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{"appState":{"pageLoadApiCallsStatus":true},"authorState":{"author":{"headers":{"timestamp":"2025-03-18T08:49:08+00:00"},"authorId":9008,"data":{"name":"Alan L. Rubin","slug":"alan-l-rubin","description":" Alan L. Rubin, MD has been a physician in private practice for more than 30 years. 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Rubin</b></b> is one of the leading authorities on diabetes and the author of many books, including <i>Diabetes For Dummies, Type 1 Diabetes For Dummies</i>, and <i>Prediabetes For Dummies</i>. <p><b>Cait James, MS,</b> has counseled clients in individualized nutrition and personal fitness plans in health clubs.</p> <p><b>Alan L. Rubin, MD,</b> is a physician in private practice and the author of the bestselling <i>Diabetes For Dummies, Diabetes Cookbook For Dummies</i>, and <i>Thyroid For Dummies</i>.</p>","authors":[{"authorId":9008,"name":"Alan L. Rubin","slug":"alan-l-rubin","description":" <b>Dr. Alan L. Rubin</b> is one of the leading authorities on diabetes and the author of many books, including <i>Diabetes For Dummies, Type 1 Diabetes For Dummies</i>, and <i>Prediabetes For Dummies</i>. <p><b>Cait James, MS,</b> has counseled clients in individualized nutrition and personal fitness plans in health clubs.</p>","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9008"}},{"authorId":9459,"name":"Richard Snyder","slug":"richard-snyder","description":" <p><b>Alan L. Rubin, MD,</b> is a physician in private practice and the author of the bestselling <i>Diabetes For Dummies, Diabetes Cookbook For Dummies</i>, and <i>Thyroid For Dummies</i>. 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Use the following chart to compare your SBP and DBP numbers and find out if your blood pressure is normal, elevated, or high. If your SBP and DBP fall into different categories, use the higher category (for example, if your blood pressure is 130 over 75, you’re in stage 1 of high blood pressure).</p>\n<table>\n<tbody>\n<tr>\n<th>Category</th>\n<th>SBP (in mm Hg)</th>\n<th></th>\n<th>DBP (in mm Hg)</th>\n<th>What to Do</th>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Normal</td>\n<td>Less than 120</td>\n<td>and</td>\n<td>Less than 80</td>\n<td>Have your blood pressure rechecked in two years.</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Elevated blood pressure</td>\n<td>120–129</td>\n<td>and</td>\n<td>Less than 80</td>\n<td>Modify your lifestyle and have your blood pressure monitored.</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>High blood pressure, stage 1</td>\n<td>130–139</td>\n<td>or</td>\n<td>80–89</td>\n<td>Modify your lifestyle and have your blood pressure monitored. Talk with your doctor about your risk of heart attack and stroke and consider taking medications to lower your blood pressure.</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>High blood pressure, stage 2</td>\n<td>140 or greater</td>\n<td>or</td>\n<td>90 or greater</td>\n<td>Modify your lifestyle and have your blood pressure monitored. Talk with your doctor about your risk of heart attack and stroke and take medications to lower your blood pressure.</td>\n</tr>\n</tbody>\n</table>\n"},{"title":"How to prevent or reduce high blood pressure","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>If you’ve been diagnosed with elevated or high blood pressure, you can make lifestyle changes to lower your blood pressure to a healthy level:</p>\n<ul>\n<li>Adopt the <a href=\"/article/body-mind-spirit/physical-health-well-being/diet-nutrition/dash-diet/dash-diet-for-dummies-cheat-sheet-207659/\">DASH diet</a>.</li>\n<li>Reduce your sodium intake.</li>\n<li>Quit smoking.</li>\n<li>Limit your consumption of alcohol.</li>\n<li>Cut down or eliminate your caffeine intake.</li>\n<li>Start an exercise program and stick with it.</li>\n<li>Use mind-body techniques, such as yoga and meditation.</li>\n<li>Avoid medications that raise blood pressure, like steroids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and certain diet pills.</li>\n<li>Take blood pressure medications regularly if your doctor has prescribed them.</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"Evidence of resistant high blood pressure","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p><em>Resistant high blood pressure </em>is a result of a specific medical condition. After the underlying condition is treated, your blood pressure will typically return to normal. The following signs may indicate you have resistant high blood pressure:</p>\n<ul>\n<li>Onset of high blood pressure before age 20 or after the age of 50</li>\n<li>Flushing spells</li>\n<li>Rapid pulse</li>\n<li>Intolerance to heat</li>\n<li>Very high blood pressure (over 180/120)</li>\n<li>Damage to the eyes, kidneys, or heart</li>\n<li>Low level of potassium in the blood</li>\n<li>Loud humming sound in the abdomen (called a <em>bruit</em>)</li>\n<li>Family history of kidney disease</li>\n<li>Poor response to medications that are usually effective</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"Assessing high blood pressure medications","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>If you’ve wholeheartedly made lifestyle changes trying to reduce your high blood pressure and it doesn’t seem to be working, you may need high blood pressure medication. Numerous medications exist for high blood pressure, but you need to meet with your health-care provider to discuss what medicine is right for you. Medications for high blood pressure fall into several classes:</p>\n<ul>\n<li><strong>Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors:</strong> These medications lower blood pressure by blocking the formation of a key hormone, angiotensin II, which both narrows arteries and causes the release of another blood-pressure-raising hormone. They’re first-line medications for the treatment of high blood pressure.</li>\n<li><strong>Angiotensin II receptor blockers:</strong> These medications lower blood pressure by preventing angiotensin II from attaching to a receptor site. They’re also first-line medications for the treatment of high blood pressure.</li>\n<li><strong>Beta blockers:</strong> These medications lower blood pressure by decreasing the amount of blood pumped by the heart and by lowering the heart rate. They’re only indicated for the treatment of high blood pressure if there is a history of recent heart attack or heart failure.</li>\n<li><strong>Calcium-channel blockers:</strong> These medications lower blood pressure by preventing calcium from entering cells, thus increasing (or dilating) the size of arteries. They’re also first-line medications for the treatment of high blood pressure.</li>\n<li><strong>Diuretics:</strong> These medications lower blood pressure by causing salt loss in the urine with accompanying body water, thereby reducing blood volume and pressure. A specific diuretic class, the thiazide diuretics, is also first line for the treatment of high blood pressure.</li>\n</ul>\n"}],"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Solve","lifeExpectancy":"Two years","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2024-12-21T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":209358},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2017-03-27T16:57:39+00:00","modifiedTime":"2024-11-30T19:24:31+00:00","timestamp":"2024-11-30T21:01:09+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Home, Auto, & Hobbies","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33809"},"slug":"home-auto-hobbies","categoryId":33809},{"name":"Food & Drink","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33839"},"slug":"food-drink","categoryId":33839},{"name":"Recipes","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33859"},"slug":"recipes","categoryId":33859},{"name":"Diabetes Recipes","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33868"},"slug":"diabetes-recipes","categoryId":33868}],"title":"Diabetes Cookbook For Dummies Cheat Sheet","strippedTitle":"diabetes cookbook for dummies cheat sheet","slug":"diabetes-cookbook-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","canonicalUrl":"","搜素浏览平台SEO调整":{"metaDescription":"When you have diabetes, you need to monitor your health closely — including what you eat, how much you eat, and how much you should eat. 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Rubin</b> is one of the leading authorities on diabetes and the author of many books, including <i>Diabetes For Dummies, Type 1 Diabetes For Dummies</i>, and <i>Prediabetes For Dummies</i>. <p><b>Cait James, MS,</b> has counseled clients in individualized nutrition and personal fitness plans in health clubs.</p>","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9008"}},{"authorId":9291,"name":"Cait James","slug":"cait-james","description":" <b>Dr. Alan L. 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Rubin</b> is one of the leading authorities on diabetes and the author of many books, including <i>Diabetes For Dummies, Type 1 Diabetes For Dummies</i>, and <i>Prediabetes For Dummies</i>. <p><b data-author-id=\"9291\">Cait James, MS,</b> has counseled clients in individualized nutrition and personal fitness plans in health clubs.</p>","authors":[{"authorId":9008,"name":"Alan L. Rubin","slug":"alan-l-rubin","description":" <b>Dr. Alan L. Rubin</b> is one of the leading authorities on diabetes and the author of many books, including <i>Diabetes For Dummies, Type 1 Diabetes For Dummies</i>, and <i>Prediabetes For Dummies</i>. <p><b>Cait James, MS,</b> has counseled clients in individualized nutrition and personal fitness plans in health clubs.</p>","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9008"}},{"authorId":9291,"name":"Cait James","slug":"cait-james","description":" <b>Dr. Alan L. Rubin</b> is one of the leading authorities on diabetes and the author of many books, including <i>Diabetes For Dummies, Type 1 Diabetes For Dummies</i>, and <i>Prediabetes For Dummies</i>. <p><b>Cait James, MS,</b> has counseled clients in individualized nutrition and personal fitness plans in health clubs.</p>","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9291"}}],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/books/"}},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;home-auto-hobbies&quot;,&quot;food-drink&quot;,&quot;recipes&quot;,&quot;diabetes-recipes&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781118944264&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-6568f815a4686\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;home-auto-hobbies&quot;,&quot;food-drink&quot;,&quot;recipes&quot;,&quot;diabetes-recipes&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781118944264&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-6568f815a50c7\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Cheat Sheet","articleList":[{"articleId":194473,"title":"Figure Your Ideal Weight, BMI, and Kilocalorie Intake","slug":"figure-your-ideal-weight-bmi-and-kilocalorie-intake","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","recipes","diabetes-recipes"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/194473"}},{"articleId":194480,"title":"Food Terms that Indicate Fat Content","slug":"food-terms-that-indicate-fat-content","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","recipes","diabetes-recipes"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/194480"}},{"articleId":194479,"title":"Living with Diabetes: How to Improve Eating Habits","slug":"living-with-diabetes-how-to-improve-eating-habits","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","recipes","diabetes-recipes"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/194479"}}],"content":[{"title":"Figure Your Ideal Weight, BMI, and Kilocalorie Intake","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>If you&#8217;re diabetic, you should understand that your body weight, body mass index (BMI), and kilocalorie intake affect the way you manage your diabetes. So take the following steps to calculate your ideal weight, BMI, and kilocalorie intake:</p>\n<p><strong>Weight:</strong> Follow these general rules for calculating your ideal weight. (The range of appropriate weights is the ideal weight plus or minus 10 percent.):</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">A man needs to weigh 106 pounds for 5 feet and 6 pounds more for every inch higher than 5 feet.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">A woman needs to weigh 100 pounds for 5 feet and 5 pounds more for every inch higher than 5 feet.</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n<p>Body mass index (BMI) determines a person’s body weight relative to height. This number is a good indicator of the amount of fat in your body. To obtain your BMI,</p>\n<ol class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Multiply your weight in pounds by 703.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Divide this number by your height in inches.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Divide again by your height in inches.</p>\n</li>\n</ol>\n<p><strong>B</strong><strong>ody mass index</strong><strong>:</strong> A BMI under 18 is slim, 20 to 25 is normal, 25 to 30 is overweight, and greater than 30 is obese.</p>\n<p><strong>K</strong><strong>ilocalorie </strong><strong>intake:</strong> To figure your daily kilocalorie needs to maintain your ideal weight,</p>\n<ol class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Multiply your ideal weight in pounds by 10.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">If you get no exercise, multiply the result of Step 1 by 10 percent or 0.1. If you exercise moderately, multiply the result of Step 1 by 20 percent or 0.2. If you get heavy exercise, multiply this number by 40 percent or 0.4.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Add the result of Step 2 to the result of Step 1.</p>\n</li>\n</ol>\n"},{"title":"Food Terms that Indicate Fat Content","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Managing diabetes means controlling the amount of fat that you eat. Food terms in recipes and menu items can help you identify high-fat and low-fat foods. Understanding these terms will help you determine which foods and recipes to avoid.</p>\n<p>These terms indicate a low fat content:</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Baked</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Broiled</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Cooked in its own juice</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Poached</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n<p>These terms indicate a high fat content:</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Buttered or in butter sauce</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Creamed or in cream sauce</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Deep fried</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Fried</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">In cheese sauce</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">In plum sauce</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Sautéed</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Sweet and sour</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"Living with Diabetes: How to Improve Eating Habits","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>You can take simple steps to improve your eating habits for healthier living with diabetes. Follow these simple tips to make a difference in your health:</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Keep a food diary.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Figure out why you eat the way that you do.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Avoid missing a meal; eat at regular times.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Sit down for meals.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Use water in place of caloric drinks.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Include vegetables in all meals.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Cook with half the fat you usually use.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Remove all visible fat.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Don’t add salt.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Flavor with condiments, herbs, and spices.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Cook by the B’s: Braise, broil, or boil.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Follow portion sizes. To determine the size of a portion, compare it to something you see regularly. For example:</p>\n<p class=\"child-para\">Three ounces of meat is the size of a deck of cards.</p>\n<p class=\"child-para\">A medium fruit is the size of a tennis ball.</p>\n<p class=\"child-para\">A medium potato is the size of a computer mouse.</p>\n<p class=\"child-para\">A medium bagel is the size of a hockey puck.</p>\n<p class=\"child-para\">An ounce of cheese is the size of a domino.</p>\n<p class=\"child-para\">A cup of fruit is the size of a baseball.</p>\n<p class=\"child-para\">A cup of broccoli is the size of a light bulb.</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n"}],"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Solve","lifeExpectancy":"One year","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2024-11-30T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":209305},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2017-03-26T17:32:29+00:00","modifiedTime":"2024-04-27T19:54:33+00:00","timestamp":"2024-04-27T21:01:03+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Body, Mind, & Spirit","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/34038"},"slug":"body-mind-spirit","categoryId":34038},{"name":"Physical Health & Well-Being","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/34095"},"slug":"physical-health-well-being","categoryId":34095},{"name":"Diseases","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/34139"},"slug":"diseases","categoryId":34139},{"name":"Diabetes","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/34150"},"slug":"diabetes","categoryId":34150}],"title":"Screening Guidelines for Diabetes","strippedTitle":"screening guidelines for diabetes","slug":"screening-guidelines-for-diabetes","canonicalUrl":"","搜素浏览平台SEO调整":{"metaDescription":"The American Diabetes Association (ADA) updates its guidelines for standards of medical care annually. These are the 2022 guidelines for screening: People with ","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"The American Diabetes Association (ADA) updates its guidelines for standards of medical care annually. These are the 2022 guidelines for screening:\r\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">People with symptoms of thirst, frequent urination, and weight loss are tested immediately.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">Starting at age 35, all people without risk factors should be tested for prediabetes and type 2 diabetes every three years if tests are normal. (The ADA changed this from the previously recommended age of 45.)</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>Women planning to become pregnant should be screened with a fasting glucose test, especially if they have risk factors.</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">People should be tested at a younger age and more often if:</p>\r\n\r\n<ul class=\"level-two\">\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">They are obese.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">They have a parent or sibling with diabetes.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">They are from a high-risk group, such as African American, Hispanic, Asian, or Native American.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">They have delivered a baby more than 9 pounds or had gestational diabetes.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">They have high blood pressure.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">They have low HDL cholesterol or high triglycerides.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n</li>\r\n</ul>","description":"The American Diabetes Association (ADA) updates its guidelines for standards of medical care annually. These are the 2022 guidelines for screening:\r\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">People with symptoms of thirst, frequent urination, and weight loss are tested immediately.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">Starting at age 35, all people without risk factors should be tested for prediabetes and type 2 diabetes every three years if tests are normal. (The ADA changed this from the previously recommended age of 45.)</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>Women planning to become pregnant should be screened with a fasting glucose test, especially if they have risk factors.</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">People should be tested at a younger age and more often if:</p>\r\n\r\n<ul class=\"level-two\">\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">They are obese.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">They have a parent or sibling with diabetes.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">They are from a high-risk group, such as African American, Hispanic, Asian, or Native American.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">They have delivered a baby more than 9 pounds or had gestational diabetes.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">They have high blood pressure.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">They have low HDL cholesterol or high triglycerides.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n</li>\r\n</ul>","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":9008,"name":"Alan L. Rubin","slug":"alan-l-rubin","description":" <p><b>Alan Rubin, MD,</b> is the author of <i>Diabetes Cookbook For Dummies, Type I Diabetes For Dummies, Prediabetes For Dummies, High Blood Pressure For Dummies, Thyroid For Dummies</i>, and <i>Vitamin D For Dummies</i>. 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He is a professional member of the Endocrine Society and American Diabetes Association.</p> <p><b><b data-author-id=\"34601\">Amy Riolo</b></b> is an award-winning author, chef, television personality, food historian, and culinary anthropologist. She is known for simplifying recipes for the home cook. She leads culinary tours in Italy, is the co-founder of A.N.I.T.A. (National Italian Academy of Food Traditions), and has her own line of private-label Italian products.</p> <p><b>Alan Rubin, MD,</b> is the author of <i>Diabetes Cookbook For Dummies, Type I Diabetes For Dummies, Prediabetes For Dummies, High Blood Pressure For Dummies, Thyroid For Dummies</i>, and <i>Vitamin D For Dummies</i>. He is a professional member of the Endocrine Society and American Diabetes Association.</p>","authors":[{"authorId":9008,"name":"Alan L. 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Take a look at these guidelines to find out when to get tested for diabetes:</p>\n<ul>\n<li>People with symptoms of thirst, frequent urination, and weight loss should be tested immediately.</li>\n<li>People older than age 45 should be tested every three years if normal.</li>\n<li>People should be tested at a younger age and more often if\n<ul>\n<li>They are obese</li>\n<li>They have a parent or sibling with diabetes</li>\n<li>They are from a high-risk group, such as African American, Latino, Asian, or Native American</li>\n<li>They have delivered a baby more than 9 pounds or had gestational diabetes</li>\n<li>They have high blood pressure</li>\n<li>They have low HDL cholesterol or high triglycerides</li>\n</ul>\n</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"10 rules for diabetes control","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Diabetes doesn’t have to rule your life. Be proactive! Follow these guidelines for controlling your diabetes, and your problems should be few and far between:</p>\n<ul>\n<li><strong>A positive attitude:</strong> View diabetes as an opportunity to make healthier choices; a positive attitude results in better control of your blood sugar.</li>\n<li><strong>Proper nutrition:</strong> Work with a dietitian to develop a great eating plan.</li>\n<li><strong>Enthusiastic exercising:</strong> Burn off calories and help your heart.</li>\n<li><strong>Preventive planning:</strong> Practice meal planning at home and review the menu before you go out to eat.</li>\n<li><strong>Major monitoring:</strong> Monitor your blood sugar before and after exercising and meals.</li>\n<li><strong>Tenacious testing:</strong> Check your blood glucose at correct intervals and have your doctors regularly screen you for complications.</li>\n<li><strong>Lifelong learning:</strong> New things are being discovered and you need to know about them.</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"Standards for continuing your diabetes care","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Managing diabetes requires regular doctor visits that include standard monitoring of various diabetic factors. Following, are guidelines for your diabetes care — like when to see your doctor, what should happen at each visit, when to have lab tests done, and how often to self-monitor blood glucose.</p>\n<p class=\"Remember\">Consistent diabetes management is key; if test results show any change from your history, then you and your doctor can address them before any problem worsens.</p>\n<p><strong>Frequency of visits:</strong></p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Daily if starting insulin</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Weekly if starting oral drugs</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Monthly if not stable</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Quarterly if stable</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n<p><strong>History at each visit:</strong></p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Frequency of hypoglycemia</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Results of blood glucose self-monitoring</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Changes in treatment</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Symptoms of complications</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Psychosocial issues</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">New medications</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n<p><strong>Physical at each visit:</strong></p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Blood pressure</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Weight</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Foot exam</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n<p><strong>Physical at least annually or every two years if eyes are stable:</strong></p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Dilated eye exam by eye doctor</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Filament test for foot sensation</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n<p><strong>Lab tests:</strong></p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Hemoglobin A1c every three months</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Fasting lipid profile yearly</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Microalbumin measurement yearly if urine protein negative</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n<p><strong>Frequency o</strong><strong>f blood glucose self-monitoring:</strong></p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Before meals and bedtime for person with type 1 diabetes</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Before breakfast and supper for person with type 2 diabetes</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Once daily for person with stable diabetes</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Before and one hour after meals for pregnant woman with type 1 diabetes or gestational diabetes</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"Oral drugs for Type 2 diabetes","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Insulin shots aren’t the only drug treatment for diabetes. Oral medications are the first line of treatment if diet and lifestyle strategies aren’t enough to control your HbA1c, with insulin reserved for those who don’t respond sufficiently to tablets.</p>\n<p>The following describes the most commonly prescribed groups of medications for treating diabetes. Remember, there may be several drugs in each class, with different brand names that vary between countries.</p>\n<h3>Metformin</h3>\n<p>Often the first line medication, with low risk of hypoglycemia side effects</p>\n<h3>Sulfonylureas</h3>\n<p>Powerful medications that reduce blood sugar very effectively and can be associated with hypoglycemia</p>\n<h3>SGLT2 inhibitors or <em>flozins</em></h3>\n<p>A newer group of drugs that are less likely to cause hypoglycemia and are particularly useful to add protection for people who are at increased risk of heart disease or heart failure.</p>\n<h3>Thiazolidineones or <em>glitazones</em></h3>\n<p>The first group of medications that act by reducing insulin resistance. The first example of this class of drugs has been the subject of controversy about possible associations with serious side effects.</p>\n<h3>DPP-4 inhibitors or <em>gliptins</em></h3>\n<p>A group of drugs that work by effecting hormones that are produced when you eat. This class of medications is becoming more popular to gain better control of glucose metabolism.</p>\n<h3>Meglitinides</h3>\n<p>These medications encourage the pancreas to produce more insulin. They’re increasingly used in combination with other medications</p>\n"},{"title":"Navigating the U.S. health care system","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Here we explore some of the issues that specifically relate to the U.S health care system.</p>\n<p>In the United States, you can get insurance for your medical care several ways. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (also known as ACA, PPACA, or Obamacare) has made it possible for many people who didn’t have health insurance to have some coverage. The following sections explain how the ACA  works with private insurance, Medicare, and Medicaid.</p>\n<p class=\"article-tips tip\">For more information on the Affordable Care Act and its provisions in your state, visit the <a href=\"//obamacarefacts.com/obamacare-facts/\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\">Obamacare Facts website</a>.</p>\n<h3>Employer insurance</h3>\n<p>Half of the U.S. population has insurance through its employer. Any employer with 50 or more employees must provide health insurance under ACA .</p>\n<p>Employers with fewer than 50 employees have marketplaces set up by the government where they can buy less expensive insurance and may get tax breaks if they do. These marketplaces can’t charge more if the employee is sick or for a preexisting condition.</p>\n<h3>Government insurance</h3>\n<p>A third of the U.S. population has government insurance. Under the ACA, Medicare (elderly) insurance is similar to what it was before the act, but Medicaid has expanded to cover more poor people. However, the governor of each state must decide whether to allow Medicaid expansion in that state.</p>\n<p>In states that agree to expand Medicaid, the government covers most of the costs. In those that don’t, no more poor people are covered than before.</p>\n<h3>Private insurance</h3>\n<p>A tenth of the population (30 million people) buys insurance. Currently, there are two major forms of payment for medical care — fee-for-service and capitated payment — with a lot of hybrids in between.</p>\n<p>The old <em>fee-for-service</em> method pays the medical provider — whether a physician, a lab, or a hospital — based on the number of services provided. More services and procedures mean more profit for the provider. So, the incentive is to do more to make more money (not that providers would ever do more than is necessary for the money).</p>\n<p>The other main method of reimbursement is <em>capitation</em>. Here, the provider gets a fixed amount of money for each patient. The risk is divided among many patients so that if one costs more, ideally another will cost less.</p>\n<p>This system is the basis of the health maintenance organization (HMO), which hires physicians to provide the care. HMOs look to enroll people who cost as little as possible for their medical care.</p>\n<p>Because they seem to end up costing less money overall, capitation plans are growing while fee-for-service plans are declining. The government is even encouraging HMOs to enroll Medicare recipients to reduce costs.</p>\n<p>At the same time, the government requires HMOs to enroll people who cost more, like most people with diabetes.</p>\n<p>Each state has a health insurance marketplace where insurance companies compete for your business by offering plans with more or less coverage that vary in cost from expensive to cheap.</p>\n<p>These plans can’t charge more for people who are sick or have preexisting conditions. The federal government gives tax credits to those individuals with incomes below a certain level.</p>\n<p>Regardless of cost, all plans cover doctor visits, hospital visits, maternity visits, and mental health visits. Children can remain on their parents’ plan until age 26 and can buy low-cost catastrophic coverage until age 30.</p>\n<p class=\"article-tips tip\">If you don’t know what your state marketplace is, start with <a href=\"//www.healthcare.gov/\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\">Healthcare.gov</a>.</p>\n<p>As a health care consumer, you want to look for a large group containing many patients because such a group can spread out your extra expenses among many people who don’t consume as much medical care. Before you sign up, ask several questions:</p>\n<ul>\n<li>What is your total annual cost, and how often is a payment required?</li>\n<li>Will you have a <em>deductible</em><em>,</em> meaning that you have to pay the first so-many dollars before the insurance starts paying?</li>\n<li>Will you have a <em>copayment</em><em>,</em> meaning that every time you use a provider, you have to pay some dollars?</li>\n<li>Does your plan pay for durable medical equipment, like an insulin pump (see Chapter 11), which can be very expensive? (You want to ask this even if, when you sign up, you may not foresee a need for it.)</li>\n<li>Will your plan pay for your diabetes medication and diabetes supplies, and to what extent?</li>\n<li>Can your physician order any medications you need, or are they restricted to certain medications?</li>\n<li>How often will you need to travel to the pharmacy to pick up medications? (Some plans make you go back every 30 days.)</li>\n<li>Are you covered for specialists, particularly eye doctors and foot doctors?</li>\n<li>Are you limited to certain hospitals, certain physicians, and certain laboratories? (If so, this restriction may be inconvenient for you, not to mention possibly requiring you to change from a physician with whom you’re very comfortable.)</li>\n<li>Is home health care included in the plan, and to what extent?</li>\n</ul>\n<p class=\"article-tips remember\">After you sign up for a plan, you need to be vigilant to be sure you’re getting what you paid for. You and your physician may need to make many phone calls to get what you need, but if you persist, you can often come away with a “Yes.” The insurance company may provide goods and services that are excluded in your original contract if you’re persistent.</p>\n<h3>Supplemental insurance and brokers</h3>\n<p>Many Americans, especially elderly ones or those with chronic health concerns, invest in supplemental insurance care. Medicare Supplement Insurance (Medigap), for example, helps fill “gaps” in original Medicare coverage and is sold by private companies.</p>\n<p>For more info, visit the <a href=\"//www.medicare.gov/supplements-other-insurance/whats-medicare-supplement-insurance-medigap\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\">Medicare supplement insurance web page</a>. You can also ask your doctor or contact your state for specific additional programs in your area that would best meet your needs.</p>\n<p>State-run Department of Aging or Office of the Aging services are free to qualifying residents. Many offer the services of insurance brokers who can help you get the best coverage possible within your budget.</p>\n<h3>No insurance</h3>\n<p>Another significant amount  of the U.S. population doesn’t have any insurance, even under ACA (PPACA), which mandates a fine if you have no insurance, but the government waves the fine if you absolutely can’t afford to buy insurance.</p>\n"}],"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Solve","lifeExpectancy":"Five years","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2024-04-17T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":208280},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2017-03-27T16:47:51+00:00","modifiedTime":"2023-04-26T15:44:17+00:00","timestamp":"2023-09-14T18:19:40+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Body, Mind, & Spirit","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/34038"},"slug":"body-mind-spirit","categoryId":34038},{"name":"Physical Health & Well-Being","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/34095"},"slug":"physical-health-well-being","categoryId":34095},{"name":"Diseases","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/34139"},"slug":"diseases","categoryId":34139},{"name":"Thyroid","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/34165"},"slug":"thyroid","categoryId":34165}],"title":"Thyroid For Dummies Cheat Sheet","strippedTitle":"thyroid for dummies cheat sheet","slug":"thyroid-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","canonicalUrl":"","搜素浏览平台SEO调整":{"metaDescription":"Whether you have low or excessive function, recognize and manage the symptoms of your thyroid problems with help from this cheat sheet.","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"Thyroid problems affect around 30 million people in the United States, says the <a href=\"//www.thyroidawareness.com/\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\">American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists</a>. If you suffer from a thyroid condition, this Cheat Sheet is here to help you to recognize and manage your symptoms, and avoid the triggers that can cause a flare-up of thyroid problems.","description":"Thyroid problems affect around 30 million people in the United States, says the <a href=\"//www.thyroidawareness.com/\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\">American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists</a>. If you suffer from a thyroid condition, this Cheat Sheet is here to help you to recognize and manage your symptoms, and avoid the triggers that can cause a flare-up of thyroid problems.","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":9008,"name":"Alan L. Rubin","slug":"alan-l-rubin","description":" <b>Alan L. Rubin</b>, MD has been a physician in private practice for more than 30 years. He is the author of several bestselling health titles, including <i>Diabetes For Dummies</i>, <i>High Blood Pressure For Dummies</i>, and <i>Thyroid For Dummies</i>.","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9008"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":34165,"title":"Thyroid","slug":"thyroid","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/34165"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[{"articleId":201336,"title":"Facing the Consequences of Iodine Deficiency","slug":"facing-the-consequences-of-iodine-deficiency","categoryList":["body-mind-spirit","physical-health-well-being","diseases","thyroid"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/201336"}},{"articleId":200927,"title":"Pinpointing the Causes of Hypothyroidism","slug":"pinpointing-the-causes-of-hypothyroidism","categoryList":["body-mind-spirit","physical-health-well-being","diseases","thyroid"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/200927"}},{"articleId":200685,"title":"Clearing Up Common Myths about Thyroid Health","slug":"clearing-up-common-myths-about-thyroid-health","categoryList":["body-mind-spirit","physical-health-well-being","diseases","thyroid"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/200685"}},{"articleId":200381,"title":"Exploring Hyperthyroid Eye Disease","slug":"exploring-hyperthyroid-eye-disease","categoryList":["body-mind-spirit","physical-health-well-being","diseases","thyroid"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/200381"}},{"articleId":199801,"title":"Noting the Signs and Symptoms of Hyperthyroidism","slug":"noting-the-signs-and-symptoms-of-hyperthyroidism","categoryList":["body-mind-spirit","physical-health-well-being","diseases","thyroid"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/199801"}}],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":201336,"title":"Facing the Consequences of Iodine Deficiency","slug":"facing-the-consequences-of-iodine-deficiency","categoryList":["body-mind-spirit","physical-health-well-being","diseases","thyroid"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/201336"}},{"articleId":200927,"title":"Pinpointing the Causes of Hypothyroidism","slug":"pinpointing-the-causes-of-hypothyroidism","categoryList":["body-mind-spirit","physical-health-well-being","diseases","thyroid"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/200927"}},{"articleId":200685,"title":"Clearing Up Common Myths about Thyroid Health","slug":"clearing-up-common-myths-about-thyroid-health","categoryList":["body-mind-spirit","physical-health-well-being","diseases","thyroid"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/200685"}},{"articleId":200381,"title":"Exploring Hyperthyroid Eye Disease","slug":"exploring-hyperthyroid-eye-disease","categoryList":["body-mind-spirit","physical-health-well-being","diseases","thyroid"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/200381"}},{"articleId":199801,"title":"Noting the Signs and Symptoms of Hyperthyroidism","slug":"noting-the-signs-and-symptoms-of-hyperthyroidism","categoryList":["body-mind-spirit","physical-health-well-being","diseases","thyroid"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/199801"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":282632,"slug":"thyroid-for-dummies-2nd-edition","isbn":"9780471787556","categoryList":["body-mind-spirit","physical-health-well-being","diseases","thyroid"],"amazon":{"default":"//www.amazon.com/gp/product/0471787558/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","ca":"//www.amazon.ca/gp/product/0471787558/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","indigo_ca":"//www.tkqlhce.com/click-9208661-13710633?url=//www.chapters.indigo.ca/en-ca/books/product/0471787558-item.html&cjsku=978111945484","gb":"//www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/0471787558/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","de":"//www.amazon.de/gp/product/0471787558/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20"},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/thyroid-for-dummies-2nd-edition-cover-9780471787556-203x255.jpg","width":203,"height":255},"title":"Thyroid For Dummies","testBankPinActivationLink":"","bookOutOfPrint":false,"authorsInfo":"<p><b data-author-id=\"9008\">Alan L. Rubin, MD,</b> has had a private practice specializing in thyroid disorders and diabetes for nearly three decades. A member of the Endocrine Society, he speaks regularly on thyroid health. </p>","authors":[{"authorId":9008,"name":"Alan L. Rubin","slug":"alan-l-rubin","description":" <b>Alan L. Rubin</b>, MD has been a physician in private practice for more than 30 years. He is the author of several bestselling health titles, including <i>Diabetes For Dummies</i>, <i>High Blood Pressure For Dummies</i>, and <i>Thyroid For Dummies</i>.","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9008"}}],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/books/"}},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;body-mind-spirit&quot;,&quot;physical-health-well-being&quot;,&quot;diseases&quot;,&quot;thyroid&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9780471787556&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-63221b3cade0d\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;body-mind-spirit&quot;,&quot;physical-health-well-being&quot;,&quot;diseases&quot;,&quot;thyroid&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9780471787556&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-63221b3cae7dd\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Cheat Sheet","articleList":[{"articleId":149106,"title":"7 Ways to Maximize Your Thyroid Health","slug":"7-ways-to-maximize-your-thyroid-health","categoryList":["body-mind-spirit","physical-health-well-being","diseases","thyroid"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/149106"}},{"articleId":149031,"title":"11 Signs and Symptoms of Low Thyroid Function","slug":"11-signs-and-symptoms-of-low-thyroid-function","categoryList":["body-mind-spirit","physical-health-well-being","diseases","thyroid"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/149031"}},{"articleId":149030,"title":"13 Signs and Symptoms of Excessive Thyroid Function","slug":"13-signs-and-symptoms-of-excessive-thyroid-function","categoryList":["body-mind-spirit","physical-health-well-being","diseases","thyroid"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/149030"}},{"articleId":149096,"title":"8 Medications to Be Cautious of in Thyroid Conditions","slug":"8-medications-to-be-cautious-of-in-thyroid-conditions","categoryList":["body-mind-spirit","physical-health-well-being","diseases","thyroid"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/149096"}}],"content":[{"title":"7 ways to maximize your thyroid health","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>You can take action to improve your thyroid health. If you&#8217;re concerned that you have — or may have — a problem with your thyroid, you should bear in mind the following advice:</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">If thyroid disease runs in your family, ask your doctor about screening for thyroid diseases at appropriate intervals.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">If you have a thyroid problem, check your thyroid function during times of major body changes, such as pregnancy.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Make sure you get enough iodine in your diet, especially if you&#8217;re vegetarian.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">If you&#8217;ve taken thyroid hormone replacement for several years to treat hypothyroidism (low thyroid function), ask your doctor if you can try stopping treatment to see if your thyroid can function without it.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">If you still experience symptoms of hypothyroidism while taking hormone replacement pills, ask your doctor if you can try taking both types of thyroid hormone (T4 and T3), although this is controversial.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Remember that some medications can interact with thyroid hormones.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Protect your thyroid from radiation. If your neck has had exposure to radiation in the past, ensure your doctor knows that.</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"11 signs and symptoms of low thyroid function","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Someone with hypothyroidism — an underactive thyroid gland — often experiences some of the following signs and symptoms. Keep in mind that these symptoms alone can&#8217;t diagnose thyroid disease, and thyroid disease is sometimes present even if you don&#8217;t experience all the symptoms:</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Slow pulse</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Enlarged thyroid (unless removed during previous thyroid treatment)</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Dry, cool skin that is puffy, pale, and yellowish</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Brittle nails and dry, brittle hair that falls out excessively</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Swelling, especially of the legs</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Hoarseness, slow speech, and a thickened tongue</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Slow reflexes</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Intolerance to cold</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Tiredness and a need to sleep excessively</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Constipation</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Increased menstrual flow</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"13 signs and symptoms of excessive thyroid function","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Someone with hyperthyroidism — an over-active thyroid gland — may experience some or all of the following symptoms. The same caution about symptoms of hypothyroidism applies here; these symptoms alone don&#8217;t confirm a diagnosis. Only blood tests can do this.</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Higher body temperature and intolerance to heat</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Weight loss</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Weakness</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Enlarged thyroid</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Warm, moist skin</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Rapid pulse</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Tremor of the fingers and tongue</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Nervousness</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Difficulty sleeping</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Rapid mood changes</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Decreased menstrual flow</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">More frequent bowel movements</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Changes to the eyes that make it appear as if you&#8217;re staring</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"8 medications to be cautious of in thyroid conditions","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Certain drugs can interact with your thyroid hormone to negatively affect your thyroid function. These are just a few commonly used medications that can affect your thyroid:</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Amiodarone</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Aspirin (more than 3,000 milligrams daily)</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Estrogen (for example, in hormone replacement therapy, or in the oral contraceptive pill)</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Iron tablets</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Iodine</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Lithium</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Propranolol</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Corticosteroids</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n"}],"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Solve","lifeExpectancy":"Two years","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2023-04-26T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":207640},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2017-03-27T16:46:44+00:00","modifiedTime":"2023-03-10T22:30:04+00:00","timestamp":"2023-09-14T18:19:24+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Home, Auto, & Hobbies","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33809"},"slug":"home-auto-hobbies","categoryId":33809},{"name":"Food & Drink","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33839"},"slug":"food-drink","categoryId":33839},{"name":"Recipes","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33859"},"slug":"recipes","categoryId":33859},{"name":"Diabetes Recipes","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33868"},"slug":"diabetes-recipes","categoryId":33868}],"title":"Type 1 Diabetes For Dummies Cheat Sheet","strippedTitle":"type 1 diabetes for dummies cheat sheet","slug":"type-1-diabetes-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","canonicalUrl":"","搜素浏览平台SEO调整":{"metaDescription":"Learn the essential tests for people with type 1 diabetes, as well as what to do in cases of hypoglycemia and diabetic ketoacidosis.","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"Living with type 1 diabetes can be difficult. To verify a diagnosis, a sample of blood is taken and its glucose level is measured. This Cheat Sheet provides a quick reference to the necessary regular doctor's office visits and tests, how to recognize and treat hypoglycemia in children with type 1 diabetes, and what to do if diabetic ketoacidosis strikes.","description":"Living with type 1 diabetes can be difficult. To verify a diagnosis, a sample of blood is taken and its glucose level is measured. This Cheat Sheet provides a quick reference to the necessary regular doctor's office visits and tests, how to recognize and treat hypoglycemia in children with type 1 diabetes, and what to do if diabetic ketoacidosis strikes.","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":9008,"name":"Alan L. Rubin","slug":"alan-l-rubin","description":" <b>Alan L. Rubin</b>, MD has been a physician in private practice for more than 30 years. He is the author of several bestselling health titles, including <i>Diabetes For Dummies</i>, <i>High Blood Pressure For Dummies</i>, and <i>Thyroid For Dummies</i>.","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9008"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33868,"title":"Diabetes Recipes","slug":"diabetes-recipes","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33868"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[{"articleId":139093,"title":"Taking Action if Diabetic Ketoacidosis Strikes","slug":"taking-action-if-diabetic-ketoacidosis-strikes","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","recipes","diabetes-recipes"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/139093"}},{"articleId":139090,"title":"Essential Tests for People with Type 1 Diabetes","slug":"essential-tests-for-people-with-type-1-diabetes","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","recipes","diabetes-recipes"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/139090"}},{"articleId":139083,"title":"Recognizing and Treating Hypoglycemia","slug":"recognizing-and-treating-hypoglycemia","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","recipes","diabetes-recipes"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/139083"}}],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":256957,"title":"What Are the Symptoms of Diabetes or Prediabetes?","slug":"what-are-the-symptoms-of-diabetes-or-prediabetes","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","recipes","diabetes-recipes"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/256957"}},{"articleId":253325,"title":"Quick and Diabetic-Friendly Seafood Recipes","slug":"quick-diabetic-friendly-seafood-recipes","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","recipes","diabetes-recipes"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/253325"}},{"articleId":253328,"title":"Quick and Diabetic-Friendly Lamb Recipes","slug":"quick-diabetic-friendly-lamb-recipes","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","recipes","diabetes-recipes"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/253328"}},{"articleId":253331,"title":"Quick and Diabetic-Friendly Pork Recipes","slug":"quick-diabetic-friendly-pork-recipes","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","recipes","diabetes-recipes"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/253331"}},{"articleId":253334,"title":"Quick and Diabetic-Friendly Beef Recipes","slug":"quick-diabetic-friendly-beef-recipes","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","recipes","diabetes-recipes"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/253334"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":282644,"slug":"type-1-diabetes-for-dummies","isbn":"9780470178119","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","recipes","diabetes-recipes"],"amazon":{"default":"//www.amazon.com/gp/product/0470178116/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","ca":"//www.amazon.ca/gp/product/0470178116/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","indigo_ca":"//www.tkqlhce.com/click-9208661-13710633?url=//www.chapters.indigo.ca/en-ca/books/product/0470178116-item.html&cjsku=978111945484","gb":"//www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/0470178116/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","de":"//www.amazon.de/gp/product/0470178116/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20"},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/type-1-diabetes-for-dummies-cover-9780470178119-203x255.jpg","width":203,"height":255},"title":"Type 1 Diabetes For Dummies","testBankPinActivationLink":"","bookOutOfPrint":false,"authorsInfo":"<p><b data-author-id=\"9008\">Alan L. Rubin, MD,</b> is a physician in private practice and the author of the bestselling <i>Diabetes For Dummies, Diabetes Cookbook For Dummies, </i>and <i>Thyroid For Dummies</i>. </p>","authors":[{"authorId":9008,"name":"Alan L. Rubin","slug":"alan-l-rubin","description":" <b>Alan L. Rubin</b>, MD has been a physician in private practice for more than 30 years. He is the author of several bestselling health titles, including <i>Diabetes For Dummies</i>, <i>High Blood Pressure For Dummies</i>, and <i>Thyroid For Dummies</i>.","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9008"}}],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/books/"}},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;home-auto-hobbies&quot;,&quot;food-drink&quot;,&quot;recipes&quot;,&quot;diabetes-recipes&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9780470178119&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-63221b2c6cd07\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;home-auto-hobbies&quot;,&quot;food-drink&quot;,&quot;recipes&quot;,&quot;diabetes-recipes&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9780470178119&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-63221b2c6d75b\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Cheat Sheet","articleList":[{"articleId":139090,"title":"Essential Tests for People with Type 1 Diabetes","slug":"essential-tests-for-people-with-type-1-diabetes","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","recipes","diabetes-recipes"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/139090"}},{"articleId":139083,"title":"Recognizing and Treating Hypoglycemia","slug":"recognizing-and-treating-hypoglycemia","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","recipes","diabetes-recipes"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/139083"}},{"articleId":139093,"title":"Taking Action if Diabetic Ketoacidosis Strikes","slug":"taking-action-if-diabetic-ketoacidosis-strikes","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","recipes","diabetes-recipes"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/139093"}}],"content":[{"title":"Essential doctor's office visits and tests for people with type 1 diabetes","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Undergoing tests at the doctor’s office is a fact of life for someone who has type 1 diabetes. But with this handy card, keeping track of test results is a snap. You can make copies of this chart and fill in your child’s (or your own) results.</p>\n<table>\n<tbody>\n<tr>\n<th>Test</th>\n<th>Frequency</th>\n<th>Results</th>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Foot exam</td>\n<td>Each office visit</td>\n<td></td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Blood pressure</td>\n<td>Each office visit</td>\n<td></td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Weight</td>\n<td>Each office visit</td>\n<td></td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Height</td>\n<td>Each office visit</td>\n<td></td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Hemoglobin A1c</td>\n<td>Every three months</td>\n<td></td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)</td>\n<td>Yearly</td>\n<td></td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Microalbuminuria</td>\n<td>Yearly</td>\n<td></td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Eye exam</td>\n<td>Yearly</td>\n<td></td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Lipid panel (cholesterol)</td>\n<td>Yearly</td>\n<td></td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Ankle-brachial index</td>\n<td>Every five years</td>\n<td></td>\n</tr>\n</tbody>\n</table>\n"},{"title":"Recognizing and treating hypoglycemia in children","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>There are many possible causes for hypoglycemia in children with type 1 diabetes, but it all really comes down to too much insulin (from an external source) and too little glucose in the blood.</p>\n<p>Even if there’s plenty of glucose inside the cells that require insulin, a problem still exists because the brain gets its glucose passively when the glucose in the blood is higher than the glucose in brain cells.</p>\n<p class=\"Remember\">If insulin has driven most of the blood glucose into cells that <em>don</em><em>’</em><em>t</em> receive glucose passively, hypoglycemia is present as far as the brain is concerned. And that means the child becomes confused, sleepy, and even comatose.</p>\n<p>Some symptoms of hypoglycemia are:</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Whiteness or pallor of the skin</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Sweating</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Rapid heartbeat or palpitations (the sensation that the heart is beating too fast)</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Anxiety</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Irritability</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Numbness in the lips, fingers, and toes</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Sensation of hunger</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Headache</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Loss of concentration</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Vision disorders, like double or blurred vision</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Poor color vision</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Fatigue</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Difficulty hearing</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Confusion and difficulty concentrating</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Feeling of warmth</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Slurred speech</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Dizziness</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Convulsions</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Reduced consciousness or coma</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n<p>Mild hypoglycemia is marked by a blood glucose of about 75 mg/dl, moderate hypoglycemia by a blood glucose of about 65 mg/dl, and severe hypoglycemia by a blood glucose of less than 55 mg/dl.</p>\n<p>You can prevent many episodes of hypoglycemia by constantly staying aware of your child’s blood glucose and keeping him on a regular schedule; you can adjust his insulin if he’s mildly hypoglycemic. Other tips for treating hypoglycemia include the following:</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Giving your child glucose tablets, which contain 4 mg of glucose. Two to four tablets is enough for moderate hypoglycemia in most children. If your child has trouble swallowing, give him honey instead of glucose tablets.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Giving your child 1-1/2 cups of orange juice. It effectively raises the blood glucose back to the normal range of 90 to 100 mg/dl.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Keeping the child quiet and inactive for 15 to 30 minutes after the reaction.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Checking the blood glucose 20 minutes after treating the hypoglycemia and giving another treatment if the level remains below 100 mg/dl.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Using a prescription glucagon emergency shot for an unconscious child who has severe hypoglycemia. Just make sure that the glucagon hasn’t expired. If the child doesn’t wake up in 10 to 15 minutes even though his blood glucose is normal, call 911.</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"Taking action if diabetic ketoacidosis strikes","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p><i>Diabetic ketoacidosis</i> (DKA) is a severe diabetic complication that has to be managed in a hospital. It’s characterized by high blood glucose (though it need not be very high) associated with an acid condition of the blood due to the production of ketones, which are the products of fat breakdown. The root of the illness is a lack of insulin.</p>\n<p>Without enough insulin, glucose can’t get into insulin-dependent cells like muscle and the liver, so glucose accumulates in the blood, and the body turns to fat for energy.</p>\n<p class=\"Tip\">Major symptoms include the following:</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Abdominal pain</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Frequent urination and thirst</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Nausea and vomiting</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Weakness</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Weight loss</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Smell of acetone on the breath</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Confusion or coma</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Cold skin and body temperature</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Rapid, shallow breathing followed by deep, labored breathing</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n<p>If you suspect that you or your child has DKA, there are a couple of quick tests you can do at home to verify the diagnosis:</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Check the blood glucose with your home meter. With DKA, the meter will generally read greater than 250 mg/dl, but some cases of mild DKA may have a glucose reading under 250 mg/dl.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Check the urine for ketones. With DKA, the reading will be high.</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n<p>After you verify DKA with a home test, or if you suspect that you or your child has DKA even without a diagnosis of type 1 diabetes, dial 911 and then call your doctor to tell them that you’re on the way to the hospital.</p>\n"}],"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Solve","lifeExpectancy":"One year","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2023-03-10T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":207409},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2017-03-27T09:22:43+00:00","modifiedTime":"2018-04-24T14:37:20+00:00","timestamp":"2023-09-14T18:18:30+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Home, Auto, & Hobbies","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33809"},"slug":"home-auto-hobbies","categoryId":33809},{"name":"Food & Drink","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33839"},"slug":"food-drink","categoryId":33839},{"name":"Recipes","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33859"},"slug":"recipes","categoryId":33859},{"name":"Diabetes Recipes","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33868"},"slug":"diabetes-recipes","categoryId":33868}],"title":"10 Simple Steps to Change Your Eating Habits","strippedTitle":"10 simple steps to change your eating habits","slug":"10-simple-steps-to-change-your-eating-habits","canonicalUrl":"","搜素浏览平台SEO调整":{"metaDescription":"Following a nutritional plan sometimes seems so complicated. But really, if you follow the few simple rules outlined here, you can make the process much easier.","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"Following a nutritional plan sometimes seems so complicated. But really, if you follow the few simple rules outlined here, you can make the process much easier. None of them cost anything other than time. Doing them one at a time makes a big difference in your calorie and fat intake. Adding one after another makes the results huge.\r\n\r\nYour weight, blood pressure, and blood glucose all fall. Who could ask for anything more?","description":"Following a nutritional plan sometimes seems so complicated. But really, if you follow the few simple rules outlined here, you can make the process much easier. None of them cost anything other than time. Doing them one at a time makes a big difference in your calorie and fat intake. Adding one after another makes the results huge.\r\n\r\nYour weight, blood pressure, and blood glucose all fall. Who could ask for anything more?","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":9008,"name":"Alan L. Rubin","slug":"alan-l-rubin","description":" <b>Alan L. Rubin</b>, MD has been a physician in private practice for more than 30 years. He is the author of several bestselling health titles, including <i>Diabetes For Dummies</i>, <i>High Blood Pressure For Dummies</i>, and <i>Thyroid For Dummies</i>.","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9008"}},{"authorId":9291,"name":"Cait James","slug":"cait-james","description":" <b>Dr. Alan L. 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Rubin</b> is one of the leading authorities on diabetes and the author of many books, including <i>Diabetes For Dummies, Type 1 Diabetes For Dummies</i>, and <i>Prediabetes For Dummies</i>. <p><b>Cait James, MS,</b> has counseled clients in individualized nutrition and personal fitness plans in health clubs.</p>","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9291"}}],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/books/"}},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;home-auto-hobbies&quot;,&quot;food-drink&quot;,&quot;recipes&quot;,&quot;diabetes-recipes&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781118944264&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-63221af6adba7\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;home-auto-hobbies&quot;,&quot;food-drink&quot;,&quot;recipes&quot;,&quot;diabetes-recipes&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781118944264&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-63221af6bd904\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Step by Step","articleList":null,"content":[{"title":"Enjoy a good breakfast.","thumb":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/463822.image0.jpg","width":535,"height":363},"content":"<p>People often think that the path to weight loss is to skip meals, and breakfast is often the first to go. However, the “successful losers” in the National Weight Loss Registry would disagree: 78 percent of them eat a good breakfast and only 4 percent skip breakfast. Eating a healthy breakfast prevents much greater eating later in the day.</p>\n<p>So, what’s is a healthy breakfast? An easy option is whole-grain cereal with lowfat milk, and a piece of fruit. Some other suggestions include steel-cut oats with hemp protein powder, flaxseed, walnuts and fruit, or eggs with whole wheat toast and fruit. Avoid heavy breakfasts like pancakes, French toast, or waffles with sausage.</p>\n"},{"title":"Limit quantities and make substitutions.","thumb":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/463823.image1.jpg","width":535,"height":356},"content":"<p>In the typical Western diet, many foods are high in sugar, fat, salt, and calories, but low in nutrition. If you want to lose weight and/or improve your health, you have to severely limit or avoid these foods altogether.</p>\n<p>You can substitute a healthier food for just about any not-so-healthy food. Here are some examples:</p>\n"},{"title":"Eat every meal.","thumb":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/463824.image2.jpg","width":456,"height":400},"content":"<p>When you miss meals, you become hungry. If you have type 1 diabetes, you can’t safely miss meals, especially if you give yourself regular or lispro insulin. Instead of letting yourself become hungry, eat your meals at regular times so that you don’t overcompensate at the next meal (or at a snack shortly after the meal you missed) when you’re suffering from low blood glucose.</p>\n<p>Many people overtreat low blood glucose by eating too many sugar calories, resulting in high blood glucose later on.</p>\n<p>You should not miss meals as a weight-loss method, particularly if you take a drug that lowers blood glucose into hypoglycemic levels. A pregnant woman with diabetes especially should not miss meals. She must make up for the fact that her baby extracts large amounts of glucose from her blood. Both mother and growing fetus are adversely affected if the mother’s body must turn to stored fat for energy.</p>\n"},{"title":"Set specific goals.","thumb":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/463825.image3.jpg","width":535,"height":360},"content":"<p>If you planned to climb Mt. Everest, your itinerary would not read, “Arrive at the base, arrive at the top.” In just the same way, the goals you set for losing weight and switching to the Mediterranean diet need to be achievable and very specific.</p>\n<p>For example, don’t just set a goal to “Lose 40 pounds.” You may be able to do it, eventually, but it’s much more likely that you’ll lose 5 pounds, and that should be your initial goal. After you’ve done that, you can plan to lose another 5 pounds, and so forth.</p>\n<p>Goals should be very specific. For example, “I will eat fruit rather than cake for dessert” is a much better goal than “I will stop eating cake.”</p>\n<p>Choose goals that you have real control over. You’re much more likely to succeed in reducing your fat intake than lowering your cholesterol, although reducing your fat intake may cause your cholesterol to go down. It’s also helpful to choose goals you can easily measure, like your weight and the number of steps you walk each day.</p>\n<p>Your goals should be forgiving. Don’t beat yourself up if you don’t succeed the first time around.</p>\n"},{"title":"Drink water throughout the day.","thumb":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/463826.image4.jpg","width":535,"height":356},"content":"<p>Seventy percent of your body is water, and all your many organs and cells require water to function properly. Most people, especially older people, don’t get enough water. Older people often have the additional disadvantage of losing their ability to sense when they’re thirsty. The consequences may include weakness and fatigue, not to mention constipation.</p>\n<p>Water can replace all the sodas and juice drinks that add unwanted calories to your day. You soon lose your taste for those drinks and discover that you don’t need (or miss) the aftertaste of soda and juice that you took for granted. Those drinks also raise the blood glucose very rapidly and are often used to treat low blood glucose.</p>\n"},{"title":"Reinforce your behavior change.","thumb":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/463827.image5.jpg","width":535,"height":356},"content":"<p>One of the most supportive ways to change your behavior is with reinforcement. Reinforcement may be intrinsic (a pleasurable state of mind like happiness or satisfaction) or extrinsic (a new dress or money, for example). You need to figure out which reinforcements work best for you.</p>\n<p>Obviously, food can’t be an extrinsic motivator unless and until you realize that fruits or vegetables are the things that should give you the most pleasure and not the desserts you may have enjoyed in the past.</p>\n"},{"title":"Remove the attached fat.","thumb":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/463828.image6.jpg","width":535,"height":369},"content":"<p>Many foods, such as sausage and luncheon meats, contain so much fat that lowering their fat content isn’t possible. You should mostly avoid these foods. But other protein sources, such as chicken, steak, roast beef, and pork, have large amounts of visible fat attached to them, so you can remove this fat before you prepare the food.</p>\n<p>In the case of poultry, removing the skin removes most of the fat. Selecting white meat rather than dark further reduces the fat in poultry.</p>\n"},{"title":"Leave out the salt.","thumb":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/463829.image7.jpg","width":533,"height":400},"content":"<p>Most Americans like a lot of salt in their food. Consequently, these people taste mostly salt and not much of the food. Try getting rid of the salt in your recipes. You can always add it later if you miss the flavor that salt adds. At first, you may think that the food tastes bland. Then you’ll begin to discover the subtle tastes that were in the food all along but were overpowered by the salt.</p>\n<p>Recent studies, particularly the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study, which was a major breakthrough published in 1998, have shown that you can slow or prevent diabetic complications by reducing blood pressure.</p>\n<p>You can try the approach of slowly removing salt from the recipe. If it calls for a teaspoon of salt, add only 3⁄4 teaspoon. You won’t notice the difference. Next time, try 1⁄2 teaspoon. And so on.</p>\n"},{"title":"Track food with a diary.","thumb":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/463830.image8.jpg","width":535,"height":392},"content":"<p>Try this little diversion: For the next two days, write down everything you eat and drink. Before you go to bed on the evening of the second day, take a separate piece of paper and try to reconstruct what you’ve eaten for the past two days without looking at your original list. Then compare the two lists.</p>\n<p>The differences in the lists will startle you. The point of this exercise is to show you that you’re doing a lot of mindless eating. Trying to follow a nutritional plan from memory doesn’t work.</p>\n<p>A food diary not only shows you what you’re eating all the time but also makes it easy to select items to reduce in portion size or eliminate altogether. When you go to your doctor, the fact that your diary lists birdseed for every meal helps confirm your statement that you eat like a bird.</p>\n"},{"title":"Cook by the b’s.","thumb":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/463831.image9.jpg","width":533,"height":400},"content":"<p>The best methods of cooking all begin with a <i>b:</i><i> </i>braising, broiling, barbecuing, and boiling,</p>\n<p>These methods of preparation don’t add fat and often remove a lot of the fat within the food. Broiling a hamburger, for example, often eliminates as much fat from a moderate-fat hamburger as buying a reduced-fat hamburger to begin with. Frying, sautéing, and other methods that depend on butter or fat add exactly the things that you want to remove.</p>\n<p>It is possible to sauté food without using fat if you have a good nonstick pan. Then the fat in the food provides the “grease” to keep the food from sticking. 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It is what you teach them that determines their feelings about food. If you show them that you","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"Children don’t hate vegetables any more than they hate ice cream. It is what you teach them that determines their feelings about food. If you show them that you love vegetables and consider them delicious, that’s how they will feel about vegetables. They love to follow your example. The best time to do this is at family meals. Following are ten of the numerous things you can do to encourage your child to eat vegetables.","description":"Children don’t hate vegetables any more than they hate ice cream. It is what you teach them that determines their feelings about food. If you show them that you love vegetables and consider them delicious, that’s how they will feel about vegetables. They love to follow your example. The best time to do this is at family meals. Following are ten of the numerous things you can do to encourage your child to eat vegetables.","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":9008,"name":"Alan L. Rubin","slug":"alan-l-rubin","description":" <b>Alan L. Rubin</b>, MD has been a physician in private practice for more than 30 years. He is the author of several bestselling health titles, including <i>Diabetes For Dummies</i>, <i>High Blood Pressure For Dummies</i>, and <i>Thyroid For Dummies</i>.","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9008"}},{"authorId":9291,"name":"Cait James","slug":"cait-james","description":" <b>Dr. Alan L. Rubin</b> is one of the leading authorities on diabetes and the author of many books, including <i>Diabetes For Dummies, Type 1 Diabetes For Dummies</i>, and <i>Prediabetes For Dummies</i>. <p><b>Cait James, MS,</b> has counseled clients in individualized nutrition and personal fitness plans in health clubs.</p>","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9291"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33868,"title":"Diabetes Recipes","slug":"diabetes-recipes","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33868"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":34150,"title":"Diabetes","slug":"diabetes","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/34150"}},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[{"articleId":209305,"title":"Diabetes Cookbook For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"diabetes-cookbook-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","recipes","diabetes-recipes"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/209305"}},{"articleId":203356,"title":"10 Simple Steps to Adopting a Mediterranean Diet","slug":"10-simple-steps-to-adopting-a-mediterranean-diet","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","recipes","diabetes-recipes"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/203356"}},{"articleId":203354,"title":"10 Simple Steps to Change Your Eating Habits","slug":"10-simple-steps-to-change-your-eating-habits","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","recipes","diabetes-recipes"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/203354"}},{"articleId":194479,"title":"Living with Diabetes: How to Improve Eating Habits","slug":"living-with-diabetes-how-to-improve-eating-habits","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","recipes","diabetes-recipes"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/194479"}},{"articleId":194480,"title":"Food Terms that Indicate Fat Content","slug":"food-terms-that-indicate-fat-content","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","recipes","diabetes-recipes"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/194480"}}],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":256957,"title":"What Are the Symptoms of Diabetes or Prediabetes?","slug":"what-are-the-symptoms-of-diabetes-or-prediabetes","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","recipes","diabetes-recipes"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/256957"}},{"articleId":253325,"title":"Quick and Diabetic-Friendly Seafood Recipes","slug":"quick-diabetic-friendly-seafood-recipes","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","recipes","diabetes-recipes"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/253325"}},{"articleId":253328,"title":"Quick and Diabetic-Friendly Lamb Recipes","slug":"quick-diabetic-friendly-lamb-recipes","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","recipes","diabetes-recipes"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/253328"}},{"articleId":253331,"title":"Quick and Diabetic-Friendly Pork Recipes","slug":"quick-diabetic-friendly-pork-recipes","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","recipes","diabetes-recipes"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/253331"}},{"articleId":253334,"title":"Quick and Diabetic-Friendly Beef Recipes","slug":"quick-diabetic-friendly-beef-recipes","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","recipes","diabetes-recipes"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/253334"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":282148,"slug":"diabetes-cookbook-for-dummies-4th-edition","isbn":"9781118944264","categoryList":["home-auto-hobbies","food-drink","recipes","diabetes-recipes"],"amazon":{"default":"//www.amazon.com/gp/product/1118944267/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","ca":"//www.amazon.ca/gp/product/1118944267/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","indigo_ca":"//www.tkqlhce.com/click-9208661-13710633?url=//www.chapters.indigo.ca/en-ca/books/product/1118944267-item.html&cjsku=978111945484","gb":"//www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/1118944267/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","de":"//www.amazon.de/gp/product/1118944267/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20"},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/diabetes-cookbook-for-dummies-4th-edition-cover-9781118944264-203x255.jpg","width":203,"height":255},"title":"Diabetes Cookbook For Dummies","testBankPinActivationLink":"","bookOutOfPrint":false,"authorsInfo":"<b data-author-id=\"9008\">Dr. Alan L. Rubin</b> is one of the leading authorities on diabetes and the author of many books, including <i>Diabetes For Dummies, Type 1 Diabetes For Dummies</i>, and <i>Prediabetes For Dummies</i>. <p><b data-author-id=\"9291\">Cait James, MS,</b> has counseled clients in individualized nutrition and personal fitness plans in health clubs.</p>","authors":[{"authorId":9008,"name":"Alan L. Rubin","slug":"alan-l-rubin","description":" <b>Alan L. Rubin</b>, MD has been a physician in private practice for more than 30 years. He is the author of several bestselling health titles, including <i>Diabetes For Dummies</i>, <i>High Blood Pressure For Dummies</i>, and <i>Thyroid For Dummies</i>.","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9008"}},{"authorId":9291,"name":"Cait James","slug":"cait-james","description":" <b>Dr. Alan L. Rubin</b> is one of the leading authorities on diabetes and the author of many books, including <i>Diabetes For Dummies, Type 1 Diabetes For Dummies</i>, and <i>Prediabetes For Dummies</i>. <p><b>Cait James, MS,</b> has counseled clients in individualized nutrition and personal fitness plans in health clubs.</p>","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9291"}}],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/books/"}},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;home-auto-hobbies&quot;,&quot;food-drink&quot;,&quot;recipes&quot;,&quot;diabetes-recipes&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781118944264&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-63221acc16184\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;home-auto-hobbies&quot;,&quot;food-drink&quot;,&quot;recipes&quot;,&quot;diabetes-recipes&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781118944264&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-63221acc16730\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Step by Step","articleList":null,"content":[{"title":"Start early.","thumb":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/463777.image0.jpg","width":535,"height":292},"content":"<p>Children learn their eating habits at a very young age, age 2 or even younger. From the time they can eat solid or even semi-solid food, they should be given choices of vegetables. Don&#8217;t use bottled vegetables, since they are often filled with salt and sugar, but rather make the vegetables into small portions yourself.</p>\n<p>Give the child the vegetable to eat by itself, not with a choice of fatty things or sweet things that he will gravitate toward. Do not threaten that the “good stuff” comes only after the vegetables are eaten. Vegetables must be seen as part of the good stuff.</p>\n<p>And, of course, set an example. Let him see you eating and enjoying the vegetables. The message will come through loud and clear.</p>\n"},{"title":"Let children pick.","thumb":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/463778.image1.jpg","width":535,"height":356},"content":"<p>Children love to feel that they have power. Give them the power to pick the vegetables in the market that they and you will eat. Move around to the different colors, explaining that the reason for the different colors is that each color represents a different kind of food that they need in their body. Get a rainbow of vegetables.</p>\n<p>Try to know what the vegetables contain so you can explain to the child. This vegetable gives you this vitamin and mineral. That vegetable gives you that one. Your body uses them all to create a healthy person.</p>\n"},{"title":"Involve children in food preparation.","thumb":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/463779.image2.jpg","width":535,"height":356},"content":"<p>When you ask children to describe their earliest memories, they often talk happily about helping their grandmother make some kind of food.</p>\n<p>Preparing food together can be a great bonding experience between you and your child, and it also provides you with the opportunity to teach good nutrition. If your child helps you to prepare vegetables, he will want to try what he has prepared.</p>\n"},{"title":"Keep problem foods out of sight and good foods in easy view.","thumb":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/463780.image3.jpg","width":535,"height":356},"content":"<p>If potato chips or creamy cookies sit on the kitchen counter, can you blame your child (or yourself) for grabbing a handful every time he or she goes by? Don’t buy these foods in the first place. If you do, keep them out of sight. You know what happens when you walk up to a buffet table. You can more easily avoid what you don’t see.</p>\n<p>On the other hand, keep fruits and vegetables in plain sight. Have carrot sticks and celery sticks easily available. Keep some cooked broccoli and cauliflower in the refrigerator.</p>\n"},{"title":"Grow a garden.","thumb":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/463781.image4.jpg","width":535,"height":356},"content":"<p>Even if all you have is a small box, you can show your child where vegetables come from, how they grow, when to pick them, and the fun of eating what you grow. Plus, foods that you grow and pick yourself, just at the peak of taste, are a totally different experience from what you get at the market.</p>\n<p>Only the farmer’s market can come close. So if you can’t possibly grow your own, take your child to a farmer’s market. They are everywhere.</p>\n<p>Let your child do the picking. The thrill of picking your own food is not to be missed. If you can’t pick in your own garden, pick where you can pay for the produce in another garden.</p>\n"},{"title":"Find vegetable recipes they like.","thumb":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/463782.image5.jpg","width":535,"height":356},"content":"<p>In the age of the Internet, the availability of great recipes is almost overwhelming. Brilliant chefs are working to produce recipes that make you salivate. Your children will love the results.</p>\n<p>People with diabetes can eat great food. They can eat just about anything as long as the portions are appropriate. You don’t have to go to vegetarian sources to find great vegetable recipes. Even restaurants that feature meat know how to cook vegetables. You’ll be amazed at the creative ways that chefs prepare zucchini, carrots, squash, spinach, and so forth.</p>\n<p>Try watching some of the cooking shows on TV as you exercise. Check the schedule and try to exercise when the vegetable cooking is being shown. The only problem is that you may want to stop exercising and start cooking. Resist until you have done your 30 minutes or more.</p>\n"},{"title":"Stir-fry.","thumb":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/463783.image6.jpg","width":503,"height":400},"content":"<p>One of the best ways to cook vegetables ending with a delicious dish without adding a lot of fat is to stir-fry. You use very little oil and the vegetables come out hot and delicious. The natural tastes of the vegetables are sealed in. The Chinese have been doing it this way for generations. Until they adopted the Western styles of cooking and eating, diabetes was not much of a problem among the Chinese.</p>\n<p>Stir-fry many different kinds of vegetables together to make a vegetable medley. Some may take a little longer or a little shorter to fry so put the ones together that take the same time. A meal made up just with stir-fried vegetables can be all your child needs to realize how delicious vegetables can be.</p>\n<p>You don’t have to throw in any chicken or beef. That is an important message to send your child. A meal can be complete without animal protein. Eating vegetarian is a very healthful way to go.</p>\n"},{"title":"Use a dip.","thumb":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/463784.image7.jpg","width":535,"height":356},"content":"<p>Sometimes dipping the vegetables into a delicious dip that you prepare can make the vegetables even more delicious, desirable, and easy to eat.</p>\n"},{"title":"Know the right-sized portion.","thumb":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/463785.image8.jpg","width":535,"height":356},"content":"<p>A 2-year-old child requires a lot less than a 20-year old adult. The recommended serving size of vegetables for a toddler is a tablespoon per year of age. If you want to get your 2-year-old to eat five of his servings of vegetables, all you have to do is get him to eat ten tablespoons during the course of the day. That’s a lot easier than you thought. If your child wants more, don’t stop him!</p>\n<p>With so little that has to be eaten to reach the daily goal, it may be easier to stick to just one or two vegetables on any given day. Today is carrot and bean day while tomorrow is beet and zucchini day. Vegetables can be fun!</p>\n"},{"title":"Give fruit juice.","thumb":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/463786.image9.jpg","width":535,"height":375},"content":"<p>You would never think of offering your child a cigarette, would you? Why would you ever offer your child a can of soda? If you want to get some more fruit into your child, and he won’t eat enough solid fruit, give him 100 percent fruit juice. You can get juice from just about any fruit and many vegetables.</p>\n<p>You can also make delicious fruit smoothies with lots of fruit, some juice, and a little yogurt. Kids love them!</p>\n"}],"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Solve","lifeExpectancy":null,"lifeExpectancySetFrom":null,"dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":203355},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2017-03-26T20:01:39+00:00","modifiedTime":"2018-02-07T20:18:13+00:00","timestamp":"2023-09-14T18:17:19+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Body, Mind, & Spirit","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/34038"},"slug":"body-mind-spirit","categoryId":34038},{"name":"Physical Health & Well-Being","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/34095"},"slug":"physical-health-well-being","categoryId":34095},{"name":"Diet & Nutrition","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/34102"},"slug":"diet-nutrition","categoryId":34102},{"name":"Vitamins & Supplements","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/34135"},"slug":"vitamins-supplements","categoryId":34135}],"title":"The Role of Vitamin D in Preventing Ovarian Cancer","strippedTitle":"the role of vitamin d in preventing ovarian cancer","slug":"the-role-of-vitamin-d-in-preventing-ovarian-cancer","canonicalUrl":"","搜素浏览平台SEO调整":{"metaDescription":"Ovarian cancer may arise in the ovaries, oval-shaped organs found in pairs in the female reproductive system. Studies suggest that vitamin D plays a role in pre","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"<p>Ovarian cancer may arise in the ovaries, oval-shaped organs found in pairs in the female reproductive system. Studies suggest that vitamin D plays a role in preventing and treating ovarian carcinoma. In 2009, about 21,550 cases were diagnosed and 14,600 women died of ovarian cancer in the United States. Ovarian cancer is usually a cancer of women older than age 60.</p>\r\n<p>Within the ovaries, eggs are produced, along with estrogen and progesterone. The following diagram shows the location of the ovaries.</p>\r\n<div class=\"imageBlock\" style=\"width:400px;\"><img src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/287696.image0.jpg\" width=\"400\" height=\"385\" alt=\"Location of the ovaries and other female reproductive organs.\"/><div class=\"imageCaption\">Location of the ovaries and other female reproductive organs.</div></div>\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" >Ovarian cancer risk factors and symptoms</h2>\r\n<p>Several factors increase the risk for ovarian cancer:</p>\r\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\r\n <li><p class=\"first-para\">Infertility</p>\r\n </li>\r\n <li><p class=\"first-para\">Endometriosis, in which cells of the uterus are found outside the uterus, such as on the ovaries, causing pain and bleeding, especially during menstruation</p>\r\n </li>\r\n <li><p class=\"first-para\">Postmenopausal estrogen supplementation</p>\r\n </li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<p>Factors that decrease the risk for ovarian cancer include use of combined estrogen/progesterone oral contraceptives and contraception by tubal ligation (tying off the fallopian tubes).</p>\r\n<p class=\"Remember\">Ovarian cancer is associated with a number of signs and symptoms, but none that are specific to ovarian cancer. Consider the most important:</p>\r\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\r\n <li><p class=\"first-para\">Back pain</p>\r\n </li>\r\n <li><p class=\"first-para\">Bloating</p>\r\n </li>\r\n <li><p class=\"first-para\">Digestive symptoms, including constipation and lack of appetite</p>\r\n </li>\r\n <li><p class=\"first-para\">A feeling of being full early</p>\r\n </li>\r\n <li><p class=\"first-para\">Irregular menstrual cycles</p>\r\n </li>\r\n <li><p class=\"first-para\">Pain in the pelvis or abdomen</p>\r\n </li>\r\n <li><p class=\"first-para\">Swollen abdomen</p>\r\n </li>\r\n <li><p class=\"first-para\">Vaginal bleeding</p>\r\n </li>\r\n <li><p class=\"first-para\">Vague lower abdominal pain</p>\r\n </li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<h2 id=\"tab2\" >Ovarian cancer diagnosis and treatment</h2>\r\n<p>Ovarian cancer isn’t usually diagnosed in its early stages because it tends to cause symptoms that aren’t specific to the disease. When ovarian cancer is suspected, a pelvic examination and CT scan can diagnose it. A definitive diagnosis requires a biopsy of the mass in the ovary.</p>\r\n<p>Treatment of ovarian cancer starts by surgically removing the ovary and fallopian tube. If the cancer has spread, chemotherapy is added to the treatment. Radiation therapy isn’t usually used because the ovaries are located near other vital organs.</p>\r\n<p>The prognosis for ovarian cancer is poor because the diagnosis is generally made so late in the disease. Complications that may occur include fluid in the abdomen, intestinal obstruction, and spread to other organs. The five-year survival rate is 45 percent.</p>\r\n<h2 id=\"tab3\" >Vitamin D’s role in ovarian cancer</h2>\r\n<p>The evidence that a lack of vitamin D plays a role in the occurrence of ovarian cancer is interesting; however, this relationship isn’t secure yet. Evidence that vitamin D plays a role in preventing and treating ovarian carcinoma includes the following:</p>\r\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\r\n <li><p class=\"first-para\">Calcitriol slows the growth and increases apoptosis (death) of cultured ovarian cancer cells.</p>\r\n </li>\r\n <li><p class=\"first-para\">Drugs designed to act like calcitriol inhibit the growth of ovarian cancer in animal models.</p>\r\n </li>\r\n <li><p class=\"first-para\">Results from several smaller studies suggest that higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels might be protective against ovarian cancer; however, a recent study that combines several smaller studies shows this may be limited to overweight women.</p>\r\n </li>\r\n</ul>","description":"<p>Ovarian cancer may arise in the ovaries, oval-shaped organs found in pairs in the female reproductive system. Studies suggest that vitamin D plays a role in preventing and treating ovarian carcinoma. In 2009, about 21,550 cases were diagnosed and 14,600 women died of ovarian cancer in the United States. Ovarian cancer is usually a cancer of women older than age 60.</p>\r\n<p>Within the ovaries, eggs are produced, along with estrogen and progesterone. The following diagram shows the location of the ovaries.</p>\r\n<div class=\"imageBlock\" style=\"width:400px;\"><img src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/287696.image0.jpg\" width=\"400\" height=\"385\" alt=\"Location of the ovaries and other female reproductive organs.\"/><div class=\"imageCaption\">Location of the ovaries and other female reproductive organs.</div></div>\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" >Ovarian cancer risk factors and symptoms</h2>\r\n<p>Several factors increase the risk for ovarian cancer:</p>\r\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\r\n <li><p class=\"first-para\">Infertility</p>\r\n </li>\r\n <li><p class=\"first-para\">Endometriosis, in which cells of the uterus are found outside the uterus, such as on the ovaries, causing pain and bleeding, especially during menstruation</p>\r\n </li>\r\n <li><p class=\"first-para\">Postmenopausal estrogen supplementation</p>\r\n </li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<p>Factors that decrease the risk for ovarian cancer include use of combined estrogen/progesterone oral contraceptives and contraception by tubal ligation (tying off the fallopian tubes).</p>\r\n<p class=\"Remember\">Ovarian cancer is associated with a number of signs and symptoms, but none that are specific to ovarian cancer. Consider the most important:</p>\r\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\r\n <li><p class=\"first-para\">Back pain</p>\r\n </li>\r\n <li><p class=\"first-para\">Bloating</p>\r\n </li>\r\n <li><p class=\"first-para\">Digestive symptoms, including constipation and lack of appetite</p>\r\n </li>\r\n <li><p class=\"first-para\">A feeling of being full early</p>\r\n </li>\r\n <li><p class=\"first-para\">Irregular menstrual cycles</p>\r\n </li>\r\n <li><p class=\"first-para\">Pain in the pelvis or abdomen</p>\r\n </li>\r\n <li><p class=\"first-para\">Swollen abdomen</p>\r\n </li>\r\n <li><p class=\"first-para\">Vaginal bleeding</p>\r\n </li>\r\n <li><p class=\"first-para\">Vague lower abdominal pain</p>\r\n </li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<h2 id=\"tab2\" >Ovarian cancer diagnosis and treatment</h2>\r\n<p>Ovarian cancer isn’t usually diagnosed in its early stages because it tends to cause symptoms that aren’t specific to the disease. When ovarian cancer is suspected, a pelvic examination and CT scan can diagnose it. A definitive diagnosis requires a biopsy of the mass in the ovary.</p>\r\n<p>Treatment of ovarian cancer starts by surgically removing the ovary and fallopian tube. If the cancer has spread, chemotherapy is added to the treatment. Radiation therapy isn’t usually used because the ovaries are located near other vital organs.</p>\r\n<p>The prognosis for ovarian cancer is poor because the diagnosis is generally made so late in the disease. Complications that may occur include fluid in the abdomen, intestinal obstruction, and spread to other organs. The five-year survival rate is 45 percent.</p>\r\n<h2 id=\"tab3\" >Vitamin D’s role in ovarian cancer</h2>\r\n<p>The evidence that a lack of vitamin D plays a role in the occurrence of ovarian cancer is interesting; however, this relationship isn’t secure yet. Evidence that vitamin D plays a role in preventing and treating ovarian carcinoma includes the following:</p>\r\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\r\n <li><p class=\"first-para\">Calcitriol slows the growth and increases apoptosis (death) of cultured ovarian cancer cells.</p>\r\n </li>\r\n <li><p class=\"first-para\">Drugs designed to act like calcitriol inhibit the growth of ovarian cancer in animal models.</p>\r\n </li>\r\n <li><p class=\"first-para\">Results from several smaller studies suggest that higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels might be protective against ovarian cancer; however, a recent study that combines several smaller studies shows this may be limited to overweight women.</p>\r\n </li>\r\n</ul>","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":9008,"name":"Alan L. Rubin","slug":"alan-l-rubin","description":" <b>Alan L. Rubin</b>, MD has been a physician in private practice for more than 30 years. He is the author of several bestselling health titles, including <i>Diabetes For Dummies</i>, <i>High Blood Pressure For Dummies</i>, and <i>Thyroid For Dummies</i>.","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9008"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":34135,"title":"Vitamins & Supplements","slug":"vitamins-supplements","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/34135"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[{"label":"Ovarian cancer risk factors and symptoms","target":"#tab1"},{"label":"Ovarian cancer diagnosis and treatment","target":"#tab2"},{"label":"Vitamin D’s role in ovarian cancer","target":"#tab3"}],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[{"articleId":208628,"title":"Vitamin D For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"vitamin-d-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["body-mind-spirit","physical-health-well-being","diet-nutrition","vitamins-supplements"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/208628"}},{"articleId":187973,"title":"Key Points You Need to Know about Vitamin D","slug":"key-points-you-need-to-know-about-vitamin-d","categoryList":["body-mind-spirit","physical-health-well-being","diet-nutrition","vitamins-supplements"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/187973"}},{"articleId":187965,"title":"What Are the Benefits of Vitamin D?","slug":"what-are-the-benefits-of-vitamin-d","categoryList":["body-mind-spirit","physical-health-well-being","diet-nutrition","vitamins-supplements"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/187965"}},{"articleId":187955,"title":"Recommendations for Vitamin D Intake","slug":"recommendations-for-vitamin-d-intake","categoryList":["body-mind-spirit","physical-health-well-being","diet-nutrition","vitamins-supplements"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/187955"}},{"articleId":186928,"title":"Vitamin D Overdose: Symptoms and Examples","slug":"vitamin-d-overdose-symptoms-and-examples","categoryList":["body-mind-spirit","physical-health-well-being","diet-nutrition","vitamins-supplements"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/186928"}}],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":208628,"title":"Vitamin D For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"vitamin-d-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["body-mind-spirit","physical-health-well-being","diet-nutrition","vitamins-supplements"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/208628"}},{"articleId":208558,"title":"Vitamins For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"vitamins-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["body-mind-spirit","physical-health-well-being","diet-nutrition","vitamins-supplements"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/208558"}},{"articleId":202589,"title":"Boron: A Trace Mineral Necessary for Good Health","slug":"boron-a-trace-mineral-necessary-for-good-health","categoryList":["body-mind-spirit","physical-health-well-being","diet-nutrition","vitamins-supplements"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/202589"}},{"articleId":202588,"title":"Calcium: Essential Nutrition for Teeth and Bones","slug":"calcium-essential-nutrition-for-teeth-and-bones","categoryList":["body-mind-spirit","physical-health-well-being","diet-nutrition","vitamins-supplements"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/202588"}},{"articleId":202571,"title":"Glycine for Helping Wounds Heal and Detoxifying","slug":"glycine-for-helping-wounds-heal-and-detoxifying","categoryList":["body-mind-spirit","physical-health-well-being","diet-nutrition","vitamins-supplements"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/202571"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":282660,"slug":"vitamin-d-for-dummies","isbn":"9780470891759","categoryList":["body-mind-spirit","physical-health-well-being","diet-nutrition","vitamins-supplements"],"amazon":{"default":"//www.amazon.com/gp/product/0470891750/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","ca":"//www.amazon.ca/gp/product/0470891750/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","indigo_ca":"//www.tkqlhce.com/click-9208661-13710633?url=//www.chapters.indigo.ca/en-ca/books/product/0470891750-item.html&cjsku=978111945484","gb":"//www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/0470891750/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","de":"//www.amazon.de/gp/product/0470891750/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20"},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/vitamin-d-for-dummies-cover-9780470891759-169x255.jpg","width":169,"height":255},"title":"Vitamin D For Dummies","testBankPinActivationLink":"","bookOutOfPrint":false,"authorsInfo":"<b data-author-id=\"9008\">Alan L. Rubin</b>, MD has been a physician in private practice for more than 30 years. He is the author of several bestselling health titles, including <i>Diabetes For Dummies</i>, <i>High Blood Pressure For Dummies</i>, and <i>Thyroid For Dummies</i>.","authors":[{"authorId":9008,"name":"Alan L. Rubin","slug":"alan-l-rubin","description":" <b>Alan L. Rubin</b>, MD has been a physician in private practice for more than 30 years. He is the author of several bestselling health titles, including <i>Diabetes For Dummies</i>, <i>High Blood Pressure For Dummies</i>, and <i>Thyroid For Dummies</i>.","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9008"}}],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/books/"}},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;body-mind-spirit&quot;,&quot;physical-health-well-being&quot;,&quot;diet-nutrition&quot;,&quot;vitamins-supplements&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9780470891759&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-63221aaf18ebf\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;body-mind-spirit&quot;,&quot;physical-health-well-being&quot;,&quot;diet-nutrition&quot;,&quot;vitamins-supplements&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9780470891759&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-63221aaf1942e\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Articles","articleList":null,"content":null,"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Explore","lifeExpectancy":null,"lifeExpectancySetFrom":null,"dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":185615},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2017-03-26T20:02:03+00:00","modifiedTime":"2018-02-07T20:15:23+00:00","timestamp":"2023-09-14T18:17:19+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Body, Mind, & Spirit","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/34038"},"slug":"body-mind-spirit","categoryId":34038},{"name":"Physical Health & Well-Being","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/34095"},"slug":"physical-health-well-being","categoryId":34095},{"name":"Diet & Nutrition","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/34102"},"slug":"diet-nutrition","categoryId":34102},{"name":"Vitamins & Supplements","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/34135"},"slug":"vitamins-supplements","categoryId":34135}],"title":"The Role of Vitamin D in Protecting against Pancreatic Cancer","strippedTitle":"the role of vitamin d in protecting against pancreatic cancer","slug":"the-role-of-vitamin-d-in-protecting-against-pancreatic-cancer","canonicalUrl":"","搜素浏览平台SEO调整":{"metaDescription":"Pancreatic cancer generally has a poor prognosis because of its location in relation to other critical organs. Studies suggest that vitamin D may play an import","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"<p>Pancreatic cancer generally has a poor prognosis because of its location in relation to other critical organs. Studies suggest that vitamin D may play an important role in fending off pancreatic cancer. The pancreas has two major functions:</p>\r\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\r\n <li><p class=\"first-para\">Producing hormones, insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin to control the glucose (sugar) in the body</p>\r\n </li>\r\n <li><p class=\"first-para\">Producing enzymes that go into the small intestine and help to break down food into particles that the body can absorb</p>\r\n </li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<p>Most of the pancreas lies behind the stomach, as shown in the following diagram. Any tumors that grow can’t be felt until they’re so large that the cancer is very advanced. For this reason, pancreatic cancer has a high mortality rate. About 42,500 new cases occur in the United States every year, and 35,250 deaths occur from pancreatic cancer.</p>\r\n<div class=\"imageBlock\" style=\"width:390px;\"><img src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/287699.image0.jpg\" width=\"390\" height=\"400\" alt=\"The location of the pancreas.\"/><div class=\"imageCaption\">The location of the pancreas.</div></div>\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" >Pancreatic cancer risk factors and symptoms</h2>\r\n<p>Pancreatic cancers usually arise from the tissue that makes the enzymes for the small intestine rather than the tissue that makes the hormones. This cancer is called a “silent killer” because of a lack of early symptoms and nonspecific later symptoms.</p>\r\n<p>Other pancreatic cancers arise from the hormone-producing cells of the pancreas, called the islets. These cancers can be silent or they may cause low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) due to an insulin-producing tumor (insulinoma).</p>\r\n<p>Pancreatic cancer has many risk factors, some of which can be avoided and others that can’t. The most important are listed here:</p>\r\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\r\n <li><p class=\"first-para\">African American background</p>\r\n </li>\r\n <li><p class=\"first-para\">Diabetes mellitus</p>\r\n </li>\r\n <li><p class=\"first-para\">Excessive red meat in the diet</p>\r\n </li>\r\n <li><p class=\"first-para\">Lack of vegetables and fruits in the diet</p>\r\n </li>\r\n <li><p class=\"first-para\">Family history of pancreatic cancer</p>\r\n </li>\r\n <li><p class=\"first-para\">Male sex</p>\r\n </li>\r\n <li><p class=\"first-para\">Obesity</p>\r\n </li>\r\n <li><p class=\"first-para\">Older age (older than 60)</p>\r\n </li>\r\n <li><p class=\"first-para\">Smoking (responsible for 30 percent of pancreatic cancers)</p>\r\n </li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<p>The most common signs and symptoms include the following:</p>\r\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\r\n <li><p class=\"first-para\">Diabetes, as the tumor replaces the tissue that produces insulin</p>\r\n </li>\r\n <li><p class=\"first-para\">Dark urine from jaundice</p>\r\n </li>\r\n <li><p class=\"first-para\">Loss of appetite, with nausea and vomiting</p>\r\n </li>\r\n <li><p class=\"first-para\">Loss of weight</p>\r\n </li>\r\n <li><p class=\"first-para\">Pain in the upper abdomen and back</p>\r\n </li>\r\n <li><p class=\"first-para\">Painless jaundice (yellow eyes and skin)</p>\r\n </li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<h2 id=\"tab2\" >Pancreatic cancer diagnosis and treatment</h2>\r\n<p>The diagnosis of pancreatic cancer is usually made at a late stage, when a patient complains of pain in the abdomen, has experienced weight loss, and has jaundice. The patient then usually has a computed tomography (CT) scan to find the location of the cancer.</p>\r\n<p>If the tumor is still localized to the pancreas, the first line of treatment is surgical removal of the tumor. Next, chemotherapy is given, but this is usually just to give the patient a few more months to live.</p>\r\n<p class=\"Remember\">Because pancreatic cancer is usually diagnosed late and the recovery from the disease is rare, some think that prevention is more feasible than treatment. Up to 30 percent of pancreatic cancer may be prevented by stopping smoking.</p>\r\n<h2 id=\"tab3\" >Vitamin D’s role in pancreatic cancer</h2>\r\n<p>Some evidence suggests that vitamin D may play an important role in pancreatic cancer. Consider these points:</p>\r\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\r\n <li><p class=\"first-para\">The amount of ultraviolet B irradiation from sun is inversely associated with the occurrence of pancreatic cancer worldwide.</p>\r\n </li>\r\n <li><p class=\"first-para\">Calcitriol and drugs designed to act like calcitriol can slow the growth of pancreatic cancer cells in culture and in animal models.</p>\r\n </li>\r\n <li><p class=\"first-para\">In a few studies, pancreatic cancer risk was higher when vitamin D intake was lower than 150 IU per day. Protection due to vitamin D was maximized when intake was over 300 IU per day.</p>\r\n </li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<p class=\"Warning\">Although these findings are promising, there are a number of studies showing that high blood levels of vitamin D might be harmful! One study pooled the results of seven other studies and found that serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels greater than 40 ng/ml [100 nmol/L] doubled pancreatic cancer risk. Another one saw an even higher risk in smokers.</p>\r\n<p>It’s studies like these that make some vitamin D experts cautious about blanket recommendations to raise vitamin D intake to high levels. If the cancer-preventing effects of calcitriol are real, it may be that the doses currently recommended for bone health are all that’s needed to achieve them.</p>\r\n<p class=\"Remember\">The evidence for pancreatic cancer is consistent with other studies that show it’s important to avoid becoming vitamin D deficient (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels less than 10 ng/ml [25 nmol/L]).</p>","description":"<p>Pancreatic cancer generally has a poor prognosis because of its location in relation to other critical organs. Studies suggest that vitamin D may play an important role in fending off pancreatic cancer. The pancreas has two major functions:</p>\r\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\r\n <li><p class=\"first-para\">Producing hormones, insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin to control the glucose (sugar) in the body</p>\r\n </li>\r\n <li><p class=\"first-para\">Producing enzymes that go into the small intestine and help to break down food into particles that the body can absorb</p>\r\n </li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<p>Most of the pancreas lies behind the stomach, as shown in the following diagram. Any tumors that grow can’t be felt until they’re so large that the cancer is very advanced. For this reason, pancreatic cancer has a high mortality rate. About 42,500 new cases occur in the United States every year, and 35,250 deaths occur from pancreatic cancer.</p>\r\n<div class=\"imageBlock\" style=\"width:390px;\"><img src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/287699.image0.jpg\" width=\"390\" height=\"400\" alt=\"The location of the pancreas.\"/><div class=\"imageCaption\">The location of the pancreas.</div></div>\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" >Pancreatic cancer risk factors and symptoms</h2>\r\n<p>Pancreatic cancers usually arise from the tissue that makes the enzymes for the small intestine rather than the tissue that makes the hormones. This cancer is called a “silent killer” because of a lack of early symptoms and nonspecific later symptoms.</p>\r\n<p>Other pancreatic cancers arise from the hormone-producing cells of the pancreas, called the islets. These cancers can be silent or they may cause low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) due to an insulin-producing tumor (insulinoma).</p>\r\n<p>Pancreatic cancer has many risk factors, some of which can be avoided and others that can’t. The most important are listed here:</p>\r\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\r\n <li><p class=\"first-para\">African American background</p>\r\n </li>\r\n <li><p class=\"first-para\">Diabetes mellitus</p>\r\n </li>\r\n <li><p class=\"first-para\">Excessive red meat in the diet</p>\r\n </li>\r\n <li><p class=\"first-para\">Lack of vegetables and fruits in the diet</p>\r\n </li>\r\n <li><p class=\"first-para\">Family history of pancreatic cancer</p>\r\n </li>\r\n <li><p class=\"first-para\">Male sex</p>\r\n </li>\r\n <li><p class=\"first-para\">Obesity</p>\r\n </li>\r\n <li><p class=\"first-para\">Older age (older than 60)</p>\r\n </li>\r\n <li><p class=\"first-para\">Smoking (responsible for 30 percent of pancreatic cancers)</p>\r\n </li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<p>The most common signs and symptoms include the following:</p>\r\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\r\n <li><p class=\"first-para\">Diabetes, as the tumor replaces the tissue that produces insulin</p>\r\n </li>\r\n <li><p class=\"first-para\">Dark urine from jaundice</p>\r\n </li>\r\n <li><p class=\"first-para\">Loss of appetite, with nausea and vomiting</p>\r\n </li>\r\n <li><p class=\"first-para\">Loss of weight</p>\r\n </li>\r\n <li><p class=\"first-para\">Pain in the upper abdomen and back</p>\r\n </li>\r\n <li><p class=\"first-para\">Painless jaundice (yellow eyes and skin)</p>\r\n </li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<h2 id=\"tab2\" >Pancreatic cancer diagnosis and treatment</h2>\r\n<p>The diagnosis of pancreatic cancer is usually made at a late stage, when a patient complains of pain in the abdomen, has experienced weight loss, and has jaundice. The patient then usually has a computed tomography (CT) scan to find the location of the cancer.</p>\r\n<p>If the tumor is still localized to the pancreas, the first line of treatment is surgical removal of the tumor. Next, chemotherapy is given, but this is usually just to give the patient a few more months to live.</p>\r\n<p class=\"Remember\">Because pancreatic cancer is usually diagnosed late and the recovery from the disease is rare, some think that prevention is more feasible than treatment. Up to 30 percent of pancreatic cancer may be prevented by stopping smoking.</p>\r\n<h2 id=\"tab3\" >Vitamin D’s role in pancreatic cancer</h2>\r\n<p>Some evidence suggests that vitamin D may play an important role in pancreatic cancer. Consider these points:</p>\r\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\r\n <li><p class=\"first-para\">The amount of ultraviolet B irradiation from sun is inversely associated with the occurrence of pancreatic cancer worldwide.</p>\r\n </li>\r\n <li><p class=\"first-para\">Calcitriol and drugs designed to act like calcitriol can slow the growth of pancreatic cancer cells in culture and in animal models.</p>\r\n </li>\r\n <li><p class=\"first-para\">In a few studies, pancreatic cancer risk was higher when vitamin D intake was lower than 150 IU per day. Protection due to vitamin D was maximized when intake was over 300 IU per day.</p>\r\n </li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<p class=\"Warning\">Although these findings are promising, there are a number of studies showing that high blood levels of vitamin D might be harmful! One study pooled the results of seven other studies and found that serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels greater than 40 ng/ml [100 nmol/L] doubled pancreatic cancer risk. Another one saw an even higher risk in smokers.</p>\r\n<p>It’s studies like these that make some vitamin D experts cautious about blanket recommendations to raise vitamin D intake to high levels. If the cancer-preventing effects of calcitriol are real, it may be that the doses currently recommended for bone health are all that’s needed to achieve them.</p>\r\n<p class=\"Remember\">The evidence for pancreatic cancer is consistent with other studies that show it’s important to avoid becoming vitamin D deficient (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels less than 10 ng/ml [25 nmol/L]).</p>","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":9008,"name":"Alan L. Rubin","slug":"alan-l-rubin","description":" <b>Alan L. Rubin</b>, MD has been a physician in private practice for more than 30 years. He is the author of several bestselling health titles, including <i>Diabetes For Dummies</i>, <i>High Blood Pressure For Dummies</i>, and <i>Thyroid For Dummies</i>.","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9008"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":34135,"title":"Vitamins & Supplements","slug":"vitamins-supplements","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/34135"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[{"label":"Pancreatic cancer risk factors and symptoms","target":"#tab1"},{"label":"Pancreatic cancer diagnosis and treatment","target":"#tab2"},{"label":"Vitamin D’s role in pancreatic cancer","target":"#tab3"}],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[{"articleId":208628,"title":"Vitamin D For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"vitamin-d-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["body-mind-spirit","physical-health-well-being","diet-nutrition","vitamins-supplements"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/208628"}},{"articleId":187973,"title":"Key Points You Need to Know about Vitamin D","slug":"key-points-you-need-to-know-about-vitamin-d","categoryList":["body-mind-spirit","physical-health-well-being","diet-nutrition","vitamins-supplements"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/187973"}},{"articleId":187965,"title":"What Are the Benefits of Vitamin D?","slug":"what-are-the-benefits-of-vitamin-d","categoryList":["body-mind-spirit","physical-health-well-being","diet-nutrition","vitamins-supplements"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/187965"}},{"articleId":187955,"title":"Recommendations for Vitamin D Intake","slug":"recommendations-for-vitamin-d-intake","categoryList":["body-mind-spirit","physical-health-well-being","diet-nutrition","vitamins-supplements"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/187955"}},{"articleId":186928,"title":"Vitamin D Overdose: Symptoms and Examples","slug":"vitamin-d-overdose-symptoms-and-examples","categoryList":["body-mind-spirit","physical-health-well-being","diet-nutrition","vitamins-supplements"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/186928"}}],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":208628,"title":"Vitamin D For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"vitamin-d-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["body-mind-spirit","physical-health-well-being","diet-nutrition","vitamins-supplements"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/208628"}},{"articleId":208558,"title":"Vitamins For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"vitamins-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["body-mind-spirit","physical-health-well-being","diet-nutrition","vitamins-supplements"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/208558"}},{"articleId":202589,"title":"Boron: A Trace Mineral Necessary for Good Health","slug":"boron-a-trace-mineral-necessary-for-good-health","categoryList":["body-mind-spirit","physical-health-well-being","diet-nutrition","vitamins-supplements"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/202589"}},{"articleId":202588,"title":"Calcium: Essential Nutrition for Teeth and Bones","slug":"calcium-essential-nutrition-for-teeth-and-bones","categoryList":["body-mind-spirit","physical-health-well-being","diet-nutrition","vitamins-supplements"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/202588"}},{"articleId":202571,"title":"Glycine for Helping Wounds Heal and Detoxifying","slug":"glycine-for-helping-wounds-heal-and-detoxifying","categoryList":["body-mind-spirit","physical-health-well-being","diet-nutrition","vitamins-supplements"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/202571"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":282660,"slug":"vitamin-d-for-dummies","isbn":"9780470891759","categoryList":["body-mind-spirit","physical-health-well-being","diet-nutrition","vitamins-supplements"],"amazon":{"default":"//www.amazon.com/gp/product/0470891750/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","ca":"//www.amazon.ca/gp/product/0470891750/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","indigo_ca":"//www.tkqlhce.com/click-9208661-13710633?url=//www.chapters.indigo.ca/en-ca/books/product/0470891750-item.html&cjsku=978111945484","gb":"//www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/0470891750/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","de":"//www.amazon.de/gp/product/0470891750/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20"},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/vitamin-d-for-dummies-cover-9780470891759-169x255.jpg","width":169,"height":255},"title":"Vitamin D For Dummies","testBankPinActivationLink":"","bookOutOfPrint":false,"authorsInfo":"<b data-author-id=\"9008\">Alan L. 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Alan L. Rubin

Alan L. Rubin, MD has been a physician in private practice for more than 30 years. He is the author of several bestselling health titles, including Diabetes For Dummies, High Blood Pressure For Dummies, and Thyroid For Dummies.

Articles From Alan L. Rubin

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272 results
272 results
High Blood Pressure For Dummies Cheat Sheet Cheat Sheet / Updated 02-27-2024 The first step to dealing with high blood pressure is understanding your blood pressure measurement — those over and under numbers. When you know what your blood pressure is, you need to know what to do next. The good news is, you may be able to prevent high blood pressure or reduce your blood pressure by making some lifestyle changes. You also need to look for signs of resistant high blood pressure, and if you need high blood pressure medication, consult a physician to find the right medication for you. View Cheat Sheet
Diabetes Cookbook For Dummies Cheat Sheet Cheat Sheet / Updated 11-30-2023 When you have diabetes, you need to monitor your health closely — including what you eat, how much you eat, and how much you should eat. Managing diabetes means knowing your ideal weight, body mass index (BMI), and kilocalorie intake; maintaining healthy eating habits; and recognizing food terms that indicate fat content. View Cheat Sheet
Screening Guidelines for Diabetes Article / Updated 04-27-2023 The American Diabetes Association (ADA) updates its guidelines for standards of medical care annually. These are the 2022 guidelines for screening: People with symptoms of thirst, frequent urination, and weight loss are tested immediately. Starting at age 35, all people without risk factors should be tested for prediabetes and type 2 diabetes every three years if tests are normal. (The ADA changed this from the previously recommended age of 45.) Women planning to become pregnant should be screened with a fasting glucose test, especially if they have risk factors. People should be tested at a younger age and more often if: They are obese. They have a parent or sibling with diabetes. They are from a high-risk group, such as African American, Hispanic, Asian, or Native American. They have delivered a baby more than 9 pounds or had gestational diabetes. They have high blood pressure. They have low HDL cholesterol or high triglycerides. View Article
Diabetes For Dummies Cheat Sheet Cheat Sheet / Updated 04-18-2023 Diabetes, which is excessive glucose in your blood, leads to serious health problems if left untreated. You should follow the American Diabetes Association screening guidelines to get tested for diabetes at the earliest possible time. If you have diabetes, this Cheat Sheet is a handy reference to screening guidelines, rules for living with diabetes, and continuing your diabetes care to better control the disease. View Cheat Sheet
Thyroid For Dummies Cheat Sheet Cheat Sheet / Updated 04-26-2022 Thyroid problems affect around 30 million people in the United States, says the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists. If you suffer from a thyroid condition, this Cheat Sheet is here to help you to recognize and manage your symptoms, and avoid the triggers that can cause a flare-up of thyroid problems. View Cheat Sheet
Type 1 Diabetes For Dummies Cheat Sheet Cheat Sheet / Updated 03-10-2022 Living with type 1 diabetes can be difficult. To verify a diagnosis, a sample of blood is taken and its glucose level is measured. This Cheat Sheet provides a quick reference to the necessary regular doctor's office visits and tests, how to recognize and treat hypoglycemia in children with type 1 diabetes, and what to do if diabetic ketoacidosis strikes. View Cheat Sheet
10 Simple Steps to Change Your Eating Habits Step by Step / Updated 04-24-2017 Following a nutritional plan sometimes seems so complicated. But really, if you follow the few simple rules outlined here, you can make the process much easier. None of them cost anything other than time. Doing them one at a time makes a big difference in your calorie and fat intake. Adding one after another makes the results huge. Your weight, blood pressure, and blood glucose all fall. Who could ask for anything more? View Step by Step
10 Strategies for Teaching Kids Healthy Eating Habits Step by Step / Updated 03-09-2017 Children don’t hate vegetables any more than they hate ice cream. It is what you teach them that determines their feelings about food. If you show them that you love vegetables and consider them delicious, that’s how they will feel about vegetables. They love to follow your example. The best time to do this is at family meals. Following are ten of the numerous things you can do to encourage your child to eat vegetables. View Step by Step
The Role of Vitamin D in Preventing Ovarian Cancer Article / Updated 02-07-2017 Ovarian cancer may arise in the ovaries, oval-shaped organs found in pairs in the female reproductive system. Studies suggest that vitamin D plays a role in preventing and treating ovarian carcinoma. In 2009, about 21,550 cases were diagnosed and 14,600 women died of ovarian cancer in the United States. Ovarian cancer is usually a cancer of women older than age 60. Within the ovaries, eggs are produced, along with estrogen and progesterone. The following diagram shows the location of the ovaries. Location of the ovaries and other female reproductive organs. Ovarian cancer risk factors and symptoms Several factors increase the risk for ovarian cancer: Infertility Endometriosis, in which cells of the uterus are found outside the uterus, such as on the ovaries, causing pain and bleeding, especially during menstruation Postmenopausal estrogen supplementation Factors that decrease the risk for ovarian cancer include use of combined estrogen/progesterone oral contraceptives and contraception by tubal ligation (tying off the fallopian tubes). Ovarian cancer is associated with a number of signs and symptoms, but none that are specific to ovarian cancer. Consider the most important: Back pain Bloating Digestive symptoms, including constipation and lack of appetite A feeling of being full early Irregular menstrual cycles Pain in the pelvis or abdomen Swollen abdomen Vaginal bleeding Vague lower abdominal pain Ovarian cancer diagnosis and treatment Ovarian cancer isn’t usually diagnosed in its early stages because it tends to cause symptoms that aren’t specific to the disease. When ovarian cancer is suspected, a pelvic examination and CT scan can diagnose it. A definitive diagnosis requires a biopsy of the mass in the ovary. Treatment of ovarian cancer starts by surgically removing the ovary and fallopian tube. If the cancer has spread, chemotherapy is added to the treatment. Radiation therapy isn’t usually used because the ovaries are located near other vital organs. The prognosis for ovarian cancer is poor because the diagnosis is generally made so late in the disease. Complications that may occur include fluid in the abdomen, intestinal obstruction, and spread to other organs. The five-year survival rate is 45 percent. Vitamin D’s role in ovarian cancer The evidence that a lack of vitamin D plays a role in the occurrence of ovarian cancer is interesting; however, this relationship isn’t secure yet. Evidence that vitamin D plays a role in preventing and treating ovarian carcinoma includes the following: Calcitriol slows the growth and increases apoptosis (death) of cultured ovarian cancer cells. Drugs designed to act like calcitriol inhibit the growth of ovarian cancer in animal models. Results from several smaller studies suggest that higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels might be protective against ovarian cancer; however, a recent study that combines several smaller studies shows this may be limited to overweight women. View Article
The Role of Vitamin D in Protecting against Pancreatic Cancer Article / Updated 02-07-2017 Pancreatic cancer generally has a poor prognosis because of its location in relation to other critical organs. Studies suggest that vitamin D may play an important role in fending off pancreatic cancer. The pancreas has two major functions: Producing hormones, insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin to control the glucose (sugar) in the body Producing enzymes that go into the small intestine and help to break down food into particles that the body can absorb Most of the pancreas lies behind the stomach, as shown in the following diagram. Any tumors that grow can’t be felt until they’re so large that the cancer is very advanced. For this reason, pancreatic cancer has a high mortality rate. About 42,500 new cases occur in the United States every year, and 35,250 deaths occur from pancreatic cancer. The location of the pancreas. Pancreatic cancer risk factors and symptoms Pancreatic cancers usually arise from the tissue that makes the enzymes for the small intestine rather than the tissue that makes the hormones. This cancer is called a “silent killer” because of a lack of early symptoms and nonspecific later symptoms. Other pancreatic cancers arise from the hormone-producing cells of the pancreas, called the islets. These cancers can be silent or they may cause low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) due to an insulin-producing tumor (insulinoma). Pancreatic cancer has many risk factors, some of which can be avoided and others that can’t. The most important are listed here: African American background Diabetes mellitus Excessive red meat in the diet Lack of vegetables and fruits in the diet Family history of pancreatic cancer Male sex Obesity Older age (older than 60) Smoking (responsible for 30 percent of pancreatic cancers) The most common signs and symptoms include the following: Diabetes, as the tumor replaces the tissue that produces insulin Dark urine from jaundice Loss of appetite, with nausea and vomiting Loss of weight Pain in the upper abdomen and back Painless jaundice (yellow eyes and skin) Pancreatic cancer diagnosis and treatment The diagnosis of pancreatic cancer is usually made at a late stage, when a patient complains of pain in the abdomen, has experienced weight loss, and has jaundice. The patient then usually has a computed tomography (CT) scan to find the location of the cancer. If the tumor is still localized to the pancreas, the first line of treatment is surgical removal of the tumor. Next, chemotherapy is given, but this is usually just to give the patient a few more months to live. Because pancreatic cancer is usually diagnosed late and the recovery from the disease is rare, some think that prevention is more feasible than treatment. Up to 30 percent of pancreatic cancer may be prevented by stopping smoking. Vitamin D’s role in pancreatic cancer Some evidence suggests that vitamin D may play an important role in pancreatic cancer. Consider these points: The amount of ultraviolet B irradiation from sun is inversely associated with the occurrence of pancreatic cancer worldwide. Calcitriol and drugs designed to act like calcitriol can slow the growth of pancreatic cancer cells in culture and in animal models. In a few studies, pancreatic cancer risk was higher when vitamin D intake was lower than 150 IU per day. Protection due to vitamin D was maximized when intake was over 300 IU per day. Although these findings are promising, there are a number of studies showing that high blood levels of vitamin D might be harmful! One study pooled the results of seven other studies and found that serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels greater than 40 ng/ml [100 nmol/L] doubled pancreatic cancer risk. Another one saw an even higher risk in smokers. It’s studies like these that make some vitamin D experts cautious about blanket recommendations to raise vitamin D intake to high levels. If the cancer-preventing effects of calcitriol are real, it may be that the doses currently recommended for bone health are all that’s needed to achieve them. The evidence for pancreatic cancer is consistent with other studies that show it’s important to avoid becoming vitamin D deficient (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels less than 10 ng/ml [25 nmol/L]). View Article
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