of all life — is nearly guaranteed for large parts of the world, especially in the West.\r\n\r\nThis should allow people a sense of security and contentment. If life is no longer, as Thomas Hobbes famously wrote, “nasty, brutish, and short,” then should it not be pleasant, dignified, and long? To know that tomorrow is nearly guaranteed, along with thousands of additional tomorrows, should be enough to render hundreds of millions of people awe-struck with happiness.\r\n\r\nAnd modern humans, especially in the West, have every opportunity to be free, even as they enjoy ever-longer lives. Why is it, then, that so many people feel unhappy and trapped? The answer lies in the constant pressure of trying to meet needs that don't actually exist.\r\n\r\nThe word <i>need</i> has been used with less and less precision in modern life. Today, many things are described as needs, including fashion items, SUVs, vacations, and other luxuries. People say, “I need a new car,” when their current vehicle continues to function. People with many pairs of shoes may still say they “need” a new pair.\r\n\r\nClearly, this careless usage is inaccurate; neither the new car nor the additional shoes are truly “needed.”\r\n<p class=\"Tip\">This author conveys a clear opinion regarding Western interpretations of needs. The dubious tone and clear opinion of this social science passage comes through in the placement of copious quotation marks and the introduction of rhetorical questions.</p>","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":9086,"name":"Lisa Zimmer Hatch","slug":"lisa-zimmer-hatch","description":" <p><b>Lisa Zimmer Hatch </b>served as VP of The Center for Legal Studies, where she created standardized test preparation. Currently, she is an Independent College Counselor and president of College Primers.</p> <p><b>Scott A. Hatch</b> develops courses for a variety of careers and assists those seeking advanced degrees in law, business, and other professions. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9086"}},{"authorId":9087,"name":"Scott A. Hatch","slug":"scott-a-hatch","description":" <p><b>Lisa Zimmer Hatch </b>served as VP of The Center for Legal Studies, where she created standardized test preparation. Currently, she is an Independent College Counselor and president of College Primers.</p> <p><b>Scott A. Hatch</b> develops courses for a variety of careers and assists those seeking advanced degrees in law, business, and other professions. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9087"}},{"authorId":9388,"name":"Amy Hackney Blackwell","slug":"amy-hackney-blackwell","description":" Amy Hackney Blackwell is a former attorney who received her JD from the University of Virginia School of Law. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9388"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33786,"title":"LSAT","slug":"lsat","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33786"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[{"articleId":207766,"title":"LSAT For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"lsat-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","lsat"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/207766"}},{"articleId":157512,"title":"Tips for the Reading Comprehension Section of the LSAT","slug":"tips-for-the-reading-comprehension-section-of-the-lsat","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","lsat"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/157512"}},{"articleId":157510,"title":"An Alternative Approach to the LSAT's Reading Questions","slug":"an-alternative-approach-to-the-lsats-reading-questions","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","lsat"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/157510"}},{"articleId":157511,"title":"10 Habits of Highly Successful LSAT-Takers","slug":"10-habits-of-highly-successful-lsat-takers","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","lsat"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/157511"}},{"articleId":157508,"title":"Helpful Vocabulary for the LSAT Logical Reasoning Questions","slug":"helpful-vocabulary-for-the-lsat-logical-reasoning-questions","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","lsat"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/157508"}}],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":284047,"title":"How to Choose a Law School","slug":"how-to-choose-a-law-school","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","lsat"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/284047"}},{"articleId":284042,"title":"Applying to Law School","slug":"applying-to-law-school","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","lsat"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/284042"}},{"articleId":284030,"title":"Practice Writing Sample for the LSAT","slug":"practice-writing-sample-for-the-lsat","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","lsat"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/284030"}},{"articleId":207766,"title":"LSAT For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"lsat-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","lsat"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/207766"}},{"articleId":157512,"title":"Tips for the Reading Comprehension Section of the LSAT","slug":"tips-for-the-reading-comprehension-section-of-the-lsat","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","lsat"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/157512"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":282367,"slug":"lsat-for-dummies","isbn":"9781119716273","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","lsat"],"amazon":{"default":"//www.amazon.com/gp/product/1119716276/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","ca":"//www.amazon.ca/gp/product/1119716276/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","indigo_ca":"//www.tkqlhce.com/click-9208661-13710633?url=//www.chapters.indigo.ca/en-ca/books/product/1119716276-item.html&cjsku=978111945484","gb":"//www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/1119716276/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","de":"//www.amazon.de/gp/product/1119716276/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20"},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/lsat-for-dummies-book-3rd-edition-cover-9781119716273-199x255.jpg","width":199,"height":255},"title":"LSAT For Dummies, 3rd Edition","testBankPinActivationLink":"","bookOutOfPrint":true,"authorsInfo":"<p><p><b><b data-author-id=\"9086\">Lisa Zimmer Hatch</b> </b>served as VP of The Center for Legal Studies, where she created standardized test preparation. Currently, she is an Independent College Counselor and president of College Primers.</p> <p><b>Scott A. Hatch</b> develops courses for a variety of careers and assists those seeking advanced degrees in law, business, and other professions. <p><b>Lisa Zimmer Hatch </b>served as VP of The Center for Legal Studies, where she created standardized test preparation. Currently, she is an Independent College Counselor and president of College Primers.</p> <p><b><b data-author-id=\"9087\">Scott A. Hatch</b></b> develops courses for a variety of careers and assists those seeking advanced degrees in law, business, and other professions.</p>","authors":[{"authorId":9086,"name":"Lisa Zimmer Hatch","slug":"lisa-zimmer-hatch","description":" <p><b>Lisa Zimmer Hatch </b>served as VP of The Center for Legal Studies, where she created standardized test preparation. Currently, she is an Independent College Counselor and president of College Primers.</p> <p><b>Scott A. Hatch</b> develops courses for a variety of careers and assists those seeking advanced degrees in law, business, and other professions. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9086"}},{"authorId":9087,"name":"Scott A. Hatch","slug":"scott-a-hatch","description":" <p><b>Lisa Zimmer Hatch </b>served as VP of The Center for Legal Studies, where she created standardized test preparation. Currently, she is an Independent College Counselor and president of College Primers.</p> <p><b>Scott A. Hatch</b> develops courses for a variety of careers and assists those seeking advanced degrees in law, business, and other professions. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9087"}}],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/books/"}},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;study-skills-test-prep&quot;,&quot;lsat&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781119716273&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-633d9c2f2f7dd\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;study-skills-test-prep&quot;,&quot;lsat&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781119716273&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-633d9c2f2fd4c\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Articles","articleList":null,"content":null,"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Advance","lifeExpectancy":"Two years","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2023-10-05T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":149063},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2017-03-26T10:54:51+00:00","modifiedTime":"2023-10-05T13:47:43+00:00","timestamp":"2023-10-05T15:01:03+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Academics & The Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"Study Skills & Test Prep","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33772"},"slug":"study-skills-test-prep","categoryId":33772},{"name":"LSAT","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33786"},"slug":"lsat","categoryId":33786}],"title":"LSAT Reading Comprehension: How to Answer Big Picture Questions","strippedTitle":"lsat reading comprehension: how to answer big picture questions","slug":"lsat-reading-comprehension-how-to-answer-big-picture-questions","canonicalUrl":"","浏览搜寻平台改进":{"metaDescription":"Learn the best strategy for answering the big-picture questions within the reading comprehension portion of the LSAT.","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"The reading comprehension section of the LSAT contains different types of questions. One you should be prepared for is the big picture question. Main idea questions and those that ask you to identify a passage's primary purpose regard the whole passage. Almost every passage has at least one question that asks you to see the big picture, and often it's the first question you answer for a particular reading passage.\r\n<p class=\"Tip\">You can identify main idea questions by the language they contain. Here are some examples of the ways main idea questions may be worded:</p>\r\n\r\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">The author of the passage is primarily concerned with which one of the following?</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">The author's primary goal (or purpose) in the passage is to do which one of the following?</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">An appropriate title that best summarizes this passage is</p>\r\n</li>\r\n</ul>\r\nWhile you read the passage, look for its main idea and primary objective because you know you'll probably be asked about them. If you're asked a question about the passage's main idea, look for an answer that conveys an idea similar to your statement of the author's purpose.\r\n<p class=\"Tip\">The best answer to a main idea question is general rather than specific. If an answer choice concerns information that's discussed in only one part of the passage, it probably isn't the correct answer. Here are some other ways to eliminate answer choices for main idea questions:</p>\r\n\r\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">Eliminate answer choices that contain information that comes only from the passage's middle paragraphs. These paragraphs probably deal with specific points rather than the main idea.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">Eliminate any answer choices that contain information that you can't find in the passage. These choices are irrelevant.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">Sometimes you can eliminate answer choices based on just the first words. For example, if you're trying to find the best answer to the author's purpose in an objectively written natural science passage, you can eliminate answers that begin with less objective terms, like <i>to argue that, to criticize,</i> and <i>to refute the opposition's position that.</i></p>\r\n</li>\r\n</ul>","description":"The reading comprehension section of the LSAT contains different types of questions. One you should be prepared for is the big picture question. Main idea questions and those that ask you to identify a passage's primary purpose regard the whole passage. Almost every passage has at least one question that asks you to see the big picture, and often it's the first question you answer for a particular reading passage.\r\n<p class=\"Tip\">You can identify main idea questions by the language they contain. Here are some examples of the ways main idea questions may be worded:</p>\r\n\r\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">The author of the passage is primarily concerned with which one of the following?</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">The author's primary goal (or purpose) in the passage is to do which one of the following?</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">An appropriate title that best summarizes this passage is</p>\r\n</li>\r\n</ul>\r\nWhile you read the passage, look for its main idea and primary objective because you know you'll probably be asked about them. If you're asked a question about the passage's main idea, look for an answer that conveys an idea similar to your statement of the author's purpose.\r\n<p class=\"Tip\">The best answer to a main idea question is general rather than specific. If an answer choice concerns information that's discussed in only one part of the passage, it probably isn't the correct answer. Here are some other ways to eliminate answer choices for main idea questions:</p>\r\n\r\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">Eliminate answer choices that contain information that comes only from the passage's middle paragraphs. These paragraphs probably deal with specific points rather than the main idea.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">Eliminate any answer choices that contain information that you can't find in the passage. These choices are irrelevant.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">Sometimes you can eliminate answer choices based on just the first words. For example, if you're trying to find the best answer to the author's purpose in an objectively written natural science passage, you can eliminate answers that begin with less objective terms, like <i>to argue that, to criticize,</i> and <i>to refute the opposition's position that.</i></p>\r\n</li>\r\n</ul>","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":9086,"name":"Lisa Zimmer Hatch","slug":"lisa-zimmer-hatch","description":" <p><b>Lisa Zimmer Hatch </b>served as VP of The Center for Legal Studies, where she created standardized test preparation. Currently, she is an Independent College Counselor and president of College Primers.</p> <p><b>Scott A. Hatch</b> develops courses for a variety of careers and assists those seeking advanced degrees in law, business, and other professions. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9086"}},{"authorId":9087,"name":"Scott A. Hatch","slug":"scott-a-hatch","description":" <p><b>Lisa Zimmer Hatch </b>served as VP of The Center for Legal Studies, where she created standardized test preparation. Currently, she is an Independent College Counselor and president of College Primers.</p> <p><b>Scott A. Hatch</b> develops courses for a variety of careers and assists those seeking advanced degrees in law, business, and other professions. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9087"}},{"authorId":9388,"name":"Amy Hackney Blackwell","slug":"amy-hackney-blackwell","description":" Amy Hackney Blackwell is a former attorney who received her JD from the University of Virginia School of Law. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9388"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33786,"title":"LSAT","slug":"lsat","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33786"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[{"articleId":207766,"title":"LSAT For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"lsat-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","lsat"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/207766"}},{"articleId":157512,"title":"Tips for the Reading Comprehension Section of the LSAT","slug":"tips-for-the-reading-comprehension-section-of-the-lsat","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","lsat"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/157512"}},{"articleId":157510,"title":"An Alternative Approach to the LSAT's Reading Questions","slug":"an-alternative-approach-to-the-lsats-reading-questions","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","lsat"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/157510"}},{"articleId":157511,"title":"10 Habits of Highly Successful LSAT-Takers","slug":"10-habits-of-highly-successful-lsat-takers","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","lsat"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/157511"}},{"articleId":157508,"title":"Helpful Vocabulary for the LSAT Logical Reasoning Questions","slug":"helpful-vocabulary-for-the-lsat-logical-reasoning-questions","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","lsat"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/157508"}}],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":284047,"title":"How to Choose a Law School","slug":"how-to-choose-a-law-school","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","lsat"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/284047"}},{"articleId":284042,"title":"Applying to Law School","slug":"applying-to-law-school","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","lsat"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/284042"}},{"articleId":284030,"title":"Practice Writing Sample for the LSAT","slug":"practice-writing-sample-for-the-lsat","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","lsat"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/284030"}},{"articleId":207766,"title":"LSAT For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"lsat-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","lsat"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/207766"}},{"articleId":157512,"title":"Tips for the Reading Comprehension Section of the LSAT","slug":"tips-for-the-reading-comprehension-section-of-the-lsat","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","lsat"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/157512"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":282367,"slug":"lsat-for-dummies","isbn":"9781119716273","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","lsat"],"amazon":{"default":"//www.amazon.com/gp/product/1119716276/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","ca":"//www.amazon.ca/gp/product/1119716276/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","indigo_ca":"//www.tkqlhce.com/click-9208661-13710633?url=//www.chapters.indigo.ca/en-ca/books/product/1119716276-item.html&cjsku=978111945484","gb":"//www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/1119716276/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","de":"//www.amazon.de/gp/product/1119716276/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20"},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/lsat-for-dummies-book-3rd-edition-cover-9781119716273-199x255.jpg","width":199,"height":255},"title":"LSAT For Dummies, 3rd Edition","testBankPinActivationLink":"","bookOutOfPrint":true,"authorsInfo":"<p><p><b><b data-author-id=\"9086\">Lisa Zimmer Hatch</b> </b>served as VP of The Center for Legal Studies, where she created standardized test preparation. Currently, she is an Independent College Counselor and president of College Primers.</p> <p><b>Scott A. Hatch</b> develops courses for a variety of careers and assists those seeking advanced degrees in law, business, and other professions. <p><b>Lisa Zimmer Hatch </b>served as VP of The Center for Legal Studies, where she created standardized test preparation. Currently, she is an Independent College Counselor and president of College Primers.</p> <p><b><b data-author-id=\"9087\">Scott A. Hatch</b></b> develops courses for a variety of careers and assists those seeking advanced degrees in law, business, and other professions.</p>","authors":[{"authorId":9086,"name":"Lisa Zimmer Hatch","slug":"lisa-zimmer-hatch","description":" <p><b>Lisa Zimmer Hatch </b>served as VP of The Center for Legal Studies, where she created standardized test preparation. Currently, she is an Independent College Counselor and president of College Primers.</p> <p><b>Scott A. 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Lisa Zimmer Hatch

Lisa Zimmer Hatch, MA, and Scott A. Hatch, JD, have been helping students excel on standardized tests since 1987. They have written curricula and taught students internationally through live lectures, online forums, DVDs, and independent study, and have authored numerous test-prep texts.

Articles From Lisa Zimmer Hatch

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GMAT Prep For Dummies Cheat Sheet Cheat Sheet / Updated 10-31-2023 When you take the Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT), make sure you take the required items with you to the test. Use these guidelines to help you get through the integrated reasoning, data sufficiency, quantitative problem solving, reading comprehension, and critical reasoning questions — as well as for writing your analytical essay and conquering integrated reasoning questions. View Cheat Sheet
Preparing for Integrated Reasoning on the GMAT Article / Updated 08-07-2023 True to its name, the integrated reasoning section of the GMAT combines the critical reasoning skills tested in the verbal reasoning section with some of the math skills you use to solve quantitative reasoning questions. Therefore, if you’re well prepared for the GMAT’s math and verbal sections, you should do well in the IR section, too. Skills tested The most common math computations in the IR section involve these areas: Basic statistics, such as average, median, mode, and range Percentages Rate and distance Functions Geometry formulas You’ll need to apply these essentials of critical reasoning: Basic elements of logical arguments—premises, conclusions, and assumptions How to strengthen and weaken an argument Argument types—cause and effect, analogy, and statistical Integrated reasoning question format The IR section presents you with 12 questions, one question at a time, and you have 30 minutes to answer them. Almost every question has multiple parts. To get credit for answering a question correctly, you have to answer all of its parts correctly. You don’t receive partial credit for getting one part of the question correct. Unlike the verbal and quantitative reasoning sections, the IR section isn’t computer adaptive. So, the order in which you receive questions is preordained and not based on your performance. Your IR score is based on your answers to four types of questions. On average, you can expect to come across about three of each question type on the GMAT, but the actual number of questions of each type and the order in which they appear may vary. So, count on seeing at least a couple of each of these four question types crop up on your test: Table analysis: This three-part IR question offers you a spreadsheet of values that you can order in different ways by clicking the heading of each column. You use the data to make judgments about three pieces of information; each of your judgments has to be correct to get credit for the question. Two-part analysis: Based on a short, written explanation of a phenomenon, situation, or mathematical problem, you come up with the proper assertions or mathematical expressions that meet the two interrelated criteria presented in the question. Graphics interpretation: A graph or chart gives you all the data you need to complete the two missing pieces of information in one or two statements. You choose from a pull-down menu of several answer options to record your answers. Multi-source reasoning: These properly named questions present you with several sources of information, such as short passages, graphs and charts, and business documents, from which you draw logical conclusions to answer questions in either of two formats: standard five-answer multiple-choice questions and three-part questions that ask you to evaluate statements. To assist you with the mathematical computations you may need to make for some of the IR questions, the GMAT software provides you with a simple calculator. Whenever you need it, you click the box labeled Calculator and something that looks like the following figure appears. You select its functions by using your mouse. Don’t get too attached to it, though; the calculator is available only for IR questions, so you won’t be able to use it in the quantitative reasoning section. Because using a computer calculator can be awkward, you’ll likely answer most IR questions more quickly by using estimation or working out calculations by hand on your noteboard. Save the calculator for only the most complex or precise computations. How the IR section is scored Like the score you receive for the analytical writing section, your integrated reasoning score has no influence on your overall GMAT score, which consists of the combination of only your quantitative reasoning and verbal reasoning scores. Based on your performance in the IR section, your raw score is converted to a scaled score that ranges in whole numbers from 1 to 8 and is recorded separately from all the other scores. MBA programs decide how they use your IR score and may choose to disregard it altogether. So, your IR score is unlikely to make much of an impression unless it’s unusually low, in the 1-to-3 score range, or really high, such as the rare 7 or 8. A midrange score of 4, 5, or 6 likely won’t significantly hurt or help your chances of admission. How to make the most of your time on the IR section If you’ve already calculated that answering 12 questions in 30 minutes gives you 2.5 minutes to answer each question, you may be celebrating the fact that that gives you even more time per question than you have for the quantitative and verbal reasoning sections. Don’t get too excited just yet. Almost every IR question has multiple parts, and you have to answer all parts of the question correctly to be credited with a correct answer. When you consider the average number of sub-questions contained within each of those 12 questions, the actual number of IR answers you have to come up with in 30 minutes may be as high as 30. Therefore, you have to use your time wisely as you move through the section. You’ll likely feel the time crunch more fiercely in this section than the others. We provide some coping skills to help you through it: Conceal the timer. To maintain your sanity, refrain from constant clock-watching. Hide the timer on the computer by clicking on it. After you answer about three questions, reveal the timer by clicking on it again. It counts down from 30 minutes, so if you’re at 22 minutes, you’re cruising comfortably. If you’re at 21 or fewer, you may need to make some more calculated guesses to move through the section at a successful pace. Know when to move on. Discipline yourself to submit your best stab at an answer if you find yourself spending more than several minutes on any one question. You don’t want to sacrifice getting to an easy, less-time-consuming question because you’ve worked too long on a harder question. You can’t go back and revisit questions after you submitted your answers, so this practice may be difficult for you, especially if you tenaciously seek perfection. Take a deep breath, mark your best guess, and move on to what lies ahead. Write stuff down. Don’t be afraid to spend a little time upfront analyzing the loads of data in some IR questions. Unless you’re someone who can juggle a lot of details in your head, you should write on your noteboard as you think. A little note-taking may save you from reading information over again, which is a real time waster. Whisper to yourself. Studies show that processing information is easier if you speak out loud. Don’t be afraid to whisper your way through some of the more complex problems the IR section throws at you. You’ll likely take the test in a cubicle-like setting, so if you speak quietly, you won’t disturb anyone. View Article
ACT Prep 2024 For Dummies Cheat Sheet Cheat Sheet / Updated 06-05-2023 The American College Testing exam (ACT) tests your knowledge of grammar, reading, science, and math. In addition, the ACT includes an optional writing test. Many colleges require or recommend and entrance exam, such as the ACT, as a component of your application for admission. View Cheat Sheet
LSAT Reading Comprehension: Sample Natural Science Passage Article / Updated 10-05-2022 Physical and biological sciences play a big role in a host of legal issues and is important for the LSAT. Some attorneys specialize in negotiating water and mineral rights. Patent attorneys often begin as engineers. Even product liability and personal injury cases require a general understanding of the way the physical world works. Although you may concede the importance of the natural sciences, you may not be eager to find that 25 percent of your reading score is based on a chemistry passage. The good news is that the reading comprehension questions don't assume that you have any previous knowledge of the subject. If you do come across a reading passage on chemistry and it's been 20 years since you've studied the periodic table, relax. The answer to every question is located somewhere in the passage. You really don't need to know a lot about a passage topic to answer the questions correctly. Although it's true that chemistry majors may read a passage about polymers more quickly than someone who never took a college chemistry course, that doesn't necessarily mean chemistry experts will answer more questions correctly. In fact, they may actually be at a disadvantage because they may try to answer questions based on outside knowledge instead of using the information stated in the passage. Reading comprehension questions test reading skills, not the plethora of details you keep tucked away in your long-term memory. When you come across a passage on a subject that you're pretty familiar with, don't rely exclusively on your outside knowledge to answer the question! Make sure the answers you choose can be justified by information contained in the passage. Natural science passages tend to be more objective and neutral than persuasive in tone. So often, the main theme of a natural science topic is to explain, describe, or inform about a scientific event. Here's a shortened version of a nice, neutral natural science passage that may appear on the LSAT: A logarithmic unit known as the decibel (dB) is used to represent the intensity of sound. The decibel scale is similar to the Richter scale used to measure earthquakes. On the Richter scale, a 7.0 earthquake is ten times stronger than a 6.0 earthquake. On the decibel scale, an increase of 10 dB is equivalent to a tenfold increase in intensity or power. Thus, a sound registering 80 dB is ten times louder than a 70 dB sound. In the range of sounds audible to humans, a whisper has an intensity of 20 dB; 140 dB (a jet aircraft taking off nearby) is the threshold of immediate pain. The perceived intensity of sound is not simply a function of volume; certain frequencies of sound appear louder to the human ear than do other frequencies, even at the same volume. Decibel measurements of noise are therefore often “A-weighted” to take into account the fact that some sound wavelengths are perceived as being particularly loud. A soft whisper is 20 dB, but on the A-weighted scale, the whisper is 30 dBA. This is because human ears are particularly attuned to human speech. Quiet conversation has a sound level of about 60 dBA. Continuous exposure to sounds over 80 dBA can eventually result in mild hearing loss, while exposure to louder sounds can cause much greater damage in a short period of time. Emergency sirens, motorcycles, chainsaws, construction activities, and other mechanical or amplified noises are often in the 80 to 120 dBA range. Sound levels above 120 dBA begin to be felt inside the human ear as discomfort and eventually as pain. Don't let the unfamiliar scientific concepts worry you. You're probably familiar with the term decibel, but you may have never encountered the A-weighted decibel or dBA, as it's abbreviated. Focus on the main point, which in this passage is to describe dBAs and how human ears perceive them. View Article
Practice Writing Sample for the LSAT Article / Updated 10-05-2022 Here's your chance to try writing an LSAT-style writing essay. Open up your word processing program and enable the spellcheck (or use the Get Acquainted With LSAT Writing software to prepare your practice essay). There’s no right or wrong answer for an essay. Just pick a side and defend it well. After the sample topic are two possible responses. The essay positions aren’t right or wrong. Read them to get an idea of how you could organize your essay. Writing prompt example: The sporting goods store This topic deals with whether the state should fund a large sporting retailer to come to the area. Read the prompt and pick your side. A small southern town is trying to decide whether to provide financial incentives to a large national retailer that wants to open an outlet there. Town business leaders are considering offering funds raised by state taxes to pay for the store’s construction. Write an argument either supporting or protesting offering the financial incentives, keeping two guidelines in mind: The town wants to create jobs by bringing tourist dollars to the area. The town wants to avoid putting local merchants out of business. Town business leaders want to use state taxes to pay for the construction of the national retailer’s multimillion-dollar facility right next to an exit from an interstate highway. The facility would include a giant sporting goods store, several restaurants, and a hotel. It would create at least 300 new jobs, and the town hopes that it would also attract tourists who otherwise would not bother leaving the highway. If the town does not provide the tax funds, the retailer will probably take its business elsewhere. Local merchants in the town do not want to use state funds to finance the facility’s construction. They claim that local retailers already provide all the goods that would be available at the new store, and they fear that the new store would deliberately cut its prices to drive them out of business. They believe it would be wrong for the state to fund the construction of a store for an out-of-town retailer when it does not provide the same service to local businesses. They insist that the town should treat the out-of-town retailer the same way it treats local merchants, and if the national retailer takes its business elsewhere, so much the better for local businesses. Sample answer: Use state funds Here’s a sample answer that argues for using the state funds: The benefits of bringing this large national retailer to the town are tremendous, and the town should do whatever is necessary to persuade the company to come. If that means the town’s leaders must offer to pay for the facility’s construction with state tax funds, then they should do it because the benefits of having the retailer move in far outweigh the cost of using state money to build the store. The retailer would build a huge, multimillion-dollar facility just off an interstate exit. That exit would become a major destination; people who would otherwise never consider stopping in the town would now have a reason to get off the highway and spend their money there. After these people have stopped, it will be easier to convince them to stay a while and spend even more money, perhaps on amenities that already exist in town, away from the interstate. Introducing the retailer would create hundreds of new jobs. First, construction workers would have ample employment. Second, all the facilities that would be part of the retailer’s complex — the sporting goods store, the several restaurants, the hotel — would require a large number of employees. These would be good, stable jobs, and the local economy needs that. The town already has several sporting goods stores and of course hotels and restaurants, but all are not located in one convenient place; people must drive around to get to them, and they will never attract anyone from out of town. The local merchants already have a loyal local clientele, and it’s not likely that that will change; regardless, it is unfair to force local customers to pay high prices for goods that the major retailer can sell for less. Bringing the retailer to town would be a win-win situation for nearly everyone. The town should bend over backward to persuade it to come; spending tax money to build the facility would be an investment with huge payoffs in the near future. Sample answer: Don’t use state funds Here’s a sample answer for the other side: Offering to pay for the construction of this retailer’s facility is a terrible idea. Because the potential consequences to the town’s local merchants are horrific and the likely economic benefit to the town of the retailer’s locating there is unproven at best and negligible at worst, the town should definitely not subsidize the store’s construction with state funds. The town should not pay to construct the national retailer’s monstrous facility because to do so would be extremely unfair to local merchants. Local merchants have to pay their own way; no one has ever offered to build facilities for them. To add insult to injury, if the town does decide to use state taxes to build the complex, then local merchants will in effect be forced to finance the construction of a major competitor. Countless towns have proven that introducing large national retailers with big-box stores is devastating for local merchants. The national retailers carry a larger variety of merchandise with prices set specifically to drive local merchants out of business. There is no reason to assume this retailer would be different. If this retailer comes to town, customers will flock there to do their business, abandoning the merchants who already operate in the heart of town. As for tourists, perhaps a few interstate travelers will get off the highway to do a little shopping or have a quick meal, but they are unlikely to stay very long or venture into town. Nothing about a big-box sporting goods store will impress them with “local color.” Although this retailer would provide a certain number of jobs, they would be low-paying jobs in an isolated area around a remote interstate exit. They would come at the cost of the jobs that already exist with the town’s local sporting-goods merchants. All profits would leave the state to go to corporate headquarters, leaving the town with a hefty construction bill and 300 minimum-wage jobs with no security. If the national retailer is serious about coming to this town, it can pay its own way like any other honorable vendor. There’s no sense in the town’s subsidizing its own economic destruction. View Article
LSAT Reading Comprehension: How to Answer Direct Information Questions Article / Updated 10-05-2022 Some LSAT reading questions ask you about specific statements from the passage. These questions are potentially the easiest type of reading question because the information you need to answer them is stated in the passage, and the correct answer is a paraphrase. You just need to find it. This information may be quantitative, such as years, figures, or numbers, or it may be qualitative, like ideas, emotions, or thoughts. Spot specific information questions by noticing how they're phrased. Those that contain verbs that indicate direct statements, such as states, indicates, or claims, are likely ones whose correct answer is a paraphrase of information in the passage. Usually, questions that ask for answers that are “according to the passage” are also specific information questions. So look for a direct answer to a question that's phrased like these examples: The passage states that Neruda's Communist beliefs were evident in his poetry as early as which one of the following years? According to the passage, which one of the following is true about the primary intensity of sound? In the passage, the author indicates that transitory actions can be filed in which one of the following? Because specific information questions seek an answer that derives directly from information in the passage, look for answers that come straight from the passage and eliminate answer choices that require you to make any inferences. If you have to make a logical deduction to justify an answer choice for this question type, it's probably wrong. And keep in mind that the right answer may paraphrase the passage rather than provide a word-for-word repeat. View Article
LSAT Reading Comprehension: Sample Humanities Passage Article / Updated 10-05-2022 Humanities passages you may see on the LSAT explore topics related to the arts and literature. So you may read about the message of a Mexican muralist, the techniques applied by a modern composer, or the themes advanced by a particular playwright. This passage excerpt interprets the impact of a popular Latin American poet: The Chilean poet Pablo Neruda joined the Communist Party in 1939 and, according to Jean Franco, began to write social poetry shortly thereafter. But Neruda's social philosophy is apparent in the poems he wrote before his formal Communist affiliation. In 1924, Neruda published Twenty Love Poems and a Song of Despair, a compilation of 21 poems through which Neruda reveals the compassion for common humanity that formed the foundation of his political choices. Neruda's use of familiar images and common experience in his poetry makes his art accessible to the average person, and because art attempts to make sense of the often ambiguous objective world by presenting it in a more easily grasped form, Neruda's poems carry out the Communist ideal of collective equality by offering everyone the opportunity to better comprehend the world. Therefore, Twenty Love Poems achieves a more powerful purpose than merely exploring the relationship between a man and a woman; Neruda's poems provide a means by which to explore the complexities of the world and perhaps catch a glimpse of something more eternal. The excerpt reveals the author's positive view of Neruda's compilation through a relatively objective account of the work's influence. Like many humanities passages, this paragraph incorporates historical and political references in its discussion of the artist. View Article
LSAT Test Prep: Reading Comprehension Practice Article / Updated 10-05-2022 The reading comprehension section of the LSAT may present you with reading passages of different lengths, but the passages will all require that you be a critical reader and have good comprehension abilities. The questions in this article refer to the following passage. “Power” is a generic term that must be distinguished from the more specific term “authority.” When party A gets party B to do what party B would not otherwise have done, party A has exercised power. Power takes many forms and appears variously in the histories of Alexander the Great and his time. Alexander enjoyed military power and delegated a portion of it to his general, Antipater. Antipater in turn used the coercive power afforded him by his army in Greece to install friendly governments and forestall concerted action against Macedonia. The politicians and public speakers in the Greek states demonstrated powers of persuasion that, at different times, affected the course of events differently. Only those with some degree of power become actors in political histories. More interesting is the particular manifestation of power that we call authority. Authority is a kind of power, but not all power is authoritative. Authority is a “discursive function.” Authority describes the ability to command effectively, for even when we speak of someone “acting” authoritatively, we actually mean “causing others to act by virtue of one’s authoritative speech.” As such, authority implies an asymmetry in the relationship between speaker and listener. Because authority demands obedience, it is associated with coercive power, and because it operates in discourse, it is associated with persuasive power. Yet these associations are uneasy. The command, “Don’t move or I’ll shoot” is discursive and demands obedience, but while it shows that the speaker is in a position of power, it does not suggest a position of authority. Likewise, a well-argued case may effect its desired result, but argument presupposes a certain equality between speaker and listener. Authoritative speech relies for its effect on the identity of the speaker, her or his relationship with the audience, and the audience’s perception of the speaker. Coercion and persuasion may support this relationship, as the listeners assume either that dire consequences will result from disobedience or that there must be good reasons for obedience. But to see authority in action, both coercion and persuasion must remain in the background, occulted. If the listener demands a reason for a command or asks about the consequences of disobedience, the speaker’s authority falters. At this point authority may give way to persuasion (if the speaker argues in favor of the command) or naked force (if the speaker threatens), or it may be reasserted by invoking the privileged, authoritative position of the speaker: “Because I said so!” Alexander himself enjoyed many kinds of authority at different times: as acclaimed leader, first among equals, of the Macedonians, as presider over the Treaty of Common Peace in Greece, as Great King in Persia, and as an earthly divinity at first to the Egyptians (who were used to such things) and later to many Greeks. Other Macedonians also held authority, at various times, either by association with Alexander or according to their own abilities and positions. Which one of the following most accurately states the central idea of this passage? (A)Power and authority are the same thing but are spoken of differently depending on whether the person exercising power is a political leader. (B)Power is a kind of authority that comes from persuasive speech and the threat of coercive force. (C)Authority is a kind of power that does not explicitly depend for its effect on persuasion or coercion. (D)Alexander was unique among ancient kings in exercising power and authority, but his general, Antipater, was also powerful. (E)Alexander exercised power among the Greeks but relied on authority to govern Macedonians, Persians, and Egyptians. The primary function of the second paragraph of the passage is to (A)discuss the use of authority by Alexander the Great (B)explore aspects of the concept of authority and its uneasy association with coercive and discursive power (C)imply that without coercive power, there is no authority (D)criticize scholars who have suggested different definitions of authority (E)suggest that a speaker’s authority falters if listeners question it What does the author mean by the word “occulted” in Line XX? (A)expressed (B)understated (C)hidden (D)magical (E)accosted According to the passage, what is the difference between power and authority? (A)Authority is a generic term for creating an effect through persuasion, while power involves coercive force. (B)Power is a generic term for the ability to make someone do something; authority is a particular form of power, the ability to command without explicit persuasion or coercion. (C)Authority is exercised by virtue of political office, while power requires military command. (D)Power exists in the eyes of the governed, while authority resides in the one employing it. (E)Power is a generic term for the ability to make someone do something; authority is a particular form of power, the ability to command by skillfully applying persuasion and coercion as necessary. Answer Key C. Authority is a kind of power that does not explicitly depend for its effect on persuasion or coercion. B. explore aspects of the concept of authority and its uneasy association with coercive and discursive power C. hidden B. Power is a generic term for the ability to make someone do something; authority is a particular form of power, the ability to command without explicit persuasion or coercion. View Article
LSAT Reading Comprehension: Sample Social Science Passage Article / Updated 10-05-2022 The reading comprehension section of the LSAT includes a passage about a different kind of science: social science. This passage type includes topics like philosophy, history, political science, archaeology, sociology, and psychology. The good news about social science passages is that their topics tend to crop up more in the news and in daily conversation than does, for example, physics! So you may be more comfortable with social science topics. Although passages about the social sciences are still mostly descriptive and informative, they're more likely to be persuasive than natural science passages, so you may see more variety in the kinds of tones these passages display. For instance, the personality and opinion of the author of this excerpt of a sample philosophy passage are very apparent: For most Americans and Europeans, this should be the best time in all of human history to live. Survival — the very purpose of all life — is nearly guaranteed for large parts of the world, especially in the West. This should allow people a sense of security and contentment. If life is no longer, as Thomas Hobbes famously wrote, “nasty, brutish, and short,” then should it not be pleasant, dignified, and long? To know that tomorrow is nearly guaranteed, along with thousands of additional tomorrows, should be enough to render hundreds of millions of people awe-struck with happiness. And modern humans, especially in the West, have every opportunity to be free, even as they enjoy ever-longer lives. Why is it, then, that so many people feel unhappy and trapped? The answer lies in the constant pressure of trying to meet needs that don't actually exist. The word need has been used with less and less precision in modern life. Today, many things are described as needs, including fashion items, SUVs, vacations, and other luxuries. People say, “I need a new car,” when their current vehicle continues to function. People with many pairs of shoes may still say they “need” a new pair. Clearly, this careless usage is inaccurate; neither the new car nor the additional shoes are truly “needed.” This author conveys a clear opinion regarding Western interpretations of needs. The dubious tone and clear opinion of this social science passage comes through in the placement of copious quotation marks and the introduction of rhetorical questions. View Article
LSAT Reading Comprehension: How to Answer Big Picture Questions Article / Updated 10-05-2022 The reading comprehension section of the LSAT contains different types of questions. One you should be prepared for is the big picture question. Main idea questions and those that ask you to identify a passage's primary purpose regard the whole passage. Almost every passage has at least one question that asks you to see the big picture, and often it's the first question you answer for a particular reading passage. You can identify main idea questions by the language they contain. Here are some examples of the ways main idea questions may be worded: The author of the passage is primarily concerned with which one of the following? The author's primary goal (or purpose) in the passage is to do which one of the following? An appropriate title that best summarizes this passage is While you read the passage, look for its main idea and primary objective because you know you'll probably be asked about them. If you're asked a question about the passage's main idea, look for an answer that conveys an idea similar to your statement of the author's purpose. The best answer to a main idea question is general rather than specific. If an answer choice concerns information that's discussed in only one part of the passage, it probably isn't the correct answer. Here are some other ways to eliminate answer choices for main idea questions: Eliminate answer choices that contain information that comes only from the passage's middle paragraphs. These paragraphs probably deal with specific points rather than the main idea. Eliminate any answer choices that contain information that you can't find in the passage. These choices are irrelevant. Sometimes you can eliminate answer choices based on just the first words. For example, if you're trying to find the best answer to the author's purpose in an objectively written natural science passage, you can eliminate answers that begin with less objective terms, like to argue that, to criticize, and to refute the opposition's position that. View Article
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